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Technical Paper

Reconciling Simultaneous Evolution of Ground Vehicle Capabilities and Operator Preferences

2020-04-14
2020-01-0172
An objective evaluation of ground vehicle performance is a challenging task. This is further exacerbated by the increasing level of autonomy, dynamically changing the roles and capabilities of these vehicles. In the context of decision making involving these vehicles, as the capabilities of the vehicles improve, there is a concurrent change in the preferences of the decision makers operating the vehicles that must be accounted for. Decision based methods are a natural choice when multiple conflicting attributes are present, however, most of the literature focuses on static preferences. In this paper, we provide a sequential Bayesian framework to accommodate time varying preferences. The utility function is considered a stochastic function with the shape parameters themselves being random variables. In the proposed approach, initially the shape parameters model either uncertain preferences or variation in the preferences because of the presence of multiple decision makers.
Technical Paper

Balancing Lifecycle Sustainment Cost with Value of Information during Design Phase

2020-04-14
2020-01-0176
The complete lifecycle of complex systems, such as ground vehicles, consists of multiple phases including design, manufacturing, operation and sustainment (O&S) and finally disposal. For many systems, the majority of the lifecycle costs are incurred during the operation and sustainment phase, specifically in the form of uncertain maintenance costs. Testing and analysis during the design phase, including reliability and supportability analysis, can have a major influence on costs during the O&S phase. However, the cost of the analysis itself must be reconciled with the expected benefits of the reduction in uncertainty. In this paper, we quantify the value of performing the tests and analyses in the design phase by treating it as imperfect information obtained to better estimate uncertain maintenance costs.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

2020-04-14
2020-01-0223
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been used in production to join sheet materials since the early 1990s. A large amount of experimental trial work was required in order to determine an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to fulfill the required joint parameters. The presented study is describing the methodology of SPR joint design based on numerical simulation and experimental methods of defining required simulation input parameters. The required inputs are the stress-strain curves of sheet materials and rivets for the range of strains taking place in the SPR joining process, parameters required for a fracture model for all involved materials, and friction parameters for all interfaces of SPR process. In the current study, the normalized Cockroft-Latham fracture criterion was used for predicting fracture. Custom hole and tube expansion tests were used for predicting fracture of the riveted materials and the rivet, respectively.
Technical Paper

A Two-Layer Soot Model for Hydrocarbon Fuel Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0243
Experimental studies of soot particles showed that the intensity ratio of amorphous and graphite layers measured by Raman spectroscopy correlates to soot oxidation reactivities, which is very important for regeneration of the diesel particulate filters and gasoline particulate filters. This physical mechanism is absent in all soot models. In the present paper, a novel two-layer soot model was proposed that considers the amorphous and graphite layers in the soot particles. The soot model considers soot inception, soot surface growth, soot oxidation by O2 and OH, and soot coagulation. It is assumed that amorphous-type soot forms from fullerene. No soot coagulation is considered in the model between the amorphous- and graphitic-types of soot. Benzene is taken as the soot precursor, which is formed from acetylene. The model was implemented into a commercial CFD software CONVERGE using user defined functions. A diesel engine case was simulated.
Technical Paper

Driver Visual Focus of Attention Estimation in Autonomous Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1037
An existing challenge in current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicles is the process of safely transferring control from autonomous driving mode to manual mode because the driver may be distracted with secondary tasks. Such distractions may impair a driver’s situational awareness of the driving environment which will lead to fatal outcomes during a handover. Current state-of-the-art vehicles notify a user of an imminent handover via auditory, visual, and physical alerts but are unable to improve a driver’s situational awareness before a handover is executed. The overall goal of our research team is to address the challenge of providing a driver with relevant information to regain situational awareness of the driving task. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to estimating a driver’s visual focus of attention using a 2D RGB camera as input to a Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network with shared weights. The system was validated in a realistic driving scenario.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Resonant Speed Piezoelectric Beam Device for Harvesting Energy from Vehicle Wheels

