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Technical Paper

Active Collision Avoidance System for E-Scooters in Pedestrian Environment

2024-04-09
2024-01-2555
In the dense fabric of urban areas, electric scooters have rapidly become a preferred mode of transportation. As they cater to modern mobility demands, they present significant safety challenges, especially when interacting with pedestrians. In general, e-scooters are suggested to be ridden in bike lanes/sidewalks or share the road with cars at the maximum speed of about 15-20 mph, which is more flexible and much faster than pedestrians and bicyclists. Accurate prediction of pedestrian movement, coupled with assistant motion control of scooters, is essential in minimizing collision risks and seamlessly integrating scooters in areas dense with pedestrians. Addressing these safety concerns, our research introduces a method for predicting pedestrian trajectories, employing an advanced LSTM network integrated with a state refinement module.
Technical Paper

Efficient Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers using CAD Automation and Multiphysics Analysis in a Multi-objective Bayesian Optimization Framework

2024-04-09
2024-01-2456
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers, commonly referred to as radiators, are the most prevalent type of heat exchanger within the automotive industry. A pivotal goal for automotive designers is to increase their thermal effectiveness while mitigating pressure drop effects and minimizing the associated costs of design and operation. Their design is a lengthy and intricate process involving the manual creation and refinement of computer-aided design (CAD) models coupled with iterative multi-physics simulations. Consequently, there is a pressing demand for an integrated tool that can automate these discrete steps, yielding a significant enhancement in overall design efficiency. This work aims to introduce an innovative automation tool to streamline the design process, spanning from CAD model generation to identifying optimal design configurations. The proposed methodology is applied explicitly to the context of shell-and-tube heat exchangers, showcasing the tool's efficacy.
Technical Paper

A Transfer-Matrix-Based Approach to Predicting Acoustic Properties of a Layered System in a General, Efficient, and Stable Way

2023-05-08
2023-01-1052
Layered materials are one of the most commonly used acoustical treatments in the automotive industry, and have gained increased attention, especially owing to the popularity of electric vehicles. Here, a method to model and couple layered systems with various layer types (i.e., poro-elastic layers, solid-elastic layers, stiff panels, and fluid layers) is derived that makes it possible to stably predict their acoustical properties. In contrast with most existing methods, in which an equation system is constructed for the whole structure, the present method involves only the topmost layer and its boundary conditions at two interfaces at a time, which are further simplified into an equivalent interface. As a result, for a multi-layered system, the proposed method splits a complicated system into several smaller systems and so becomes computationally less expensive.
Technical Paper

Improvements to a Method to Simulate Non-Stationary Wind Noise in Vehicles

2023-05-08
2023-01-1122
As the vehicle and wind speeds and directions change, the unsteady flow creates non-stationary wind noise. To investigate people’s perceptions of non-stationary wind noise, a method to simulate the non-stationary wind noise is needed. Previously, a method was developed that used stationary recordings taken at several speeds and directions to create a set of sound pressure level predictions in each one-third octave band that are a function of wind speed and direction. These functions are used to create time-varying filters based on provided wind profiles. A reference wind noise measurement is then filtered to produce the sounds. A drawback of this method is that many stationary wind condition measurements are needed to form accurate sound pressure level functions, which can be time consuming. A method requiring fewer measurements was investigated.
Technical Paper

Efficient Design of Automotive Structural Components via De-Homogenization

2023-04-11
2023-01-0026
In the past decades, automotive structure design has sought to minimize its mass while maintaining or improving structural performance. As such, topology optimization (TO) has become an increasingly popular tool during the conceptual design stage. While the designs produced by TO methods provide significant performance-to-mass ratio improvements, they require considerable computational resources when solving large-scale problems. An alternative for large-scale problems is to decompose the design domain into multiple scales that are coupled with homogenization. The problem can then be solved with hierarchical multiscale topology optimization (MSTO). The resulting optimal, homogenized macroscales are de-homogenized to obtain a high-fidelity, physically-realizable design. Even so MSTO methods are still computationally expensive due to the combined costs of solving nested optimization problems and performing de-homogenization.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Bayesian Optimization Supported by Deep Gaussian Processes

