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Technical Paper

Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

2020-04-14
2020-01-0223
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been used in production to join sheet materials since the early 1990s. A large amount of experimental trial work was required in order to determine an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to fulfill the required joint parameters. The presented study is describing the methodology of SPR joint design based on numerical simulation and experimental methods of defining required simulation input parameters. The required inputs are the stress-strain curves of sheet materials and rivets for the range of strains taking place in the SPR joining process, parameters required for a fracture model for all involved materials, and friction parameters for all interfaces of SPR process. In the current study, the normalized Cockroft-Latham fracture criterion was used for predicting fracture. Custom hole and tube expansion tests were used for predicting fracture of the riveted materials and the rivet, respectively.
Technical Paper

A Two-Layer Soot Model for Hydrocarbon Fuel Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0243
Experimental studies of soot particles showed that the intensity ratio of amorphous and graphite layers measured by Raman spectroscopy correlates to soot oxidation reactivities, which is very important for regeneration of the diesel particulate filters and gasoline particulate filters. This physical mechanism is absent in all soot models. In the present paper, a novel two-layer soot model was proposed that considers the amorphous and graphite layers in the soot particles. The soot model considers soot inception, soot surface growth, soot oxidation by O2 and OH, and soot coagulation. It is assumed that amorphous-type soot forms from fullerene. No soot coagulation is considered in the model between the amorphous- and graphitic-types of soot. Benzene is taken as the soot precursor, which is formed from acetylene. The model was implemented into a commercial CFD software CONVERGE using user defined functions. A diesel engine case was simulated.
Technical Paper

Multiple 3D-DIC Systems for Measuring the Displacements and Strains of an Engine Exhaust Manifold

2020-04-14
2020-01-0540
In this study, a unique multi-camera three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) system was designed and applied to an engine dynamometer cell to measure the displacement and strain of the exhaust manifold while an engine was running in a durability test. In the engine dynamometer cell, the ambient temperature varies from 25°C to 80°C~100°C cyclically and the exhaust manifold experiences high temperatures up to 900°C with high frequency vibrations. In order to obtain reliable data under such conditions, two 3D-DIC systems were designed and set up in the engine dynamometer. One is a high-speed 3D-DIC system, consisting of cameras with a sampling rate of 1250 frames per second. It was used to measure the local displacement of the bolted joint in the exhaust manifold. The high-speed measurement system is able to record the behavior of the bolt during the thermal cycles.
Journal Article

Prediction of Fuel Maps in Variable Valve Timing Spark Ignited Gasoline Engines Using Kriging Metamodels

2020-04-14
2020-01-0744
Creating a fuel map for simulation of an engine with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) can be computationally demanding. Design of Experiments (DOE) and metamodeling is one way to address this issue. In this paper, we introduce a sequential process to generate an engine fuel map using Kriging metamodels which account for different engine characteristics such as load and fuel consumption at different operating conditions. The generated map predicts engine output parameters such as fuel rate and load. We first create metamodels to accurately predict the Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), fuel rate, Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and CA50 (Crank Angle for 50% Heat Release after top dead center). The last two quantities are used to ensure acceptable combustion. The metamodels are created sequentially to ensure acceptable accuracy is achieved with a small number of simulations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Test System to Determine the Durability of RTV Gasket Material

2020-04-14
2020-01-1069
This paper describes a laboratory-based test system and procedure for determining the durability of RTV sealant with fretting movement. A test machine is described in which shear and tensile stress-generating displacements at room temperature and temperature of 100°C are produced to load an RTV seal. The test system utilizes an air pressurized hollow cylinder with a cap sealed by RTV sealant on a reciprocating test rig. An external air leakage monitoring system detects the health of the tested RTV seal. When air leakage occurs, the seal is determined to have failed. RTV sealant used in the test was fully cured at room temperature and then aged with engine oil. In the experiments, a total of 6 displacements were used to generate cycle/amplitude graphs for both shear and tensile modes. Failures were determined to be caused by the loss of adhesion in tensile mode, and by crack nucleation due to the special step design in shear mode.
Technical Paper

Improvements to a CFR Engine Three Pressure Analysis GT-Power Model for HCCI and SI Conditions

