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Technical Paper

Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Casing Treatment for Improved BPF Noise Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1484
The conventional ported shroud recirculation casing treatment elevates narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. A new ported shroud recirculating casing treatment was implemented in Ford’s 3.5L turbo gas engine as Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) counter measure to reduce whoosh (broadband flow noise) noise without elevating narrowband noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud design incorporates holes between the main and secondary recirculating passage and a slight cross-sectional area reduction just upstream of the impeller. These design features reduce whoosh noise without elevating the first order and the sixth order tonal noise at blade pass frequency. The new ported shroud design decreases narrowband tonal noise sound pressure level by 3-6 dB in the low to mid flow region compared to the baseline design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools were used to develop this casing treatment design.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Broadband Noise in an Automotive Centrifugal Compressor with Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Detached Eddy Simulations

2019-06-05
2019-01-1487
Centrifugal compressors for automotive turbochargers must operate over wide speed and flow ranges to provide the required air pressure and mass flow rate to the intake manifold of the internal combustion engines. At a fixed rotational speed, the flow field near the inducer of the impeller becomes increasingly unstable with decreasing flow rate, as the incidence angle grows between the air flow approaching the impeller, relative to the tangent of the main impeller blades at the leading edge. Flow field measurements conducted earlier have revealed that once the incidence angle exceeds a critical value (nearly independent of rotational speed) of approximately 15°, reversed flow near the periphery (blade tips) starts penetrating upstream of the impeller, with a high tangential velocity in the direction of impeller rotation.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Design and Implementation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0496
In this manuscript a design and implementation of CACC on an autonomous vehicle platform (2017 Ford Fusion) is presented. The developed CACC controls the intervehicle distance between the target vehicle and ego vehicle using a feedforward PD controller. In this design the feedforward information is the acceleration of the target vehicle which is communicated through Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) modem. The manuscript explains the detailed architecture of the designed CACC with used hardware and methods for the both simulation and experiments. Also, an approach to overcome detection failures at the curved roads is presented to improve overall quality of the designed CACC system. As a result, the initial simulation and experimental results with the designed CACC system is presented in the paper. The presented results indicate that CACC improves the car following performance of the ego vehicle as compared to the classical Adaptive Cruise Controller.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Collision Avoidance in a Connected Vehicle Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0488
Connected vehicle (CV) technology is among the most heavily researched areas in both the academia and industry. The vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) communication capabilities enable critical situational awareness. In some cases, these vehicle communication safety capabilities can overcome the shortcomings of other sensor safety capabilities because of external conditions such as 'No Line of Sight' (NLOS) or very harsh weather conditions. Connected vehicles will help cities and states reduce traffic congestion, improve fuel efficiency and improve the safety of the vehicles and pedestrians. On the road, cars will be able to communicate with one another, automatically transmitting data such as speed, position, and direction, and send alerts to each other if a crash seems imminent. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) for connected vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Harness Tightening Procedures for Child Restraint System (CRS) Sled Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0617
Sled testing procedures should reflect a rigorous level of repeatability across trials and reproducibility across testing facilities. Currently, different testing facilities use various methods to set the harness tension for child restraint system (CRS) sled tests. The objective of this study is to identify which harness tightening procedure(s) produce tensions within a reasonable target range while showing adequate reproducibility, repeatability, and ease-of-use. Five harness tightening procedures were selected: A) FMVSS 213 procedure, B) a 3-prong tension gauge, C) ECE R44/R129 procedure, D) two finger method, and E) pinch test. Two CRS models were instrumented with a tension load cell in the harness system. Seven sled room operators were recruited to perform each of the five harness tightening procedures for ten repetitions apiece on both instrumented CRS using a Hybrid III 3-year-old.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Assessment of Three-Dimensional Site Features Generated with Aid of Photogrammetric Epipolar Lines in PhotoModeler and Using Minimal sUAS Imagery

2019-04-02
2019-01-0410
Photogrammetry is widely used in the accident reconstruction community to extract three-dimensional information from photographs. This article extends a prior study conducted by the authors, whereby model accuracy was assessed for a technique that exploited vehicle edges and epipolar line projections to construct 3D vehicle models, by examining 3D roadway and site features. To do so, artificial images were generated using an ideal computer-generated camera within a computer-assisted drawing environment to allow for a known reference model to compare with results produced using photogrammetry. A systematic study was undertaken by modeling the curvature, elevation, and super-elevation of a roadway and associated markings, sidewalks, and buildings, either by relying on discrete points or utilizing epipolar lines. The models were assessed for accuracy, and the sensitivity of the accuracy to camera elevation was considered.
Technical Paper

