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Technical Paper

Intake O2 Concentration Estimation in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through NOE

2020-09-27
2020-24-0002
Diesel engines with their embedded control systems are becoming increasingly complex as the emission regulations tighten, especially concerning NOx pollutants. The combustion and emission formation processes are closely correlated to the intake manifold O2 concentration. Consequently, the performance of the engine controllers can be improved if a model-based or sensor-based estimation of the O2 concentration is available. The paper addresses the modeling of the O2 concentration in a turbocharged diesel engine. Dynamic models, compared to generally employed steady state maps, capture the dynamic effects occurring over transients, when the major deviations from the stationary maps are found. Dynamic models positively affect the control system making it more effective and, exploiting information coming from sensors, they provide a more robust prediction performance. Firstly, a Nonlinear Output Error model (NOE), with simulation focus, fed with four inputs is presented.
Technical Paper

A Reverse-Engineering Method for Powertrain Parameters Characterization Applied to a P2 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Automatic Transmission

2020-06-30
2020-37-0021
Over the next decade, CO2 legislation will be more demanding and the automotive industry has seen in vehicle electrification a possible solution. This has led to an increasing need for advanced powertrain systems and systematic model-based control approaches, along with additional complexity. This represents a serious challenge for all the OEMs. This paper describes a novel reverse engineering methodology developed to estimate relevant powertrain data required for fuel consumption-oriented hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) modelling. The estimated quantities include high-voltage battery internal resistance, electric motor and transmission efficiency, gearshift thresholds, torque converter performance diagrams, engine fuel consumption map and front/rear hydraulic brake torque distribution. This activity provides a list of dedicated experimental tests, to be carried out on road or on a chassis dynamometer, aiming at powertrain characterization thanks to a suitable post-processing algorithm.
Technical Paper

Influence of Micro Geometry Modification on Gear Dynamics

2020-04-14
2020-01-1323
Gearbox behavior is strictly affected by gears, shaft, bearings and casing stiffnesses. As a matter of fact, their contribution to gear dynamics is fundamental for mechanical transmissions design. In this paper a semi-analytical model developed for the estimation of the dynamic behavior of two mating gears is presented and tested on two case studies. Starting with the estimation of the Static Transmission Error, intended as the difference between the theoretical and actual angular position between the two mating gears, the dynamic behavior of the mating elements is estimated by means of a Dynamic Model. The Dynamic Model takes into account the gears, the contact between teeth exchanging loads and the other mechanical elements reduced by means of a DOF reduction technique. Based on the block-oriented approach, Dynamic Model allows the user to easily manage the complexity of the system with further or less elements by adding or removing DOFs.
Technical Paper

Test Bench for Static Transmission Error Evaluation in Gears

2020-04-14
2020-01-1324
In this paper a test bench for measuring the Static Transmission Error of two mating gears is presented and a comparison with the results obtained with the commercial software GeDy TrAss is shown. Static Transmission Error is considered as the main source of overloads and Noise, Vibration and Harshness issues in mechanical transmissions. It is defined as the difference between the theoretical angular position of two gears under load in quasi-static conditions and the real one. This parameter strictly depends on the applied torque and the tooth macro and micro-geometry. The test bench illustrated in this work is designed to evaluate the actual Static Transmission Error of two gears under load in quasi-static conditions. In particular, this testbed can be divided in two macro elements: the first one is the mechanism composed by weights and pulleys that generates a driving and a braking torque up to 500 Nm.
Technical Paper

An Iterative Histogram-Based Optimization of Calibration Tables in a Powertrain Controller

2020-04-14
2020-01-0266
To comply with the stringent fuel consumption requirements, many automobile manufacturers have launched vehicle electrification programs which are representing a paradigm shift in vehicle design. Looking specifically at powertrain calibration, optimization approaches were developed to help the decision-making process in the powertrain control. Due to computational power limitations the most common approach is still the use of powertrain calibration tables in a rule-based controller. This is true despite the fact that the most common manual tuning can be quite long and exhausting, and with the optimal consumption behavior rarely being achieved. The present work proposes a simulation tool that has the objective to automate the process of tuning a calibration table in a powertrain model. To achieve that, it is first necessary to define the optimal reference performance.
Technical Paper

Steering Behavior of an Articulated Amphibious All-Terrain Tracked Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0996
This paper presents a study related to an Articulated Amphibious All-Terrain Tracked Vehicle (ATV) characterized by a modular architecture. The ATV is composed by two modules: the first one hosts mainly the vehicle engine and powertrain components, meanwhile the second one can be used for goods transportation, personnel carrier, crane and so on. The engine torque is transmitted to the front axle sprocket wheel of each module and finally distributed on the ground through a track mechanism. The two modules are connected through a multiaxial joint designed to guarantee four relative degrees of freedom. To steer the ATV, an Electro Hydraulic Power System (EHPS) is adopted, thus letting the vehicle steerable on any kind of terrain without a differential tracks speed. The paper aims to analyze the steady-state lateral behavior of the ATV on a flat road, through a non-linear mathematical vehicle model built in Matlab/Simulink environment.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Sizing of a Power Split Electrified Powertrain