2020-04-14
2020-01-1236
This work analyzes a cantilevered piezoelectric beam device for harvesting energy from the simultaneous rotation and translational vibration of vehicle wheels. The device attaches to the wheel rim so that it displaces tangentially during operation. A lumped-parameter analytical model for the coupled electromechanical system is derived. The device has one natural frequency that is speed-dependent because of centripetal acceleration affecting the total stiffness of the device. Even though the device has one natural frequency, it experiences three resonances as the rotation speed varies. One resonance occurs when the rotation speed coincides with the speed-dependent natural frequency of the device. The other two resonances are associated with excitations from the vibration of the vehicle wheel. The device’s parameters are chosen so that these three resonances occur when the wheel travels near 30 mph, 55 mph, and 70 mph.
Technical Paper

EV Penetration Impacts on Environmental Emissions and Operational Costs of Power Distribution Systems

2020-04-14
2020-01-0973
This research assesses the integration of different levels of electric vehicles (EVs) in the distribution system and observes its impacts on environmental emissions and power system operational costs. EVs can contribute to reducing the environmental emission from two different aspects. First, by replacing the traditional combustion engine cars with EVs for providing clean and environment friendly transportation and second, by integrating EVs in the distribution system through the V2G program, by providing power to the utility during peak hours and reducing the emission created by hydrocarbon dependent generators. The PG&E 69-bus distribution system (DS) is used to simulate the integration of EVs and to perform energy management to assess the operational costs and emissions. The uncertainty of driving patterns of EVs are considered in this research to get more accurate results.
Technical Paper

Improved Wear Resistance of Austempered Gray Cast Iron Using Shot-Peening Treatment

2020-04-14
2020-01-1098
In this research, ball-on-plate reciprocating sliding wear tests were utilized on austempered and quench-tempered gray cast iron samples with and without shot-peening treatment. The wear volume loss of the gray cast iron samples with different heat treatment designs was compared under equivalent hardness. The phase transformation in the matrix was studied using metallurgical evaluation and hardness measurement. It was found that thin needle-like ferrite became coarse gradually with increasing austempering temperature and was converted into feather-like shape when using the austempering temperatures of 399°C (750°F). The residual stress on the surface and sub-surface before and after shot-peening treatment was analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Compressive residual stress was produced after shot-peening treatment and showed an increasing trend with austempering temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Test System to Determine the Durability of RTV Gasket Material

2020-04-14
2020-01-1069
This paper describes a laboratory-based test system and procedure for determining the durability of RTV sealant with fretting movement. A test machine is described in which shear and tensile stress-generating displacements at room temperature and temperature of 100°C are produced to load an RTV seal. The test system utilizes an air pressurized hollow cylinder with a cap sealed by RTV sealant on a reciprocating test rig. An external air leakage monitoring system detects the health of the tested RTV seal. When air leakage occurs, the seal is determined to have failed. RTV sealant used in the test was fully cured at room temperature and then aged with engine oil. In the experiments, a total of 6 displacements were used to generate cycle/amplitude graphs for both shear and tensile modes. Failures were determined to be caused by the loss of adhesion in tensile mode, and by crack nucleation due to the special step design in shear mode.
Technical Paper

Assessing Fit and Finish Design Sensitivity by Mapping Measurements to Utility

2020-04-14
2020-01-0600
In the automotive industry “fit and finish” is the term applied to the perceived quality of the alignment of one part to another. Fit and finish gives the buyer a sense of the overall quality of the vehicle purely from an aesthetic perspective. Fit and finish is usually evaluated by the manufacturer through dimensional measurements of the “gap” and “flush” conditions between panels. Since variation in the measurements increases the probability that a vehicle will result in poor fit and finish, relatively arbitrary limits are put on these measurements to define whether a gap or flush condition is acceptable or not. It is suspected that the relationship between the appropriate measurement limits and the customer’s perception of quality is highly influenced by the design of the interface between panels. This paper proposes a method to evaluate the sensitivity of the perceived quality of the designed interface to variation in the measurements of gap and flush.
Journal Article

