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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

2019-06-05
2019-01-1533
Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknown sound source are used to reconstruct the sound field so that source distributions can be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-Field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

2019-04-02
2019-01-0827
The kinematic flow ripple for gerotor pumps is often used as a metric for comparison among different gearsets. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the real flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. To counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual prototyping. In this work, a multi-objective optimization by genetic algorithm using an experimentally validated, lumped parameter, fluid-dynamic model is used to design the port geometry.
Technical Paper

Continued Drive Signal Development for the Carbon Nanotube Thermoacoustic Loudspeaker Using Techniques Derived from the Hearing Aid Industry

2017-06-05
2017-01-1895
Compared to moving coil loudspeakers, carbon nanotube (CNT) loudspeakers are extremely lightweight and are capable of creating sound over a broad frequency range (1 Hz to 100 kHz). The thermoacoustic effect that allows for this non-vibrating sound source is naturally inefficient and nonlinear. Signal processing techniques are one option that may help counteract these concerns. Previous studies have evaluated a hybrid efficiency metric, the ratio of the sound pressure level at a single point to the input electrical power. True efficiency is the ratio of output acoustic power to the input electrical power. True efficiency data are presented for two new drive signal processing techniques borrowed from the hearing aid industry. Spectral envelope decimation of an AC signal operates in the frequency domain (FCAC) and dynamic linear frequency compression of an AC signal operates in the time domain (TCAC). Each type of processing affects the true efficiency differently.
Journal Article

The Utility of Wide-Bandwidth Emulation to Evaluate Aircraft Power System Performance

2016-09-20
2016-01-1982
The cost and complexity of aircraft power systems limit the number of integrated system evaluations that can be performed in hardware. As a result, evaluations are often performed using emulators to mimic components or subsystems. As an example, aircraft generation systems are often tested using an emulator that consists of a bank of resistors that are switched to represent the power draw of one or more actuators. In this research, consideration is given to modern wide bandwidth emulators (WBEs) that use power electronics and digital controls to obtain wide bandwidth control of power, current, or voltage. Specifically, this paper first looks at how well a WBE can emulate the impedance of a load when coupled to a real-time model. Capturing the impedance of loads and sources is important for accurately assessing the small-signal stability of a system.
Journal Article

Adaptive Robust Motion Control of an Excavator Hydraulic Hybrid Swing Drive

2015-09-29
2015-01-2853
Over the last decade, a number of hybrid architectures have been proposed with the main goal of minimizing energy consumption of off-highway vehicles. One of the architecture subsets which has progressively gained attention is hydraulic hybrids for earth-moving equipment. Among these architectures, hydraulic hybrids with secondary-controlled drives have proven to be a reliable, implementable, and highly efficient alternative with the potential for up to 50% engine downsizing when applied to excavator truck-loading cycles. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) robust linear control strategies have been developed by the authors' group with notable improvements on the control of the state of charge of the high pressure accumulator. Nonetheless, the challenge remains to improve the actuator position and velocity tracking.
Journal Article

Improved Model for Coupled Structural-Acoustic Modes of Tires

2015-06-15
2015-01-2199
Experimental measurements of tire tread band vibration have provided direct evidence that higher order structural-acoustic modes exist in tires, not just the well-known fundamental acoustical mode. These modes display both circumferential and radial pressure variations within the tire's air cavity. The theory governing these modes has thus been investigated. A brief recapitulation of the previously-presented coupled structural-acoustical model based on a tensioned string approach will be given, and then an improved tire-acoustical model with a ring-like shape will be introduced. In the latter model, the effects of flexural and circumferential stiffness are considered. This improved model accounts for propagating in-plane vibration in addition to the essentially structure-borne flexural wave and the essentially airborne longitudinal wave accounted for in the previous model. The longitudinal structure-borne wave “cuts on” at the tire's circumferential ring frequency.
Technical Paper

Computations of Soot and NO in Lifted Flames under Diesel Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1128
In this work, computations of reacting diesel jets, including soot and NO, are carried out for a wide range of conditions by employing a RANS model in which an unsteady flamelet progress variable (UFPV) sub-model is employed to represent turbulence/chemistry interactions. Soot kinetics is represented using a chemical mechanism that models the growth of soot precursors starting from a single aromatic ring by hydrogen abstraction and carbon (acetylene) addition and NO is modeled using the kinetics from a sub-mechanism of GRI-Mech 3.0. Tracer particles are used to track the residence time of the injected mass in the jet. For the soot and NO computations, this residence time is used to track the progression of the soot and NO reactions in time. The conditions selected reflect changes in injection pressure, chamber temperature, oxygen concentration, and density, and orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

Frequency Conversion Controlled Vapor Recovery System by Temperature and Flow Signals: Model Design and Parameters Optimization

2013-09-24
2013-01-2348
Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
Journal Article

A Novel Pressure-Feedback Based Adaptive Control Method to Damp Instabilities in Hydraulic Machines

