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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on GDI Spray under High Injection Pressure up to 100 MPa

2020-09-15
2020-01-2108
In recent years, the increase of gasoline fuel injection pressure is a way to improve thermal efficiency and lower engine-out emissions in GDI homogenous combustion concept. The challenge of controlling particulate formation as well in mass and number concentrations imposed by emissions regulations can be pursued improving the mixture preparation process and avoiding mixture inhomogeneity with ultra-high injection pressure values up to 100 MPa. The increase of the fuel injection pressure in GDI homogeneous systems meets the demand for increased injector static flow, while simultaneously improves the spray atomization and mixing characteristics with consequent better combustion performance. Few studies quantify the effects of high injection pressure on transient gasoline spray evolution. The aim of this work was to simulate with OpenFOAM the spray morphology of a commercial gasoline injected in a constant volume vessel by a prototypal GDI injector.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Driving Cycles by Means of a Co-Simulation Framework for the Evaluation of IC Engine Tailpipe Emissions

2020-06-30
2020-37-0011
The reliable prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engine powertrains during the WLTP driving cycle is a key aspect to test and optimize different configurations, in order to respect the stringent emission limits. This work describes the application of an integrated modeling tool in a co-simulation environment, coupling a 1D fluid dynamic code for engine simulation with a specific numerical code for aftertreatment modelling by means of a robust numerical approach, to achieve a complete methodology for detailed simulations of driving cycles. The main goal is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows along the intake and exhaust systems and to apply advanced thermodynamic combustion models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Gas-Fuel Interaction and Mixture Formation in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine Coupled With the ECN Spray G Injector

2020-04-14
2020-01-0327
The thorough understanding of the effects due to the fuel direct injection process in modern gasoline direct injection engines has become a mandatory task to meet the most demanding regulations in terms of pollutant emissions. Within this context, computational fluid dynamics proves to be a powerful tool to investigate how the in-cylinder spray evolution influences the mixture distribution, the soot formation and the wall impingement. In this work, the authors proposed a comprehensive methodology to simulate the air-fuel mixture formation into a gasoline direct injection engine under multiple operating conditions. At first, a suitable set of spray sub-models, implemented into an open-source code, was tested on the Engine Combustion Network Spray G injector operating into a static vessel chamber. Such configuration was chosen as it represents a typical gasoline multi-hole injector, extensively used in modern gasoline direct injection engines.
Technical Paper

Computational Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion with Multiple Injections

2020-04-14
2020-01-1155
Multiple injection strategies are commonly used in conventional Diesel engines due to the flexibility for optimizing heat-release timing with a consequent improvement in fuel economy and engine-out emissions. This is also desirable in low-temperature combustion (LTC) engines since it offers the potential to reduce unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. To better utilize these benefits and find optimal calibrations of split injection strategies, it is imperative that the fundamental processes of multiple injection combustion are understood and computational fluid dynamics models accurately describe the flow dynamics and combustion characteristics between different injection events. To this end, this work is dedicated to the identification of suitable methodologies to predict the multiple injection combustion process.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of a SCR System Based on the Injection of Pure Gaseous Ammonia for the NOx Reduction in Light-Duty Diesel Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-0356
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems are nowadays widely applied for the reduction of NOx emitted from Diesel engines. The typical process is based on the injection of aqueous urea in the exhaust gases before the SCR catalyst, which determines the production of the ammonia needed for the catalytic reduction of NOx. However, this technology is affected by two main limitations: a) the evaporation of the urea water solution (UWS) requires a sufficiently high temperature of the exhaust gases and b) the formation of solid deposits during the UWS evaporation is a frequent phenomenon which compromise the correct operation of the system. In this context, to overcome these issues, a technology based on the injection of gaseous ammonia has been recently proposed: in this case, ammonia is stored at the solid state in a cartridge containing a Strontium Chloride salt and it is desorbed by means of electrical heating.
Technical Paper

