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Technical Paper

Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0570
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C.
Technical Paper

Micro-Channel Heat Exchanger: An Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Device

2018-04-03
2018-01-0052
Almost one-third of the fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of a vehicle. An efficient waste heat recovery (WHR) process will undoubtedly lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. Currently, there are multiple WHR technologies that are being investigated by various entities in the auto industry. One relatively simple device to extract heat energy from the exhaust is a heat exchanger. Heat exchangers are used in some automotive applications to transfer heat from the hot exhaust gas to the colder coolant fluid to raise the coolant temperature. The warmer coolant fluid can be used for several purposes such as; faster heating of the engine’s lubrication oil and transmission fluids during cold starts, and faster cabin heating, which in turn, can potentially improve the overall engine efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0341
Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200 °C range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however, poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project, we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150 °C. This project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015 and completed in 2017.
Journal Article

Selection Criteria and Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0868
We describe a study to identify potential biofuels that enable advanced spark ignition (SI) engine efficiency strategies to be pursued more aggressively. A list of potential biomass-derived blendstocks was developed. An online database of properties and characteristics of these bioblendstocks was created and populated. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a bioblendstock met the requirements for advanced SI engines. Criteria included melting point (or cloud point) < -10°C and boiling point (or T90) <165°C. Compounds insoluble or poorly soluble in hydrocarbon were eliminated from consideration, as were those known to cause corrosion (carboxylic acids or high acid number mixtures) and those with hazard classification as known or suspected carcinogens or reproductive toxins.
Journal Article

Advancements and Opportunities for On-Board 700 Bar Compressed Hydrogen Tanks in the Progression Towards the Commercialization of Fuel Cell Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1183
Fuel cell vehicles are entering the automotive market with significant potential benefits to reduce harmful greenhouse emissions, facilitate energy security, and increase vehicle efficiency while providing customer expected driving range and fill times when compared to conventional vehicles. One of the challenges for successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles is transitioning the on-board fuel system from liquid gasoline to compressed hydrogen gas. Storing high pressurized hydrogen requires a specialized structural pressure vessel, significantly different in function, size, and construction from a gasoline container. In comparison to a gasoline tank at near ambient pressures, OEMs have aligned to a nominal working pressure of 700 bar for hydrogen tanks in order to achieve the customer expected driving range of 300 miles.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Journal Article

Modeling Species Inhibition and Competitive Adsorption in Urea-SCR Catalysts

2012-04-16
2012-01-1295
Although the urea-SCR technology exhibits high NO reduction efficiency over a wide range of temperatures among the lean NO reduction technologies, further improvement in low-temperature performance is required to meet the future emission standards and to lower the system cost. In order to improve the catalyst technologies and optimize the system performance, it is critical to understand the reaction mechanisms and catalyst behaviors with respect to operating conditions. Urea-SCR catalysts exhibit poor NO reduction performance at low-temperature operating conditions (T ≺ 150°C). We postulate that the poor performance is either due to NH₃ storage inhibition by species like hydrocarbons or due to competitive adsorption between NH₃ and other adsorbates such as H₂O and hydrocarbons in the exhaust stream. In this paper we attempt to develop one-dimensional models to characterize inhibition and competitive adsorption in Fe-zeolite-based urea-SCR catalysts based on bench reactor experiments.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2100
More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number-based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample-handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark-ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Volatiles and Fixed Carbon Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2127
Diesel particulate samples were collected from a light duty engine operated at a single speed-load point with a range of biodiesel and conventional fuel blends. The oxidation reactivity of the samples was characterized in a laboratory reactor, and BET surface area measurements were made at several points during oxidation of the fixed carbon component of both types of particulate. The fixed carbon component of biodiesel particulate has a significantly higher surface area for the initial stages of oxidation, but the surface areas for the two particulates become similar as fixed carbon oxidation proceeds beyond 40%. When fixed carbon oxidation rates are normalized to total surface area, it is possible to describe the oxidation rates of the fixed carbon portion of both types of particulates with a single set of Arrhenius parameters. The measured surface area evolution during particle oxidation was found to be inconsistent with shrinking sphere oxidation.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Effect on a Fe-zeolite Urea-SCR Catalyst: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2010-04-12
2010-01-1171
Synergies between various catalytic converters such as SCR and DPF are vital to the success of an integrated aftertreatment system for simultaneous NO and particulate matter control in diesel engines. Several issues such as hydrocarbon poisoning, thermal aging and other coupled aftertreatment dynamics need to be addressed to develop an effective emission control system. This work is significant especially in an integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment scenario where the SCR catalyst on the filter substrate is exposed to un-burnt diesel hydrocarbons during active regeneration of the particulate filter. This paper reports an experimental and modeling study to understand the effect of hydrocarbons on a Fe-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst. Several bench-reactor tests to understand the inhibition of NO oxidation, to characterize hydrocarbon storage and to investigate the impact of hydrocarbons on SCR reactions were conducted.
Journal Article

Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

2009-11-02
2009-01-2769
The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and1H/13C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) apparatus.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Developing Hydrogen Direct Injection Technology for Internal Combustion Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2379
Development status and insight on a “research level” piezoelectric direct injection fuel injection system for prototype hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) is described. Practical experience accumulated from specialized material testing, bench testing and engine operation have helped steer research efforts on the fuel injection system. Recent results from a single cylinder engine are also presented, including demonstration of 45% peak brake thermal efficiency. Developing ICEs to utilize hydrogen can result in cost effective power plants that can potentially serve the needs of a long term hydrogen roadmap. Hydrogen direct injection provides many benefits including improved volumetric efficiency, robust combustion (avoidance of pre-ignition and backfire) and significant power density advantages relative to port-injected approaches with hydrogen ICEs.
Technical Paper

The Chemistry, Properties, and HCCI Combustion Behavior of Refinery Streams Derived from Canadian Oil Sands Crude

2008-10-06
2008-01-2406
Diesel fuels derived from different types of crude oil can exhibit different chemistry while still meeting market requirements and specifications. Oil sands derived fuels typically contain a larger proportion of cycloparaffinic compounds, which result from the cracking and hydrotreating of bitumens in the crude. In the current study, 17 refinery streams consisting of finished fuels and process streams were obtained from a refinery using 100% oil sands derived crude oil. All samples except one met the ULSD standard of 15 ppm sulfur. The samples were characterized for properties and chemistry and run in a simple premixed HCCI engine using intake heating for combustion phasing control. Results indicate that the streams could be equally well characterized by chemistry or properties, and some simple correlations are presented. Cetane number was found to relate mainly to mono-aromatic content and the cycloparaffins did not appear to possess any unique diesel related chemical effects.
Technical Paper

Global Failure Criteria for SOFC Positive/Electrolyte/Negative (PEN) Structure

2007-04-16
2007-01-0997
Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of various layers in the PEN (positive/electrolyte/ negative) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly.
Technical Paper

Safety Training for the Hydrogen Economy

2006-04-03
2006-01-0329
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training and Education Center are helping to prepare emergency responders and permitting/code enforcement officials for their respective roles in the gradual transition to the hydrogen economy. Safety will be a critical component of the anticipated hydrogen transition. Public confidence goes hand in hand with perceived safety to such an extent that, without it, the envisioned transition is unlikely to occur. Stakeholders and the public must be reassured that hydrogen, although very different from gasoline and other conventional fuels, is no more dangerous. Ensuring safety in the hydrogen infrastructure will require a suitably trained emergency response force for containing the inevitable incidents as they occur, coupled with knowledgeable code officials to ensure that such incidents are kept to a minimum.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Engine Testing of γ-Alumina Catalysts Under Plasma Assist for NOx Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