2023-04-11
2023-01-0031
A common scenario in engineering design is the evaluation of expensive black-box functions: simulation codes or physical experiments that require long evaluation times and/or significant resources, which results in lengthy and costly design cycles. In the last years, Bayesian optimization has emerged as an efficient alternative to solve expensive black-box function design problems. Bayesian optimization has two main components: a probabilistic surrogate model of the black-box function and an acquisition functions that drives the design process. Successful Bayesian optimization strategies are characterized by accurate surrogate models and well-balanced acquisition functions. The Gaussian process (GP) regression model is arguably the most popular surrogate model in Bayesian optimization due to its flexibility and mathematical tractability. GP regression models are defined by two elements: the mean and covariance functions.
Journal Article

Nonlinear Multi-Fidelity Bayesian Optimization: An Application in the Design of Blast Mitigating Structures

2022-03-29
2022-01-0790
A common scenario in engineering design is the availability of several black-box functions that describe an event with different levels of accuracy and evaluation cost. Solely employing the highest fidelity, often the most expensive, black-box function leads to lengthy and costly design cycles. Multi-fidelity modeling improves the efficiency of the design cycle by combining information from a small set of observations of the high-fidelity function and large sets of observations of the low-fidelity, fast-to-evaluate functions. In the context of Bayesian optimization, the most popular multi-fidelity model is the auto-regressive (AR) model, also known as the co-kriging surrogate. The main building block of the AR model is a weighted sum of two Gaussian processes (GPs). Therefore, the AR model is well suited to exploit information generated by sources that present strong linear correlations.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Bayesian Optimization of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

2022-03-29
2022-01-0703
In the last years, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become the most important energy storage system for consumer electronics, electric vehicles, and smart grids. A LIB is composed of several unit cells. Therefore, one of the most important factors that determine the performance of a LIB are the characteristics of the unit cell. The design of LIB cells is a challenging problem since it involves the evaluation of expensive black-box functions. These functions lack a closed-form expression and require long-running time simulations or expensive physical experiments for their evaluation. Recently, Bayesian optimization has emerged as a powerful gradient-free optimization methodology to solve optimization problems that involve the evaluation of expensive black-box functions. Bayesian optimization has two main components: a probabilistic surrogate model of the black-box function and an acquisition function that guides the optimization.
Technical Paper

Combined CFD and CAA Simulations with Impedance Boundary Conditions

2021-08-31
2021-01-1048
In computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulations, the wall surface is normally treated as a purely reflective wall. However, some surface treatments are usually applied in experiments. Thus, the acoustic simulations cannot be validated by experimental results. One of the major challenges is how to define acoustically boundary conditions in a well-posed way. In aeroacoustics analysis, impedance is a quantity to characterize reflectivity and absorption of an acoustically treated surface, which may be introduced into the numerical models as a frequency-domain boundary condition. However, CFD and CAA simulations are time-domain computations, meaning the frequency-domain impedance boundary condition cannot be adopted directly. Several methods, including the three-parameter model, the z-transform method and the reflection coefficient model, were developed.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Acoustic Model for Composite Materials Composed of Fibers and High Surface Area Particles

2021-08-31
2021-01-1127
High surface area particles have drawn attention in the context of noise control due to their good sound absorption performance at low frequencies, which is an advantage compared with more traditional materials. That observation suggests that there is a good potential to use these particles in various scenarios, especially where low frequency noise is the main concern. To facilitate their application, composite materials are formed by dispersing particles within a fiber matrix, thus giving more flexibility in positioning those particles. In this work, a hybrid model that combines a model for limp porous materials and a model of high surface area particles is proposed to describe the acoustic performance of such composites. Two-microphone standing wave tube test results for several types of composites with different thickness, basis weight, and particle concentration are provided.
Journal Article