Sensor Selection for Selective Clutch Fault Isolation in Automatic Transmissions Based on Degree of Fault Tolerance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0117
Multiple clutches are engaged to achieve a specific gear ratio in an automatic transmission (AT). When an engaged clutch loses pressure during the AT operation, it is classified as a clutch stuck off fault. Automatic transmissions can enter in neutral states because of these faults and the vehicle can lose power at the wheels. Our previous work describes a systematic way of performing sensor placement analysis for diagnosis of clutch faults in automatic transmissions. In this paper, we approach the issue from the point of view similar to that of functional safety according to the ISO 26262 standard; where a transmission functional safety concept should address transitioning to a safe state in case of hazards associated with stuck off clutches.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security

2019-04-02
2019-01-0129
The challenges posed by connected and autonomous vehicles fall beyond the scope of current version of ISO 26262. According to the current functional safety standard, controllability, largely affected by human intervention, is a large contributor to the definition of the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL). Since the driver involvement in CAVs will decrease in future, this gives no clear definition for future functional safety design. On the other hand, CAVs bring additional capabilities such as advance sensors, telematics-based connectivity etc. which can be used to devise efficient approaches to address functional safety (FuSa) challenges. The caveat to these additional capabilities is issues like cybersecurity, complexity, etc.
Technical Paper

Driver’s Response Prediction Using Naturalistic Data Set

2019-04-02
2019-01-0128
Evaluating the safety of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) is a challenging problem, especially in traffic conditions involving dynamic interactions. A thorough evaluation of the vehicle’s decisions at all possible critical scenarios is necessary for estimating and validating its safety. However, predicting the response of the vehicle to dynamic traffic conditions can be the first step in the complex problem of understanding vehicle’s behavior. This predicted response of the vehicle can be used in validating vehicle’s safety. In this paper, models based on Machine Learning were explored for predicting and classifying driver’s response. The Naturalistic Driving Study dataset (NDS), which is part of the Strategic Highway Research Program-2 (SHRP2) was used for training and validating these Machine Learning models.
Technical Paper

A Unified, Scalable and Replicable Approach to Development, Implementation and HIL Evaluation of Autonomous Shuttles for Use in a Smart City

2019-04-02
2019-01-0493
As the technology in autonomous vehicle and smart city infrastructure is developing fast, the idea of smart city and automated driving has become a present and near future reality. Both Highway Chauffeur and low speed shuttle applications are tested recently in different research to test the feasibility of autonomous vehicles and automated driving. Based on examples available in the literature and the past experience of the authors, this paper proposes the use of a unified computing, sensing, communication and actuation architecture for connected and automated driving. It is postulated that this unified architecture will also lead to a scalable and replicable approach. Two vehicles representing a passenger car and a small electric shuttle for smart mobility in a smart city are chosen as the two examples for demonstrating scalability and replicability.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of Car-Following Behavior of Automated Vehicles for Safety Evaluation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0142
With the emergence of Driving Automation Systems (SAE levels 1-5), the necessity arises for methods of evaluating these systems. However, these systems are much more challenging to evaluate than traditional safety features (SAE level 0). This is because an understanding of the Driving Automation system’s response in all possible scenarios is desired, but prohibitive to comprehensively test. Hence, this paper attempts to evaluate one such system, by modeling its behavior. The model generated parameters not only allow for objective comparison between vehicles, but also provide a more complete understanding of the system. The model can also be used to extrapolate results by simulating other scenarios without the need for conducting more tests. In this paper, low speed automated driving (also known as Traffic Jam Assist (TJA)) is studied. This study focused on the longitudinal behavior of automated vehicles while following a lead vehicle (LV) in traffic jam scenarios.
Technical Paper

High Speed Ridged Fasteners for Multi-Material Joining

2019-04-02
2019-01-1117
Automobile manufacturers are reducing the weight of their vehicles in order to meet strict fuel economy legislation. To achieve this goal, a combination of different materials such as steel, aluminum and carbon fiber composites are being considered for use in vehicle bodies. The ability to join these different materials is an ongoing challenge and an area of research for automobile manufacturers. Multiridged fasteners are a viable option for this type of multi-material joining. Commercial systems exist and are being used in the industry, however, new ridged nail designs offer the potential for improvement in several areas. The goal of this paper is to prototype and test a safer flat-end fastener whilst not compromising on strength characteristics, to prevent injury to factory workers. The nails were prototyped using existing RIVTAC® nails.
Technical Paper

A Physics-Based, Control-Oriented Turbocharger Compressor Model for the Prediction of Pressure Ratio at the Limit of Stable Operations

2019-04-02
2019-01-0320
Downsizing and boosting is currently the principal solution to reduce fuel consumption in automotive engines without penalizing the power output. A key challenge for controlling the boost pressure during highly transient operations lies in avoiding to operate the turbocharger compressor in its instability region, also known as surge. While this phenomenon is well known by control engineers, it is still difficult to accurately predict during transient operations. For this reason, the scientific community has directed considerable efforts to understand the phenomena leading to the onset of unstable behavior, principally through experimental investigations or high-fidelity CFD simulations. On the other hand, less emphasis has been placed on creating control-oriented models that adopt a physics-based (rather than data-driven) approach to predict the onset of instability phenomena.
Technical Paper