Electric Motor for Brakes – Optimal Design

2020-04-14
2020-01-0919
A multi-objective optimal design of a brushless DC electric motor for a brake system application is presented. Fifteen design variables are considered for the definition of the stator and rotor geometry, pole pieces and permanent magnets included. Target performance indices (peak torque, efficiency, rotor mass and inertia) are defined together with design constraints that refer to components stress levels and temperature thresholds, not to be surpassed after heavy duty cycles. The mathematical models used for optimization refer to electromagnetic field and related currents computation, to thermo-fluid dynamic simulation, to local stress and vibration assessment. An Artificial Neural Network model, trained with an iterative procedure, is employed for global approximation purposes. This allows to reduce the number of simulation runs needed to find the optimal configurations. Some of the Pareto-optimal solutions resulting from the optimal design process are analysed.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Theoretical Model for the Correction of Heat Transfer Effects in Turbocharger Testing through a Quasi-3D Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-1010
In the last few years, the effect of diabatic test conditions on compressor performance maps has been widely investigated, leading some Authors to propose different correction models. The accuracy of turbocharger performance map constitute the basis for the tuning and validation of a numerical method, usually adopted for the prediction of engine-turbocharger matching. Actually, it is common practice in automotive applications to use simulation codes, which can either require measured compression ratio and efficiency maps as input values or calculate them “on the fly” throughout specific sub-models integrated in the numerical procedures. Therefore, the ability to correct the measured performance maps taking into account internal heat transfer would allow the implementation of commercial simulation codes used for engine-turbocharger matching calculations.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Compact Heat Exchangers for I.C. Engine Oil Cooling

2019-09-09
2019-24-0179
This work describes the development of a computational model for the CFD simulation of compact heat exchangers applied for the oil cooling in internal combustion engines. Among the different cooler types, the present modeling effort will be focused on liquid-cooled solutions based on offset strip fins turbulators. The design of this type of coolers represents an issue of extreme concern, which requires a compromise between different objectives: high compactness, low pressure drop, high heat-transfer efficiency. In this work, a computational framework for the CFD simulation of compact oil-to-liquid heat exchangers, including offset-strip fins as heat transfer enhancer, has been developed. The main problem is represented by the need of considering different scales in the simulation, ranging from the characteristic size of the turbulator geometry (tipically μm - mm) to the full scale of the overall device (typically cm - dm).
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Quasi-3D Model for the Simulation of Radial Compressors of Turbochargers for Internal Combustion Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0187
In this work the 3Dcell method, a quasi3D approach developed by the Internal Combustion Engine Group at Politecnico di Milano, has been extended and applied to the fluid dynamic simulation of turbocharging devices for internal combustion engines, focusing on the compressor side. The 3Dcell is based on a pseudo-staggered leapfrog method applied to the governing equation of a 1D problem arbitrarily oriented in space. The system of equations is solved referring to the relative system in the rotating zone, whereas the absolute reference system has been used elsewhere. The vaneless diffuser has been modelled resorting to the conservation of the angular momentum of the flow stream in the tangential direction, combined with the solution of the momentum equation in the radial direction.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Combustion Models with Turbulence Chemistry Interaction and Detailed Kinetics

2019-09-09
2019-24-0088
Detailed and fast combustion models are necessary to support design of Diesel engines with low emission and fuel consumption. Over the years, the importance of turbulence chemistry interaction to correctly describe the diffusion flame structure was demonstrated by a detailed assessment with optical data from constant-volume vessel experiments. The main objective of this work is to carry out an extensive validation of two different combustion models which are suitable for the simulation of Diesel engine combustion. The first one is the Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) employing direct chemistry integration. A single flamelet formulation is generally used to reduce the computational time but this aspect limits the capability to reproduce the flame stabilization process. To overcome such limitation, a second model called tabulated flamelet progress variable (TFPV) is tested in this work.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling and Validation of the ECN Spray G Experiment under a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0130
The increasing diffusion of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines requires a more detailed and reliable description of the phenomena occurring during the fuel injection process. As well known the thermal and fluid-dynamic conditions present in the combustion chamber greatly influence the air-fuel mixture process deriving from GDI injectors. GDI fuel sprays typically evolve in wide range of ambient pressure and temperatures depending on the engine load. In some particular injection conditions, when in-cylinder pressure is relatively low, flash evaporation might occur significantly affecting the fuel-air mixing process. In some other particular injection conditions spray impingement on the piston wall might occur, causing high unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions, so currently representing one of the main drawbacks of GDI engines.
Technical Paper