2020-04-14
2020-01-0843
Component sizing generally represents a demanding and time-consuming task in the development process of electrified powertrains. A couple of processes are available in literature for sizing the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) components. These processes employ either time-consuming global optimization techniques like dynamic programming (DP) or near-optimal techniques that require iterative and uncertain tuning of evaluation parameters like the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP). Recently, a novel near-optimal technique has been devised for rapidly predicting the optimal fuel economy benchmark of design options for electrified powertrains. This method, named slope-weighted energy-based rapid control analysis (SERCA), has been demonstrated producing results comparable to DP, while limiting the associated computational time by near two orders of magnitude.
Technical Paper

Functionality Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Material to Design Engine Components

2020-04-14
2020-01-0774
Developing of innovative technologies and materials to meet the requirements of environmental legislation on vehicle emissions has paramount importance for researchers and industries. Therefore, improvement of engine efficiency and fuel saving of modern internal combustion engines (ICEs) is one of the key factors, together with the weight reduction. Thermoplastic composite materials might be one of the alternative materials to be employed to produce engine components to achieve these goals as their properties can be engineered to meet application requirements. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced PolyEtherImide (CF/PEI) thermoplastic composite is used to design engine connecting rod and wrist pin, applying commercial engine data and geometries. The current study is focused on some elements of the crank mechanism as the weight reduction of these elements affects not only the curb weight of the engine but the overall structure.
Technical Paper

Dual-Mass Flywheel with Torque Limiter: An Effective Solution for Overtorque Suppression in Automotive Transmission

2020-04-14
2020-01-1016
During some critical maneuvers, transmission systems using Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) may experience overtorques, which could lead to structural damages of the transmission components. In a dual mass flywheel, total inertia is divided into two parts: a primary mass connected to the engine and a secondary mass to the transmission. The torque delivered by the engine is transferred from one mass to the other through a drive plate and a set of arc springs, the latter absorbing the torsional oscillations coming from internal combustion engine and the shocks caused by fast clutch engagements. This paper investigates overtorque issues and proposes a solution based on a torque limiter, consisting of a friction clutch inserted between the two masses, that limits the maximum torque transmitted through it. The basic idea is to replace the classic flat drive plate with a tapered drive plate that functions as a Belleville spring.
Technical Paper

Next Generation HEV Powertrain Design Tools: Roadmap and Challenges

2019-10-22
2019-01-2602
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent a fundamental step in the global evolution towards transportation electrification. Nevertheless, they exhibit a remarkably complex design environment with respect to both traditional internal combustion engine vehicles and battery electric vehicles. Innovative and advanced design tools are therefore crucially required to effectively handle the increased complexity of HEV development processes. This paper aims at providing a comprehensive overview of past and current advancements in HEV powertrain design methodologies. Subsequently, major simplifications and limits of current HEV design methodologies are detailed. The final part of this paper defines research challenges that need accomplishment to develop the next generation HEV architecture design tools.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

2019-10-07
2019-24-0240
Until 2017 in Europe the Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles for the determination of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyze the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Water Injection Contribution to Enabling Stoichiometric Air-to-Fuel Ratio Operation at Rated Power Conditions of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0173
The next generation of gasoline turbo-charged engines will have to deal with the continuous tightening of emissions regulations. In fact, to better represent real-world emission figures, WLTP and RDE cycles focus on stricter criteria; spanning higher speeds and loads potentially covering the whole engine operating map. It is common practice at present to use overfueling to avoid catastrophic failure of turbine and aftertreatment systems at very high engine speeds and loads due to excessive temperatures. A past technology, which is presently enjoying a resurgence of interest, is water injection. In particular, for high-specific-power applications, this could be used as replacement strategy for overfueling, potentially enabling full operating range stoichiometric operation with no compromise in terms of maximum performance with respect to today.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Post Injection Coupled with Extremely High Injection Pressure on Combustion Process and Emission Formation in an Off-Road Diesel Engine: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0092
In this paper, a numerical and experimental assessment of post injection potential for soot emissions mitigation in an off-road diesel engine is presented, with the aim of supporting hardware selection and engine calibration processes. As a case study, a prototype off-road 3.4 liters 4-cylinder diesel engine developed by Kohler Engines was selected. In order to explore the possibility to comply with Stage V emission standards without a dedicated aftertreatment for NOx, the engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), allowing high EGR rates (above 30%) even at high load. To enable the exploitation of such high EGR rates with acceptable soot penalties, a two-stage turbocharger and an extremely high-pressure fuel injection system (up to 3000 bar) were adopted. Moreover, post injections events were also exploited to further mitigate soot emissions with acceptable Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) penalties.
Journal Article

Driving Cycle and Elasticity Manoeuvres Simulation of a Small SUV Featuring an Electrically Boosted 1.0 L Gasoline Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0070
In order to meet the CO2 emission reduction targets, downsizing coupled with turbocharging has been proven as an effective way in reducing CO2 emissions while maintaining and improving vehicle driveability. As the downsizing becomes widely exploited, the increased boost levels entail the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. In a context of increasing electrification, the usage of electrified boosting systems can be effective in the improvement of vehicle performances. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of different voltage (12 V or 48 V) electric superchargers (eSC) on an extremely downsized 1.0L engine on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transient manoeuvres.
Technical Paper