Detection of Pinion Grinding Defects in a Nested Planetary Gear System using a Narrowband Demodulation Approach

2021-08-31
2021-01-1100
Nested planetary gear trains, which consist of two integrated co-axial single-stage planetary gearsets, have recently been widely implemented in automobile transmissions and various other applications. In the current study, a non-destructive vibrational and acoustical monitoring technique is developed to detect a common type of gear grinding defect for a complex nested gear train structure. A nested gear train which has an unground pinion with unpolished teeth profile is used to exemplify the developed methodology. An experimental test stand with an open and vertical mounting configuration has been designed to acquire both vibrational and acoustical data. The measured data are investigated using several signal processing techniques to identify unground pinions in the gear system. A general frequency spectrum analysis is performed initially, which is then followed by a peak finding algorithm to identify the peaks in the spectrum.
Journal Article

FE Simulation of Split in Fundamental Air-Cavity Mode of Loaded Tires: Comparison with Empirical Results

2021-08-31
2021-01-1064
Tire/road noise has become a significant issue in the automotive industry, especially for electric vehicles. Among the various tire/road noise sources, the air-cavity mode can amplify the forces transmitted from the tire to the suspension system causing noticeable cabin noise near 200 Hz. Furthermore, when the tire is deformed by loading, the fundamental air-cavity mode separates into two acoustic modes, a fore-aft mode and vertical mode due to the break in geometrical symmetry. This is important because the two components of the split mode can increase force levels at the hub by interacting with neighboring structural modes, thus resulting in increased interior noise levels. In this research, finite element simulations of five commercial tires at rated load were performed with a view to identifying the frequency split and its interaction with structural resonances. These results have been compared with previously obtained empirical results.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Eco-Driving and Eco-Heating Strategies for Connected and Automated HEVs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0435
This paper presents experimental results that validate eco-driving and eco-heating strategies developed for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). By exploiting vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, traffic signal timing, and queue length estimations, optimized and smoothed speed profiles for the ego-vehicle are generated to reduce energy consumption. Next, the planned eco-trajectories are incorporated into a real-time predictive optimization framework that coordinates the cabin thermal load (in cold weather) with the speed preview, i.e., eco-heating. To enable eco-heating, the engine coolant (as the only heat source for cabin heating) and the cabin air are leveraged as two thermal energy storages. Our eco-heating strategy stores thermal energy in the engine coolant and cabin air while the vehicle is driving at high speeds, and releases the stored energy slowly during the vehicle stops for cabin heating without forcing the engine to idle to provide the heating source.
Technical Paper

Friction Force Reduction for Electrical Terminals using Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating

2021-04-06
2021-01-0348
Electrical connectors and terminals are widely used in the automotive industry. It is desirable to mate the electrical connections using materials or coatings with low friction force to improve the ergonomics of the assembly process while maintaining good electrical conduction over the lifetime of the vehicle. We have previously shown that plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of graphene on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) terminals can significantly reduce the insertion force (friction force during the terminal insertion process). However, the cost of this deposition method is rather high, and its high temperature process (> 400 oC) makes it impractical for materials with low melting temperatures. For example, tin (Sn) coating with a melting temperature of 232 oC is commonly used in electrical connectors, which cannot sustain the high temperature process. In this study, reduced graphene oxide was prepared using a low-cost solution process and applied onto metallic terminals.
Technical Paper

Bayesian Optimization of Active Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2021-04-06
2021-01-0765
The design of better active materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial to satisfy the increasing demand of high performance batteries for portable electronics and electric vehicles. Currently, the development of new active materials is driven by physical experimentation and the designer’s intuition and expertise. During the development process, the designer interprets the experimental data to decide the next composition of the active material to be tested. After several trial-and-error iterations of data analysis and testing, promising active materials are discovered but after long development times (months or even years) and the evaluation of a large number of experiments. Bayesian global optimization (BGO) is an appealing alternative for the design of active materials for LIBs. BGO is a gradient-free optimization methodology to solve design problems that involve expensive black-box functions. An example of a black-box function is the prediction of the cycle life of LIBs.
Journal Article