Efficient Surrogate-Based NVH Optimization of a Full Vehicle Using FRF Based Substructuring

2020-04-14
2020-01-0629
The computer simulation with the Finite Element (FE) code for the structural dynamics becomes more attractive in the industry. However, it normally takes a prohibitive amount of computation time when design optimization is performed with running a large-scale FE simulation many times. Exploiting Dynamic Structuring (DS) leads to alleviating the computational complexity since DS necessities iterative reanalysis of only the substructure(s) to be optimally designed. In this research, Frequency Response Function (FRF) based substructuring is implemented to realize the benefits of DS for fast single- and multi-objective evolutionary design optimization. Also, Differential Evolution (DE) is first combined with two sorting approaches of Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) and Infeasibility Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (IDEA) for effective constrained single- and multi-objective evolutionary optimization.
Technical Paper

Computation of Safety Architecture for Electric Power Steering System and Compliance with ISO 26262

2020-04-14
2020-01-0649
Technological advancement in the automotive industry necessities a closer focus on the functional safety for higher automated driving levels. The automotive industry is transforming from conventional driving technology, where the driver or the human is a part of the control loop, to fully autonomous development and self-driving mode. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) defines the level 4 of autonomy: “Automated driving feature will not require the driver to take over driving control.” Thus, more and more safety related electronic control units (ECUs) are deployed in the control module to support the vehicle. As a result, more complexity of system architecture, software, and hardware are interacting and interfacing in the control system, which increases the risk of both systematic and random hardware failures.
Technical Paper

Tracking Panel Movement during Stamping Process Using Advanced Optical Technology

2020-04-14
2020-01-0541
Metal panels are comprehensively applied in the automotive industry. A significant issue with metal panels is the deflection when moving in the press line of the stamping process. Unpredictable deflection could result in the cut off of the press line. To control the deflection in a safe zone, finite element tools are used to simulate the panel transform process. However, the simulation requires experimental validation where conventional displacement measurement techniques could not satisfy the requirement of vast filed displacement and accuracy point tracking. In this study, multi-camera digital image correlation (DIC) systems have been developed to track the movement of panels during the press line of the stamping process. There are some advantages of applying the DIC system, including non-contact, full-field, high accuracy, and direct measurement techniques that provide the evaluation displacement of the metal panel and press line.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Evaluation of Vacuum Suction Cups Using Digital Image Correlation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0542
As vacuum suction cups are widely used in stamping plants, it becomes urgent and important to understand their performance and failure mode. Vacuum suction cups are employed to lift, move, and place sheet metal instead of human hands. Occasionally the vacuum cups would fail and drop parts, even it would cause expensive delays in the production line. In this research, several types of vacuum cups have been studies and compared experimentally. A new tensile device and test method was developed to measure the pulling force and deformation of vacuum cups. The digital image correlation technique has been adopted to capture and analyze the contour, deformation and strain of the cups under different working conditions. The experimental results revealed that the relevant influential parameters include cup type, pulling force angles, vacuum levels, sheet metal curvatures, etc.
Technical Paper

Multiple 3D-DIC Systems for Measuring the Displacements and Strains of an Engine Exhaust Manifold

2020-04-14
2020-01-0540
In this study, a unique multi-camera three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) system was designed and applied to an engine dynamometer cell to measure the displacement and strain of the exhaust manifold while an engine was running in a durability test. In the engine dynamometer cell, the ambient temperature varies from 25°C to 80°C~100°C cyclically and the exhaust manifold experiences high temperatures up to 900°C with high frequency vibrations. In order to obtain reliable data under such conditions, two 3D-DIC systems were designed and set up in the engine dynamometer. One is a high-speed 3D-DIC system, consisting of cameras with a sampling rate of 1250 frames per second. It was used to measure the local displacement of the bolted joint in the exhaust manifold. The high-speed measurement system is able to record the behavior of the bolt during the thermal cycles.
Technical Paper

