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Technical Paper

Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 2: Modelling Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0472
Variable Compression Ratio systems are an increasingly attractive solution for car manufacturers in order to reduce vehicle fuel consumption. By having the capability to operate with a range of compression ratios, engine efficiency can be significantly increased by operating with a high compression ratio at low loads, where the engine is normally not knock-limited, and with a low compression ratio at high load, where the engine is more prone to knock. In this way, engine efficiency can be maximized without sacrificing performance. This study aims to analyze how the effectiveness of a VCR system is affected by various powertrain and vehicle parameters. By using a Matlab model of a VCR system developed in Part 1 of this work, the influence of the vehicle characteristics, the drive cycle, and of the number of stages used in the VCR system was studied.
Technical Paper

Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 1: Model Development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0467
Given increasingly stringent emission targets, engine efficiency has become of foremost importance. While increasing engine compression ratio can lead to efficiency gains, it also leads to higher in-cylinder pressure and temperatures, thus increasing the risk of knock. One potential solution is the use of a Variable Compression Ratio system, which is capable of exploiting the advantages coming from high compression ratio while limiting its drawbacks by operating at low engine loads with a high compression ratio, and at high loads with a low compression ratio, where knock could pose a significant threat. This paper describes the design of a model for the evaluation of fuel consumption for an engine equipped with a VCR system over representative drive cycles. The model takes as inputs; a switching time for the VCR system, the vehicle characteristics, engine performance maps corresponding to two different compression ratios, and a drive cycle.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

2019-04-02
2019-01-0946
Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC).
Technical Paper

Study on Frictional Behavior of AA 6XXX with Three Lube Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming

2018-04-03
2018-01-0810
Light-weighting vehicles cause an increase in Aluminum Alloy stamping processes in the Automotive Industry. Surface finish and lubricants of aluminum alloy (AA) sheet play an important role in the deep drawing processes as they can affect the friction condition between the die and the sheet. This paper aims to develop a reliable and practical laboratory test method to experimentally investigate the influence of surface finish, lubricant conditions, draw-bead clearances and pulling speed on the frictional sliding behavior of AA 6XXX sheet metal. A new double-beads draw-bead-simulator (DBS) system was used to conduct the simulated test to determine the frictional behavior of an aluminium alloy with three surface lubricant conditions: mill finish (MF) with oil lube, electric discharge texture (EDT) finish with oil lube and mill finish (MF) with dry lube (DL).
Technical Paper

Design and Validation of a GT Power Model of the CFR Engine towards the Development of a Boosted Octane Number

2018-04-03
2018-01-0214
Developments in modern spark ignition (SI) engines such as intake boosting, direct-injection, and engine downsizing techniques have demonstrated improved performance and thermal efficiency, however, these strategies induce significant deviation in end-gas pressure/temperature histories from those of the traditional Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) standards. Attempting to extrapolate the anti-knock performance of fuels tested under the traditional RON/MON conditions to boosted operation has yielded mixed results in both SI and advanced compression ignition (ACI) engines. This consideration motivates the present work with seeks to establish a pathway towards the development of the test conditions of a boosted octane number, which would better correlate to fuel performance at high intake pressure conditions.
Journal Article

Reliability and Cost Trade-Off Analysis of a Microgrid

2018-04-03
2018-01-0619
Optimizing the trade-off between reliability and cost of operating a microgrid, including vehicles as both loads and sources, can be a challenge. Optimal energy management is crucial to develop strategies to improve the efficiency and reliability of microgrids, as well as new communication networks to support optimal and reliable operation. Prior approaches modeled the grid using MATLAB, but did not include the detailed physics of loads and sources, and therefore missed the transient effects that are present in real-time operation of a microgrid. This article discusses the implementation of a physics-based detailed microgrid model including a diesel generator, wind turbine, photovoltaic array, and utility. All elements are modeled as sources in Simulink. Various loads are also implemented including an asynchronous motor. We show how a central control algorithm optimizes the microgrid by trying to maximize reliability while reducing operational cost.
Technical Paper

Towards Video Sharing in Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure for Road Safety