2020-01-24
2019-32-0608
While experimental data measured directly on the engine are very valuable, there is a limitation of what measurements can be made without modifying the engine or the process that is being investigated, such as cylinder temperature. In order to supplement the experimental results, a Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) GT-Power model of the Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was previously developed and validated for estimating cylinder temperature and residual fraction. However, this model had only been validated for normal and knocking spark ignition (SI) combustion with RON-like intake conditions (naturally aspirated, <52 °C). This work presents improvements made to the GT-Power model and the expansion of its use for HCCI combustion. The burn rate estimation sub-model was modified to allow for low temperature heat release estimation and compression ignition operation.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 2: Modelling Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0472
Variable Compression Ratio systems are an increasingly attractive solution for car manufacturers in order to reduce vehicle fuel consumption. By having the capability to operate with a range of compression ratios, engine efficiency can be significantly increased by operating with a high compression ratio at low loads, where the engine is normally not knock-limited, and with a low compression ratio at high load, where the engine is more prone to knock. In this way, engine efficiency can be maximized without sacrificing performance. This study aims to analyze how the effectiveness of a VCR system is affected by various powertrain and vehicle parameters. By using a Matlab model of a VCR system developed in Part 1 of this work, the influence of the vehicle characteristics, the drive cycle, and of the number of stages used in the VCR system was studied.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 1: Model Development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0467
Given increasingly stringent emission targets, engine efficiency has become of foremost importance. While increasing engine compression ratio can lead to efficiency gains, it also leads to higher in-cylinder pressure and temperatures, thus increasing the risk of knock. One potential solution is the use of a Variable Compression Ratio system, which is capable of exploiting the advantages coming from high compression ratio while limiting its drawbacks by operating at low engine loads with a high compression ratio, and at high loads with a low compression ratio, where knock could pose a significant threat. This paper describes the design of a model for the evaluation of fuel consumption for an engine equipped with a VCR system over representative drive cycles. The model takes as inputs; a switching time for the VCR system, the vehicle characteristics, engine performance maps corresponding to two different compression ratios, and a drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Autoignition and Flame Properties for Multicomponent Fuels Using Machine Learning Techniques

2019-04-02
2019-01-1049
Machine learning methods, such as decision trees and deep neural networks, are becoming increasingly important and useful for data analysis in various scientific fields including dynamics and control, signal processing, pattern recognition, fluid mechanics, and chemical synthesis, etc. For future engine design and performance optimization, there is an urgent need for a robust predictive model which could capture the major combustion properties such as autoignition and flame propagation of multicomponent fuels under a wide range of engine operating conditions, without massive experimental measurement or computational efforts. It will be shown that these long-held limitations and challenges related to complex fuel combustion and engine research could be readily solved by implementing machine learning methods.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

2019-04-02
2019-01-0946
Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC).
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Spark Plug Orientation Effects on Flame Kernel Growth

2019-01-15
2019-01-0005
Spark plug design is critical for the performance of spark ignited (SI) engines, however, its orientation is frequently not controlled for most of production engines, which has great impacts on ignition and subsequent flame propagation processes. In the present work, a recently developed comprehensive ignition system model--the VTF ignition model, has been employed to investigate the effects of spark plug orientation on ignition and flame kernel growth. Three orientations for the spark plug, including downstream, crossflow, and upstream relative to the flow, have been considered under a typical a high-speed high-load condition in a GDI engine. Electrical circuitry model was validated by comparing the simulation results with measured secondary current and secondary voltage with good agreement.
Technical Paper

Design and Validation of a GT Power Model of the CFR Engine towards the Development of a Boosted Octane Number

2018-04-03
2018-01-0214
Developments in modern spark ignition (SI) engines such as intake boosting, direct-injection, and engine downsizing techniques have demonstrated improved performance and thermal efficiency, however, these strategies induce significant deviation in end-gas pressure/temperature histories from those of the traditional Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) standards. Attempting to extrapolate the anti-knock performance of fuels tested under the traditional RON/MON conditions to boosted operation has yielded mixed results in both SI and advanced compression ignition (ACI) engines. This consideration motivates the present work with seeks to establish a pathway towards the development of the test conditions of a boosted octane number, which would better correlate to fuel performance at high intake pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

A Model for Crank-Angle-Resolved Engine Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1157
Real-time measurement or estimation of crank-angle-resolved engine cylinder pressure may become commonplace in the next generation of engine controllers to optimize spark, valve timing, or compression ratio. Toward the development of a real-time cylinder pressure estimator, this work presents a crank-angle-resolved engine cylinder pressure estimation model that could accept inputs such as speed, manifold pressure and throttle position, and deliver crank-angle resolved cylinder pressure in real-time, at engine speeds covering the useful operating range of most engines. The model was validated by comparing simulated cylinder pressure with thirteen sets of cylinder pressure data, from two different commercial engines from two different OEMs. Estimated pressures were compared against the actual measured pressure traces. The average relative error is about 3% while the maximum relative error is 5%. Both can be improved with further tuning.
Technical Paper

