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Technical Paper

Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0510
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities.
Technical Paper

High Speed Ridged Fasteners for Multi-Material Joining

2019-04-02
2019-01-1117
Automobile manufacturers are reducing the weight of their vehicles in order to meet strict fuel economy legislation. To achieve this goal, a combination of different materials such as steel, aluminum and carbon fiber composites are being considered for use in vehicle bodies. The ability to join these different materials is an ongoing challenge and an area of research for automobile manufacturers. Multiridged fasteners are a viable option for this type of multi-material joining. Commercial systems exist and are being used in the industry, however, new ridged nail designs offer the potential for improvement in several areas. The goal of this paper is to prototype and test a safer flat-end fastener whilst not compromising on strength characteristics, to prevent injury to factory workers. The nails were prototyped using existing RIVTAC® nails.
Technical Paper

Ensuring Fuel Economy Performance of Commercial Vehicle Fleets Using Blockchain Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-1078
In the past, research on blockchain technology has addressed security and privacy concerns within intelligent transportation systems for critical V2I and V2V communications that form the backbone of Internet of Vehicles. Within trucking industry, a recent trend has been observed towards the use of blockchain technology for operations. Industry stakeholders are particularly looking forward to refining status quo contract management and vehicle maintenance processes through blockchains. However, the use of blockchain technology for enhancing vehicle performance in fleets, especially while considering the fact that modern-day intelligent vehicles are prone to cyber security threats, is an area that has attracted less attention. In this paper, we demonstrate a case study that makes use of blockchains to securely optimize the fuel economy of fleets that do package pickup and delivery (P&D) in urban areas.
Technical Paper

Use of Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation for Developing Connected Autonomous Vehicle (CAV) Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-1063
Many smart cities and car manufacturers have been investing in Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) applications by integrating the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) technology to improve the fuel economy, safety, and ride comfort for the end users. For example, Columbus, OH, USA is placing DSRC Road Side Units (RSU) to the traffic lights which will publish traffic light Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) information. With DSRC On Board Unit (OBU) equipped vehicles, people will start benefiting from this technology. In this paper, to accelerate the V2I application development for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV), a Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simulator with DSRC RSU and OBU is presented. The developed HIL simulator environment is employed to implement, develop and evaluate V2I connected vehicle applications in a fast, safe and cost-effective manner.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Collision Avoidance in a Connected Vehicle Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0488
Connected vehicle (CV) technology is among the most heavily researched areas in both the academia and industry. The vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) communication capabilities enable critical situational awareness. In some cases, these vehicle communication safety capabilities can overcome the shortcomings of other sensor safety capabilities because of external conditions such as 'No Line of Sight' (NLOS) or very harsh weather conditions. Connected vehicles will help cities and states reduce traffic congestion, improve fuel efficiency and improve the safety of the vehicles and pedestrians. On the road, cars will be able to communicate with one another, automatically transmitting data such as speed, position, and direction, and send alerts to each other if a crash seems imminent. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) for connected vehicles.
Technical Paper

Reducing Fuel Consumption by Using Information from Connected and Automated Vehicle Modules to Optimize Propulsion System Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1213
Global regulatory targets and customer demand are driving the automotive industry to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. Methods for achieving increased efficiency include improvements in the internal combustion engine and an accelerating shift toward electrification. A key enabler to maximizing the benefit from these new powertrain technologies is proper systems integration work - including developing optimized controls for the propulsion system as a whole. The next step in the evolution of improving the propulsion management system is to make use of available information not typically associated with the powertrain. Advanced driver assistance systems, vehicle connectivity systems and cloud applications can provide information to the propulsion management system that allows a shift from instantaneous optimization of fuel consumption, to optimization over a route. In the current paper, we present initial work from a project being done as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program.
Technical Paper

Mission-based Design Space Exploration for Powertrain Electrification of Series Plugin Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck

2018-04-03
2018-01-1027
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are essential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, when analyzing different segments of the transportation industry, for example, public transportation or different sizes of delivery trucks and how the HEV are used, it is clear that one powertrain may not be optimal in all situations. Choosing a hybrid powertrain architecture and proper component sizes for different applications is an important task to find the optimal trade-off between fuel economy, drivability, and vehicle cost. However, exploring and evaluating all possible architectures and component sizes is a time-consuming task. A search algorithm, using Gaussian Processes, is proposed that simultaneously explores multiple architecture options, to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling and Software Verification for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2015-04-14
2015-01-1229
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
Journal Article

A Scalable Modeling Approach for the Simulation and Design Optimization of Automotive Turbochargers

2015-04-14
2015-01-1288
Engine downsizing and super/turbocharging is currently the most followed trend in order to reduce CO2 emissions and increase the powertrain efficiency. A key challenge for achieving the desired fuel economy benefits lies in optimizing the design and control of the engine boosting system, which requires the ability to rapidly sort different design options and technologies in simulation, evaluating their impact on engine performance and fuel consumption. This paper presents a scalable modeling approach for the characterization of flow and efficiency maps for automotive turbochargers. Starting from the dimensional analysis theory for turbomachinery and a set of well-known control-oriented models for turbocharged engines simulation, a novel scalable model is proposed to predict the flow and efficiency maps of centrifugal compressors and radial inflow turbines as function of their key design parameters.
Journal Article

Scaling Considerations for Fluidic Oscillator Flow Control on the Square-back Ahmed Vehicle Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-1561
Improvements in highway fuel economy require clever design and novel methods to reduce the drag coefficient. The integration of active flow control devices into vehicle design shows promise for greater reductions in drag coefficient. This paper examines the use of fluidic oscillators for separation control at the rear of an Ahmed vehicle model. A fluidic oscillator is a simple device that generates a sweeping jet output, similar to some windshield wiper spray nozzles, and is increasingly recognized as an efficient means to control separation. In this study, fluidic oscillators were used to blow unsteady air jets and control flow separation on rear boat-tail flaps, achieving drag reductions greater than 70 counts. The method appears to scale favorably to a larger model, and realistic effects such as a rolling road appear to have a small impact on the oscillator's control authority.
Technical Paper

A Rule-Based Control for Fuel-Efficient Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0366
In a conventional passenger vehicle, the AC system is the largest ancillary load. This paper proposes a novel control strategy to reduce the energy consumption of the air conditioning system of a conventional passenger car. The problem of reducing the parasitic load of the AC system is first approached as a multi-objective optimization problem. Starting from a validated control-oriented model of an automotive AC system, an optimization problem is formalized to achieve the best possible fuel economy over a regulatory driving cycle, while guaranteeing the passenger comfort in terms of cabin temperature and reduce the wear of the components. To complete the formulation of the problem, a set of constraints on the pressure in the heat exchanger are defined to guarantee the safe operation of the system. The Dynamic Programming (DP), a numerical optimization technique, is then used to obtain the optimal solution in form of a control sequence over a prescribed driving cycle.
Journal Article

Design of a Parallel-Series PHEV for the EcoCAR 2 Competition

2012-09-10
2012-01-1762
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 75 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the rigorous design process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The design process includes identifying the team customer's needs and wants, selecting an overall vehicle architecture and completing detailed design work on the mechanical, electrical and control systems. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S.
Technical Paper

Effect of Traffic, Road and Weather Information on PHEV Energy Management

2011-09-11
2011-24-0162
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast.
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