Discrete-time Robust PD Controlled System with DOB/CDOB Compensation for High Speed Autonomous Vehicle Path Following

2019-04-02
2019-01-0674
In recent years, there has been increasing research on automated driving technology. Autonomous vehicle path following performance is one of significant consideration. This paper presents discrete time design of robust PD controlled system with disturbance observer (DOB) and communication disturbance observer (CDOB) compensation to enhance autonomous vehicle path following performance. Although always implemented on digital devices, DOB and CDOB structure are usually designed in continuous time in the literature and also in our previous work. However, it requires high sampling rate for continuous-time design block diagram to automatically convert to corresponding discrete-time controller using rapid controller prototyping systems. In this paper, direct discrete time design is carried out. Digital PD feedback controller is designed based on the nominal plant using the proposed parameter space approach.
Technical Paper

Inertia Tensor and Center of Gravity Measurement for Engines and Other Automotive Components

2019-04-02
2019-01-0701
A machine has been developed to measure the complete inertia matrix; mass, center of gravity (CG) location, and all moments and products of inertia. Among other things these quantities are useful in studying engine vibrations, calculation of the torque roll axis, and in the placement of engine mounts. While the machine was developed primarily for engines it can be used for other objects of similar size and weight, and even smaller objects such as tires and wheels/rims. A key feature of the device is that the object, once placed on the test table, is never reoriented during the test cycle. This reduces the testing time to an hour or less, with the setup time being a few minutes to a few hours depending on the complexity of the shape of the object. Other inertia test methods can require up to five reorientations, separate CG measurement, and up to several days for a complete test.
Technical Paper

System Engineering of an Advanced Driver Assistance System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0876
Current Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) often interact with the driver; aiding with either warnings or direct intervention. This work explores the development of an ADAS system to provide lane departure warning, forward collision warning, and a recommended following distance for a custom plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle. The system utilizes off-the-shelf hardware with in-house computer vision and sensor fusion algorithms to create a low-cost SAE Level 0 driver assistance system. The system utilizes a radar sensor as well as a camera to detect, classify, and track target vehicles. This work will illustrate the systems engineering methods used for outlining customer requirements, technical requirements, component selection, software development, simulation, vehicle fitment, and validation. Similar system engineering processes could be implemented for higher level SAE systems.
Technical Paper

Design of a Grid-Friendly DC Fast Charge Station with Second Life Batteries

2019-04-02
2019-01-0867
DC-fast charge (DCFC) may be amenable for widespread EV adoption. However, there are potential challenges associated with implementation and operation of the DCFC infrastructures. The integration of energy storage systems can limit the scale of grid installation required for DCFC and enable more efficient grid energy usage. In addition, second-life batteries (SLBs) can find application in DCFC, significantly reducing installation cost when compared to solutions based on new battery packs. However, both system architecture and control strategy require optimization to ensure an optimal use of SLBs, including degradation and thermal aspects. This study proposes an application of automotive SLBs for DCFC stations where high power grid connection is not available or feasible. Several SLBs are connected to the grid by means of low power chargers (e.g. L2 charging station), and a DC/DC converter controls the power to the EV power dispenser.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Cooling System for a Range Extended Electric Truck

2019-04-02
2019-01-0158
Battery packs used in electrified automotive powertrains support heavy electrical loads resulting in significant heat generation within them. Cooling systems are used to regulate the battery pack temperatures, helping to slow down battery aging. Vehicle-level energy consumption simulations serve as a first step for determining the specifications of a battery cooling system based on the duty cycle and interactions with the rest of the powertrain. This paper presents the development of a battery model that takes into account the energy impact of heating in the battery and demonstrates its use in a vehicle-level energy consumption simulator to set the specifications of a suitable cooling system for a vehicle application. The vehicle application used in this paper is a Class 6 Pickup and Delivery commercial vehicle with a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) powertrain configuration.
Technical Paper

Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0510
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Low NOx Emission Prediction for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using a Map-Based Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0987
As vehicle emissions regulations become increasingly stringent, there is a growing need to accurately model aftertreatment systems to aid in the development of ultra-low NOx vehicles. Common solutions to this problem include the development of complex chemical models or expansive neural networks. This paper aims to present the development process of a simpler Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) conversion efficiency Simulink model for the purposes of modeling tail pipe NOx emission levels based on various inputs, temperature shifts and SCR locations, arrangements and/or sizes in the system. The main objective is to utilize this model to predict tail pipe NOx emissions of the EPA Federal Test Procedures for heavy-duty vehicles. The model presented within is focused exclusively on heavy-duty application compression ignition engines and their corresponding aftertreatment setups.
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