A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0147
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of SI Combustion Models for Natural-Gas Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0096
Flexible, reliable and consistent combustion models are necessary for the improvement of the next generation spark-ignition engines. Different approaches have been proposed and widely applied in the past. However, the complexity of the process involving ignition, laminar flame propagation and transition to turbulent combustion need further investigations. Purpose of this paper is to compare two different approaches describing turbulent flame propagation. The first is the one-equation flame wrinkling model by Weller, while the second is the Coherent Flamelet Model (CFM). Ignition is described by a simplified deposition model while the correlation from Herweg and Maly is used for the transition from the laminar to turbulent flame propagation. Validation of the proposed models was performed with experimental data of a natural-gas, heavy duty engine running at different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0098
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating in a fumigated dual-fuel mode, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. This engine technology allows reducing engine-out emissions while maintaining the engine efficiency and can be fairly easily retrofitted from current diesel engines. The main premixed fuel that is added can be a low-carbon one and can additionally be of a renewable nature, thereby reducing or even completely removing the global warming impact. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large marine engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Gas Exchange, Fuel-Air Mixing and Combustion in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0095
Gasoline, direct injection engines represent one of the most widely adopted powertrain for passenger cars. However, further development efforts are necessary to meet the future fuel consumption and emission standards imposing an efficiency increase and a reduction of particulate matter emissions. Within this context, computational fluid dynamics is nowadays a consolidated tool to support engine design; this work is focused on the development of a set of CFD models for the prediction of combustion in modern GDI engines. The one-equation Weller model coupled with a zero-dimensional approach to handle initial flame kernel growth was applied to predict flame propagation. To account for mixture fraction fluctuations which might lead to the presence of soot precursor species, burned gas chemical composition is computed using tabulated kinetics with a presumed probability density function.
Technical Paper

Computational Chemistry Consortium: Surrogate Fuel Mechanism Development, Pollutants Sub-Mechanisms and Components Library

2019-09-09
2019-24-0020
The Computational Chemistry Consortium (C3) is dedicated to leading the advancement of combustion and emissions modeling. The C3 cluster combines the expertise of different groups involved in combustion research aiming to refine existing chemistry models and to develop more efficient tools for the generation of surrogate and multi-fuel mechanisms, and suitable mechanisms for CFD applications. In addition to the development of more accurate kinetic models for different components of interest in real fuel surrogates and for pollutants formation (NOx, PAH, soot), the core activity of C3 is to develop a tool capable of merging high-fidelity kinetics from different partners, resulting in a high-fidelity model for a specific application. A core mechanism forms the basis of a gasoline surrogate model containing larger components including n-heptane, iso-octane, n-dodecane, toluene and other larger hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Technical Paper

Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Spray Simulation: A Computational Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0270
Turbulence modeling for fuel spray simulation plays a prominent role in the understanding of the flow behavior in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Currently, a lot of research work is actively spent on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling as a replacement option of standard Reynolds averaged approaches in the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray modeling framework, due to its capability to accurately describe flow-induced spray variability and to the lower dependence of the results on the specific turbulence model and/or modeling coefficients. The introduction of LES poses, however, additional questions related to the implementation/adaptation of spray-related turbulence sources and to the rise of conflicting numerics and grid requirements between the Lagrangian and Eulerian parts of the simulated flow.
Technical Paper

Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0: Challenges and Opportunities for Designing New Vehicle Components for Automated and/or Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0504
The paper deals with the “wise sensorization” of vehicle components. In the upcoming full digitalization of mobility, vehicle components are getting more and more sensorized. The problem is why, what, when and where vehicle components can be sensorized. The paper attempts a preliminary problem statement for the sensorization of vehicle components. A theoretical basic investigation is introduced, setting the main concepts on which extended sensorization is advisable or not. The paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0 are addressed, namely sensors are proposed to be used both for monitoring the manufacturing process and for monitoring the service life of the component. In general, sensors are proposed to be used for multiple purposes. Two examples of sensorized components are briefly presented. One refers to a sensorized electric motor, the other one refers to a sensorized wheel.
Technical Paper

Direct Evaluation of Turbine Isentropic Efficiency in Turbochargers: CFD Assisted Design of an Innovative Measuring Technique

2019-04-02
2019-01-0324
Turbocharging is playing today a fundamental role not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for both Spark Ignition and Diesel engines. Dedicated experimental investigations on turbochargers are therefore necessary to assess a better understanding of its performance. The availability of experimental information on turbocharger steady flow performance is an essential requirement to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, which is usually achieved by means of simulation models. This aspect is even more important when referred to the turbine efficiency, since its swallowing capacity can be accurately evaluated through the measurement of mass flow rate, inlet temperature and pressure ratio across the machine.
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