Digital Image Correlation Based Real-Time Fatigue Feedback System Study

2020-04-14
2020-01-0539
Fatigue testing is a specialized form of mechanical testing that is performed by applying cyclic loading to a coupon or structure. Two common forms of fatigue testing are load controlled high cycle and strain controlled low cycle fatigue. Some strain measurement device, such as extensometers, strain gage, that are often used as a feedback sensor on strain controlled fatigue test. However, in applications where strain controlled fatigue testing could face some extreme conditions as well as high temperature and unusual sizing which requires the strain measurement to be nondestructive and full field. While digital image correlation (DIC), an advanced optical measurement technique, has a decent solution on challenges of fatigue testing measurement. The problem is how to turn DIC from a measurement system to a feedback controller unit. Due to the developments in camera and computation techniques, the sequential process can now be performed as a parallel process.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Orientation Estimation Using CNN and Depth Camera

2020-04-14
2020-01-0700
This work presents a method for estimating human body orientation using a combination of convolutional neural network (CNN) and stereo camera in real time. The approach uses the CNN model to predict certain human body keypoints then transforms these points into a 3D space using the stereo vision system to estimate the body orientations. The CNN module is trained to estimate the shoulders, the neck and the nose positions, detecting of three points is required to confirm human detection and provided enough data to translate the points into 3D space.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Fuel Maps in Variable Valve Timing Spark Ignited Gasoline Engines Using Kriging Metamodels

2020-04-14
2020-01-0744
Creating a fuel map for simulation of an engine with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) can be computationally demanding. Design of Experiments (DOE) and metamodeling is one way to address this issue. In this paper, we introduce a sequential process to generate an engine fuel map using Kriging metamodels which account for different engine characteristics such as load and fuel consumption at different operating conditions. The generated map predicts engine output parameters such as fuel rate and load. We first create metamodels to accurately predict the Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), fuel rate, Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and CA50 (Crank Angle for 50% Heat Release after top dead center). The last two quantities are used to ensure acceptable combustion. The metamodels are created sequentially to ensure acceptable accuracy is achieved with a small number of simulations.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Study of Drawbead Restraining Force for Sheet Metal Drawing Operations

2020-04-14
2020-01-0753
Design of sheet metal drawing processes requires accurate information about the distribution of restraining forces, which is usually accomplished by a set of drawbeads positioned along the perimeter of the die cavity. This study is targeting bringing together the results of finite element analysis and experimental data in order to understand the most critical factors influencing the restraining force. The experimental study of the restraining force was performed using drawbead simulator tool installed into a tensile testing machine. Based upon the experimental results, it was observed that the restraining force of the given drawbead configuration is dependent upon the depth of bead penetration, friction between the drawbead surfaces as well as the clearance between the flanges of the drawbead simulator. This clearance is often adjusted during stamping operations to increase or decrease material inflow into the die cavity without any modification in the die.
Technical Paper

A Decision Based Mobility Model for Semi and Fully Autonomous Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0747
With the emergence of intelligent ground vehicles, an objective evaluation of vehicle mobility has become an even more challenging task. Vehicle mobility refers to the ability of a ground vehicle to traverse from one point to another, preferably in an optimal way. Numerous techniques exist for evaluating the mobility of vehicles on paved roads, both quantitatively and qualitatively, however, capabilities to evaluate their off-road performance remains limited. Whereas a vehicle’s off-road mobility may be significantly enhanced with intelligence, it also introduces many new variables into the decision making process that must be considered. In this paper, we present a decision analytic framework to accomplish this task. In our approach, a vehicle’s mobility is modeled using an operator’s preferences over multiple mobility attributes of concern. We also provide a method to analyze various operating scenarios including the ability to mitigate uncertainty in the vehicles inputs.
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