Optimal Water Jacket Flow Distribution Using a New Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1017
The availability of computational resources has enabled an increased utilization of Design of Experiments (DoE) and metamodeling (response surface generation) for large-scale optimization problems. Despite algorithmic advances however, the analysis of systems such as water jackets of an automotive engine, can be computationally demanding in part due to the required accuracy of metamodels. Because the metamodels may have many inputs, their accuracy depends on the number of training points and how well they cover the entire design (input) space. For this reason, the space-filling properties of the DoE are very important. This paper utilizes a new group-based DoE algorithm with space-filling groups of points to construct a metamodel. Points are added sequentially so that the space-filling properties of the entire group of points is preserved. The addition of points is continuous until a specified metamodel accuracy is met.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigations Into Free-Circular Upward-Impinging Oil-Jet Heat Transfer of Automotive Pistons

2017-03-28
2017-01-0625
The purpose of this research was to measure and correlate the area-average heat transfer coefficients for free, circular upward-impinging oil-jets onto two automotive pistons having different undercrown shapes and different diameters. For the piston heat transfer studies, two empirical area-average Nusselt number correlations were developed. One was based on the whole piston undercrown surface area with the Nusselt number based on the nozzle diameter, and the other was based on the oil-jet impingement area with the Nusselt number based on the oil-jet effective impingement diameter. The correlations can predict the 95% and 94% of the experimental measurements within 30% error, respectively. The first correlation is simpler to use and can be employed for cases in which the oil jet wets the whole piston undercrown. The latter may be more useful for larger pistons or higher Prandtl number conditions in which the oil jet wets only a portion of the undercrown.
Technical Paper

A 1-D Platform to Simulate the Effects of Dedicated EGR on SI Engine Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0524
The thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engines can be enhanced by increasing the rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) such that the low temperature combustion regime could be achieved. However, there is an upper limit on the amount of EGR rate, beyond which flame speed becomes slow and unstable, and local quenching starts to hurt the combustion stability, efficiency, and emission. To resolve this issue, the concept of dedicated EGR has been proposed previously to be an effective way to enhance flame propagation under lean burn condition with even higher levels of EGR with reformate hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In this study, the effects of thermochemical fuel reforming on the reformate composition under rich conditions (1.0 < ϕ < 2.0) have been studied using detailed chemistry for iso-octane, as the representative component for gasoline.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Preparation, Fuel Stratification, and Premixed Fuel Chemistry on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0773
Engine experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to explore the effects of charge preparation, fuel stratification, and premixed fuel chemistry on the performance and emissions of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The experiments were conducted at a fixed total fuel energy and engine speed, and charge preparation was varied by adjusting the global equivalence ratio between 0.28 and 0.35 at intake temperatures of 40°C and 60°C. With a premixed injection of isooctane (PRF100), and a single direct-injection of n-heptane (PRF0), fuel stratification was varied with start of injection (SOI) timing. Combustion phasing advanced as SOI was retarded between -140° and -35°, then retarded as injection timing was further retarded, indicating a potential shift in combustion regime. Peak gross efficiency was achieved between -60° and -45° SOI, and NOx emissions increased as SOI was retarded beyond -40°, peaking around -25° SOI.
Journal Article

Development of a Fork-Join Dynamic Scheduling Middle-Layer for Automotive Powertrain Control Software

2017-03-28
2017-01-1620
Multicore microcontrollers are rapidly making their way into the automotive industry. We have adopted the Cilk approach (MIT 1994) to develop a pure ANSI C Fork-Join dynamic scheduling runtime middle-layer with a work-stealing scheduler targeted for automotive multicore embedded systems. This middle-layer could be running on top of any AUTOSAR compliant multicore RTOS. We recently have successfully integrated our runtime layer into parts of legacy Ford powertrain software at Ford Motor Company. We have used the 3-core AURIX multicore chip from Infineon and the multicore RTA-OS. For testing purposes, we have forked some parallelizable functions inside two periodic tasks in Ford legacy powertrain software to be dynamically scheduled and executed on the available cores. Our preliminary evaluation showed 1.3–1.4x speedups for these two forked tasks.
Journal Article

Scuffing Test Rig for Piston Wrist Pin and Pin Bore

2015-04-14
2015-01-0680
In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
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