2003-03-03
2003-01-1186
A slipstream of exhaust from a Caterpillar 3126B engine was diverted into a plasma-catalytic NOx control system in the space velocity range of 7,000 to 100,000 hr-1. The stream was first fed through a non-thermal plasma that was formed in a coaxial cylinder dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Plasma treated gas was then passed over a catalyst bed held at constant temperature in the range of 573 to 773 K. Catalysts examined consisted of γ-alumina, indium-doped γ-alumina, and silver-doped γ-alumina. Road and rated load conditions resulted in engine out NOx levels of 250 - 600 ppm. The effects of hydrocarbon level, catalyst temperature, and space velocity are discussed where propene and in one case ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (late cycle injection) were the reducing agents used for NOx reduction. Results showed NOx reduction in the range of 25 - 97% depending on engine operating conditions and management of the catalyst and slipstream conditions.
Technical Paper

Selective Reduction of NOx in Oxygen Rich Environments with Plasma-Assisted Catalysis: The Role of Plasma and Reactive Intermediates

2001-09-24
2001-01-3513
The catalytic activity of selected materials (BaY and NaY zeolites, and γ-alumina) for selective NOx reduction in combination with a non-thermal plasma was investigated. Our studies suggest that aldehydes, formed during the plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust, are the important species for the reduction of NOx to N2. Indeed, all materials that are active in plasma-assisted catalysis were found to be very effective for the thermal reduction of NOx in the presence of aldehydes. For example, the thermal catalytic activity of a BaY zeolite with aldehydes gives 80-90% NOx removal at 250°C with 200ppm NOx at the inlet and a VHSV=12,000 h-1. The hydrocarbon reductants, n-octane and 1-propyl alcohol, have also shown high thermal catalytic activity for NOx removal over BaY, NaY and γ-alumina.
Technical Paper

Cascade Processing of NOx by Two-Step Discharge/Catalyst Reactors

2001-09-24
2001-01-3509
We present here a phenomenological analysis of a cascade of two-step discharge-catalyst reactors. That is, each step of the cascade consists of a discharge reactor in series with a catalyst bed. These reactors are intended for use in the reduction of tailpipe emission of NOx from diesel engines. The discharge oxidizes NO to NO2, and partially oxidizes HC. The NO2 then reacts on the catalyst bed with hydrocarbons and partially oxidized HCs and is reduced to N2. The cascade may be essential because the best catalysts for this purpose that we have also convert significant fractions of the NO2 back to NO. As we show, reprocessing the gas may not only be necessary, but may also result in energy savings and increased device reliability.
Technical Paper

Multi-Step Discharge/Catalyst Processing of NOx in Synthetic Diesel Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3510
In the discharge-catalyst treatment of diesel exhaust the discharge chemistry is known to oxidize NO to NO2 as well as to produce partially oxidized hydrocarbons for the heterogeneous reduction step. We find NO2 to be much more easily reduced to N2 on our catalysts, as long as there is a sufficient supply of reductant present. Unfortunately we typically find that a fraction of the NO2 is only partially reduced back to NO. Since much of the original hydrocarbon survives both the plasma and our catalyst, a subsequent stage of plasma will oxidize NO back to NO2 while at the same time replenishing the supply of partially oxidized hydrocarbon for another stage of heterogeneous catalysis. We present experimental evidence illustrating the advantages of multi-step discharge-catalyst treatment of NOx in simulated diesel exhaust.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Facilitated SCR of NOx in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3570
This paper describes two independent studies on γ-alumina as a plasma-activated catalyst. γ-alumina (2.5 - 4.3 wt%) was coated onto the surface of mesoporous silica to determine the importance of aluminum surface coordination on NOx conversion in conjunction with nonthermal plasma. Results indicate that the presence of 5- and 6- fold aluminum coordination sites in γ-alumina could be a significant factor in the NOx reduction process. A second study examined the effect of changing the reducing agent on NOx conversion. Several hydrocarbons were examined including propene, propane, isooctane, methanol, and acetaldehyde. It is demonstrated that methanol was the most effective reducing agent of those tested for a plasma-facilitated reaction over γ-alumina.
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