2017-03-28
2017-01-0076
Current implementations of vision-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are largely dependent on real-time vehicle camera data along with other sensory data available on-board such as radar, ultrasonic, and GPS data. This data, when accurately reported and processed, helps the vehicle avoid collisions using established ADAS applications such as Forward Collision Avoidance (FCA), Autonomous Cruise Control (ACC), Pedestrian Detection, etc. Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) over Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) provides basic sensory data from other vehicles or roadside infrastructure including position information of surrounding traffic. Exchanging rich data such as vision data between multiple vehicles, and between vehicles and infrastructure provides a unique opportunity to advance driver assistance applications and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Preparation, Fuel Stratification, and Premixed Fuel Chemistry on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0773
Engine experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to explore the effects of charge preparation, fuel stratification, and premixed fuel chemistry on the performance and emissions of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The experiments were conducted at a fixed total fuel energy and engine speed, and charge preparation was varied by adjusting the global equivalence ratio between 0.28 and 0.35 at intake temperatures of 40°C and 60°C. With a premixed injection of isooctane (PRF100), and a single direct-injection of n-heptane (PRF0), fuel stratification was varied with start of injection (SOI) timing. Combustion phasing advanced as SOI was retarded between -140° and -35°, then retarded as injection timing was further retarded, indicating a potential shift in combustion regime. Peak gross efficiency was achieved between -60° and -45° SOI, and NOx emissions increased as SOI was retarded beyond -40°, peaking around -25° SOI.
Technical Paper

Study of Ausferrite Transformation Kinetics for Austempered Ductile Irons with and without Ni

2016-04-05
2016-01-0421
This research studies the transformation kinetics of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with and without nickel as the main alloying element. ADI has improved mechanical properties compared to ductile iron due to its ausferrite microstructure. Not only can austempered ductile iron be produced with high strength, high toughness and high wear resistance, the ductility of ADI can also be increased due to high carbon content austenite. Many factors influence the transformation of phases in ADI. In the present work, the addition of nickel was investigated based on transformation kinetics and metallography observation. The transformation fractions were determined by Rockwell hardness variations of ADI specimens. The calculation of transformation kinetics and activation energy using the “Avrami Equation” and “Arrhenius Equation” is done to describe effects of nickel alloy for phase reactions.
Journal Article

Reanalysis of Linear Dynamic Systems using Modified Combined Approximations with Frequency Shifts

2016-04-05
2016-01-1338
Weight reduction is very important in automotive design because of stringent demand on fuel economy. Structural optimization of dynamic systems using finite element (FE) analysis plays an important role in reducing weight while simultaneously delivering a product that meets all functional requirements for durability, crash and NVH. With advancing computer technology, the demand for solving large FE models has grown. Optimization is however costly due to repeated full-order analyses. Reanalysis methods can be used in structural vibrations to reduce the analysis cost from repeated eigenvalue analyses for both deterministic and probabilistic problems. Several reanalysis techniques have been introduced over the years including Parametric Reduced Order Modeling (PROM), Combined Approximations (CA) and the Epsilon algorithm, among others.
Journal Article

Computational Efficiency Improvements in Topography Optimization Using Reanalysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-1395
To improve fuel economy, there is a trend in automotive industry to use light weight, high strength materials. Automotive body structures are composed of several panels which must be downsized to reduce weight. Because this affects NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance, engineers are challenged to recover the lost panel stiffness from down-gaging in order to improve the structure borne noise transmitted through the lightweight panels in the frequency range of 100-300 Hz where most of the booming and low medium frequency noise occurs. The loss in performance can be recovered by optimized panel geometry using beading or damping treatment. Topography optimization is a special class of shape optimization for changing sheet metal shapes by introducing beads. A large number of design variables can be handled and the process is easy to setup in commercial codes. However, optimization methods are computationally intensive because of repeated full-order analyses.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Heat Generation in a Lithium Ion Cell

2015-09-15
2015-01-2420
The heat generation rate of a lithium ion cell was estimated using a reversible heat generation rate equation. Because the equation is based on the energy conservation law, the influence of kinetically slow processes should be considered. In this analysis, the influence of kinetically slow processes is present but it is small within the domain of the test measurements. This approximation can be of significant usefulness for modeling the thermal response of single cells and multi-cell batteries.
Journal Article

Effect of Surface Roughness and Lubrication on Scuffing for Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

2015-04-14
2015-01-0683
This paper describes the scuffing tests performed to understand the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior for austempered ductile iron (ADI) material. As the scuffing tendency is increased, metal-to-metal interaction between contacting surfaces is increased. Lubrication between sliding surfaces becomes the boundary or mixed lubrication condition. Oil film breakdown leads to scuffing failure with the critical load. Hence, the role of surface roughness and lubrication becomes prominent in scuffing study. There are some studies in which the influence of the surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing was evaluated. However, no comprehensive scuffing study has been found in the literature regarding the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior of ADI material. The current research took into account the inferences of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing for ADI.
Technical Paper