Dual Clutch Transmission Vibrations during Gear Shift: A Simulation-Based Approach for Clunking Noise Assessment

2019-06-05
2019-01-1553
A novel methodology, for the assessment of Dual Clutch Transmission vibrations during gear shifts, is proposed in this paper. It is based on the capability to predict through numerical simulation a typical dynamic quantity used to objectively evaluate the vibrational behavior of a gearbox during experimental tests, i.e. the acceleration of a point on the external surface of the gearbox housing. To achieve this result, a two-step approach is proposed: an accurate simulation of the internal transmission dynamics and an offline uncoupled computation of the gearbox housing acceleration from the output of the simulation. The first step required the definition of a suitable nonlinear lumped parameter model of the car equipped with a DCT that was implemented in Amesim software.
Technical Paper

Rapid Optimal Design of a Light Vehicle Hydraulic Brake System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0831
Designing automobile brake systems is generally complex and time consuming. Indeed, the brake system integrates several components and has to satisfy numerous conflicting government regulations. Due to these constraints, designing an optimal configuration is not easy. This paper consequently proposes a simple, intuitive and automated methodology that enables rapid optimal design of light vehicle hydraulic brake systems. Firstly, the system is modeled through cascaded analytical equations for each component. A large design space is then generated by varying the operational parameters of each component in its specific reasonable range. The system components under consideration include the brake pedal, the master cylinder, the vacuum-assisted booster, the brake line and the brake pistons. Successful system configurations are identified by implementing the requirements of the two most relevant safety homologation standards for light vehicle brake systems (US and EU legislations).
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of the Consumption of a Three-Wheeled Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0164
In recent years, there is an increasing global interesting in alternative sources of energy. For this reason, Shell Company creates Shell Eco Marathon, a competition for fuel-efficient vehicles designed by student around the world. IDRAkronos is a fuel cell hydrogen prototype developed at the Politecnico of Turin. The vehicle races in prototype category with the task to complete ten laps of an urban circuit driving a total distance of 15 km in a maximum time of 39 min, then with an average speed of approximately 25 km/h, obtaining the less consumption. The vehicle is a three wheels vehicle based on a carbon fibre monocoque pushed by a hydrogen fuel cell with a high efficiency DC electric motor. The paper describes modelling and optimization of the powertrain design applicable to the development of fuel cell electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Assessment through Numerical Simulation of the Impact of a 48 V Electric Supercharger on Performance and CO2 Emissions of a Gasoline Passenger Car

2019-04-02
2019-01-1284
The demanding CO2 emission targets are fostering the development of downsized, turbocharged and electrified engines. In this context, the need for high boost level at low engine speed requires the exploration of dual stage boosting systems. At the same time, the increased electrification level of the vehicles enables the usage of electrified boosting systems aiming to exploit the opportunities of high levels of electric power and energy available on-board. The aim of this work is therefore to evaluate, through numerical simulation, the impact of a 48 V electric supercharger (eSC) on vehicle performance and fuel consumption over different transients. The virtual test rig employed for the analysis integrates a 1D CFD fast running engine model representative of a 1.5 L state-of-the-art gasoline engine featuring an eSC in series with the main turbocharger, a dual voltage electric network (12 V + 48 V), a six-speed manual transmission and a vehicle representative of a B-SUV segment car.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of the CO2 Reduction Potential of Variable Valve Actuation on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2018-05-30
2018-37-0006
The increasingly demanding targets in terms of CO2 reduction lead to the adoption of engine technologies left so far for innovation. In diesel engines, some of the primary interests in adopting an advanced air management system, as Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), are related to Miller cycle enabling, and valve timing optimization. In this context, a numerical study was carried out in order to evaluate the impact of VVA on passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters. The engine model, developed in GT-SUITE, features a predictive combustion model (DIPulse) and it is coupled with a fully predictive fuel injector model for the simulation of complex injection patterns. 3 different VVA techniques were evaluated, all targeting CO2 reduction: Late Exhaust Valve Opening (LEVO), Exhaust Phasing, and Late Inlet Valve Closure (LIVC) for enabling Miller cycle.
Technical Paper

Virtual Simulation for Clutch Thermal Behavior Prediction

2018-05-30
2018-37-0021
The clutch is that mechanical part located in an internal combustion engine vehicle which allows the torque transmission from the shaft to the wheels, permitting at the same time gear shifting and supporting engine revolutions while the car is idling. This component exploits friction as working principle, therefore heat generation is in its own nature. The comprehension of all the critical issues related to thermal emission, and also of the principal physical parameters driving the phenomena are a must in design phases. The subject of this paper is the elaboration of an accurate, but also easy to use and easily replicable, methodology to simulate thermal behavior of a clutch operating inside its usual environment. The present methodology allows to prevent corrective actions in the last phase of the projects (real testing), such as changes in gear ratios, that likely worsen CO2 emissions, permitting to achieve the wished thermal performance of the clutch avoiding late changes.
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