High-Speed 3D Optical Sensing and Information Processing for Automotive Industry

2021-04-06
2021-01-0303
This paper explains the basic principles behind two platform technologies that my research team has developed in the field of optical metrology and optical information processing: 1) high-speed 3D optical sensing; and 2) real-time 3D video compression and streaming. This paper will discuss how such platform technologies could benefit the automotive industry including in-situ quality control for additive manufacturing and autonomous vehicle systems. We will also discuss some of other applications that we have been working on such as crime scene capture in forensics.
Journal Article

Graphene Coating as a Corrosion Protection Barrier for Metallic Terminals in Automotive Environments

2021-04-06
2021-01-0354
Inside an automobile, hundreds of connectors and electrical terminals in various locations experience different corrosive environments. These connectors and electrical terminals need to be corrosion-proof and provide a good electrical contact for a vehicle’s lifetime. Saltwater and sulfuric acid are some of the main corrosion concerns for these electrical terminals. Currently, various thin metallic layers such as gold (Au), silver (Ag), or tin (Sn) are plated with a nickel (Ni) layer on copper alloy (Cu) terminals to ensure reliable electrical conduction during service. Graphene due to its excellent chemical stability can serve as a corrosion protective layer and prevent electrochemical oxidation of metallic terminals. In this work, effects of thin graphene layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Au and Ag terminals and thin-film devices were investigated. Various mechanical, thermal/humidity, and electrical tests were performed.
Journal Article

Multilevel Design of Sandwich Composite Armors for Blast Mitigation using Bayesian Optimization and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines

2021-04-06
2021-01-0255
In regions at war, the increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is the main threat against military vehicles. Large cabin”s penetrations and high gross accelerations are primary threats against the occupants” survivability. The occupants” survivability under an IED event largely depends on the design of the vehicle armor. Under a blast load, a vehicle armor should maintain its structural integrity while providing low cabin penetrations and low gross accelerations. This investigation employs Bayesian global optimization (BGO) and non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) to design sandwich composite armors that simultaneously mitigate the cabin”s penetrations and the reaction force at the armor”s supports. The armors are made of four layers: steel, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aluminum honeycomb, and CFRP.
Journal Article

Implementation of Thermomechanical Multiphysics in a Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Topology Optimization Code

2021-04-06
2021-01-0844
Due to the inherent computational cost of multiphysics topology optimization methods, it is a common practice to implement these methods in two-dimensions. However most real-world multiphysics problems are best optimized in three-dimensions, leading to the necessity for large-scale multiphysics topology optimization codes. To aid in the development of these codes, this paper presents a general thermomechanical topology optimization method and describes how to implement the method into a preexisting large-scale three-dimensional topology optimization code. The weak forms of the Galerkin finite element models are fully derived for mechanical, thermal, and coupled thermomechanical physics models. The objective function for the topology optimization method is defined as the weighted sum of the mechanical and thermal compliance. The corresponding sensitivity coefficients are derived using the direct differentiation method and are verified using the complex-step method.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Probability-Based Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory on Dilemma Zone Exposure

2020-04-14
2020-01-0116
Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA) systems have the objective of providing a recommended speed to arrive at a traffic signal during the green phase of the cycle. GLOSA has been shown to decrease travel time, fuel consumption, and carbon emissions; simultaneously, it has been demonstrated to increase driver and passenger comfort. Few studies have been conducted using historical cycle-by-cycle phase probabilities to assess the performance of a speed advisory capable of recommending a speed for various traffic signal operating modes (fixed-time, semi-actuated, and fully-actuated). In this study, a GLOSA system based on phase probability is proposed. The probability is calculated prior to each trip from a previous week’s, same time-of-day (TOD) and day-of-week (DOW) period, traffic signal controller high-resolution event data.
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