Tribological and Metallurgical Properties of Nitrided AISI 4340 Steel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0959
Nitridng usually improves wear resistance and can be accomplished using a gas or plasma method; it's necessary to find if there is any difference in surface roughness, wear and/or wear mechanism when choosing between methods for nitriding. In this study, Ball-on-disk wear test was compared on coupons nitrided with five different nitriding cycles that processed at temperatures of 500-570°C, with a processing time of 8 - 80 hrs. Different compound layer thicknesses were formed, (5-8μm), and a minimum of 0.38 mm case depth was produced. Nitrided samples were also compared to nitrocarburized and the nitrided coupons with a “0” compound layer in a ball-on-disk test. Few selected coupons were post-polished and wear test on ball-on-disk test was compared with the coupons without post polishing. Optical surface roughness using White Light Interferometry (WLIM) and metallurgical testing was performed.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Journal Article

Tribological Performance of ZnO-Oil Nanofluids at Elevated Temperatures

2013-04-08
2013-01-1219
The tribological performance of nanofluids consisting of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed with a stabilizer in an API Group III oil was investigated. Recent research suggests that these fluids may reduce friction and wear compared to the base oil when used as a lubricant in metal-on-metal tests. The effects of nanoparticle concentration and test temperature on friction and wear were studied. Tests were run at 50°C and 100°C to investigate the viability of the fluids at elevated temperatures because possible applications include use as engine lubricants. Nanofluids showed friction reduction of up to 5.2% and reduced wear by up to 82.8% versus oil with only stabilizer at the highest ZnO concentration and the lowest temperature. Stabilizer increased wear at every concentration, but did not affect friction significantly. Fluid viscosity was also investigated. At 30°C, significant shear-thinning behavior was observed for the 2% ZnO solution, and a viscosity versus shear rate curve was found.
Journal Article

Scuffing Behavior of 4140 Alloy Steel and Ductile Cast Iron

2012-04-16
2012-01-0189
Scuffing is a failure mechanism which can occur in various engineering components, such as engine cylinder kits, gears and cam/followers. In this research, the scuffing behavior of 4140 steel and ductile iron was investigated and compared through ball-on-disk scuffing tests. A step load of 22.2 N every two minutes was applied with a light mineral oil as lubricant to determine the scuffing load. Both materials were heat treated to various hardness and tests were conducted to compare the scuffing behavior of the materials when the tempered hardness of each material was the same. Ductile iron was found to have a consistently high scuffing resistance before tempering and at tempering temperatures lower than 427°C (HRC ≻45). Above 427°C the scuffing resistance decreases. 4140 steel was found to have low scuffing resistance at low tempering temperatures, but as the tempering temperature increases, the scuffing resistance increased.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Microstructure on Scuffing Behavior of Ferrous Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-1091
Scuffing is one of the major problems that influence the life cycle and reliability of several auto components, including engine cylinder kits, flywheels, camshafts, crankshafts, and gears. Ferrous casting materials, such as gray cast iron, ductile cast iron and austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) are widely applied in these components due to their self-lubricating characteristics. The purpose of this research is to determine the scuffing behavior of these three types of cast iron materials and compare them with 1050 steel. Rotational ball-on-disc tests were conducted with white mineral oil as the lubricant under variable sliding speeds and loads. The results indicate that the scuffing initiation is due to either crack propagation or plastic deformation. It is found that ADI exhibits the highest scuffing resistance among these materials.
Technical Paper

Transverse Vibration of a Composite Shaft

2009-05-19
2009-01-2066
The advantages of having higher stiffness to weight ratio and strength to weigh ratio that composite materials have resulted in an increased interest in them. In automotive engineering, the weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). The driveline of an automotive system can be a target for possible use of composite materials. The design of the driveshaft of an automotive system is primarily driven by its natural frequency. This paper presents an exact solution for the vibration of a composite driveshaft with intermediate joints. The joint is modeled as a frictionless internal hinge. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. Lumped masses are placed on each side of the joint to represent the joint mass. Equations of motion are developed using the appropriate boundary conditions and then solved exactly.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Mechanical Behaviors of a Silicon Rubber based Composite Material for PEM Fuel Cell

2009-04-20
2009-01-1005
With increasing demand for cost-effective fuel cells, it is essential to investigate alternative materials for components of the fuel cells. The objective of this paper is to implement elastomeric materials (silicon rubber) for the use of bipolar plates in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Two different types of conductive fillers, a graphite fiber and flake, were added at different concentrations to a two-component silicone rubber slurry. Electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the composite material were investigated. Comparable electrical and thermal conductivities were achieved to that of commercially available plates. The silicone rubber based composite material maintained elastomeric properties for improved sealing of cell fluid reactants and products.
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