2012-09-24
2012-01-2035
Excessive vibration and poor controllability occur in many mobile fluid power applications, with negative consequences as concerns operators' health and comfort as well as machine safety and productivity. This paper addresses the problem of reducing oscillations in fluid power machines presenting a novel control technique of general applicability. Strong nonlinearities of hydraulic systems and the unpredictable operating conditions of the specific application (e.g. uneven ground, varying loads, etc.) are the main challenges to the development of satisfactory general vibration damping methods. The state of the art methods are typically designed as a function of the specific application, and in many cases they introduce energy dissipation and/or system slowdown. This paper contributes to this research by introducing an energy efficient active damping method based on feedback signals from pressure sensors mounted on the flow control valve block.
Technical Paper

Design of a High-Bandwidth, Low-Cost Hydrostatic Absorption Dynamometer with Electronic Load Control

2009-10-06
2009-01-2846
A low-cost hydrostatic absorption dynamometer has been developed for small to medium sized engines. The dynamometer was designed and built by students to support student projects and educational activities. The availability of such a dynamometer permits engine break-in cycles, performance testing, and laboratory instruction in the areas of engines, fuels, sensors, and data acquisition. The dynamometer, capable of loading engines up to 60kW at 155Nm and 3600rpm, incorporates a two-section gear pump and an electronically operated proportional pressure control valve to develop and control the load. A bypass valve permits the use of only one pump section, allowing increased fidelity of load control at lower torque levels. Torque is measured directly on the drive shaft with a strain gage. Torque and speed signals are transmitted by an inductively-powered collar mounted to the dynamometer drive shaft. Pressure transducers at the pump inlet and pump outlet allow secondary load measurement.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Hydraulic Topographies using High Speed Valves

2009-10-06
2009-01-2847
This paper presents hydraulic topographies using a network of valves to achieve better energy efficiency, reliability, and performance. The Topography with Integrated Energy Recovery (TIER) system allows the valves and actuators to reconfigure so that flow from assistive loads on actuators can be used to move actuators with resistive loads. Many variations are possible, including using multiple valves with either a single pump/motor or with multiple pump/motors. When multiple pump/motors are used, units of different displacements can be chosen such that units are controlled to minimize time operating at low displacement, thus increasing overall system efficiency. Other variations include configurations allowing open loop or closed loop pump/motors to be used, the use of fixed displacement pump/motors, or the ability to store energy in an accumulator. This paper gives a system level overview and summarizes the hydraulic systems using the TIER approach.
Technical Paper

Health Monitoring for Condition-Based Maintenance of a HMMWV using an Instrumented Diagnostic Cleat

2009-04-20
2009-01-0806
Operation & support costs for military weapon systems accounted for approximately 3/5th of the $500B Department of Defense budget in 2006. In an effort to ensure readiness and decrease these costs for ground vehicle fleets, health monitoring technologies are being developed for Condition-Based Maintenance of individual vehicles within a fleet. Dynamics-based health monitoring is used in this work because vibrations are a passive source of response data, which are global functions of the mechanical loading and properties of the vehicle. A common way of detecting faults in mechanical equipment, such as the suspension and chassis of a ground vehicle, is to compare measured operational vibrations to a reference (or healthy) signature to detect anomalies.
Technical Paper

Optimization for Shared-Autonomy in Automotive Swarm Environment

2009-04-20
2009-01-0166
The need for greater capacity in automotive transportation (in the midst of constrained resources) and the convergence of key technologies from multiple domains may eventually produce the emergence of a “swarm” concept of operations. The swarm, a collection of vehicles traveling at high speeds and in close proximity, will require management techniques to ensure safe, efficient, and reliable vehicle interactions. We propose a shared-autonomy approach in which the strengths of both human drivers and machines are employed in concert for this management. A fuzzy logic-based control implementation is combined with a genetic algorithm to select the shared-autonomy architecture and sensor capabilities that optimize swarm operations.
Journal Article

Fuel-Air Mixing Characteristics of DI Hydrogen Jets

2008-04-14
2008-01-1041
The following computational study examines the structure of sonic hydrogen jets using inlet conditions similar to those encountered in direct-injection hydrogen engines. Cases utilizing the same mass and momentum flux while varying exit-to-chamber pressure ratios have been investigated in a constant-volume computational domain. Furthermore, subsonic versus sonic structures have been compared using both hydrogen and ethylene fuel jets. Finally, the accuracy of scaling arguments to characterize an underexpanded jet by a subsonic “equivalent jet” has been assessed. It is shown that far downstream of the expansion region, the overall jet structure conforms to expectations for self-similarity in the far-field of subsonic jets. In the near-field, variations in fuel inlet-to-chamber pressure ratios are shown to influence the mixing properties of sonic hydrogen jets. In general, higher pressure ratios result in longer shock barrel length, though numerical resolution requirements increase.
Technical Paper

Surface Pressure Fluctuations in Separated-Reattached Flows Behind Notched Spoilers

2007-05-15
2007-01-2399
Notched spoilers may be used to suppress flow-induced cavity resonance in vehicles with open sunroofs or side windows. The notches are believed to generate streamwise vortices that break down the structure of the leading edge cross-stream vortices predominantly responsible for the cavity excitation. The objectives of the present study were to gain a better understanding of the buffeting suppression mechanisms associated with notched spoilers, and to gather data for computational model verification. To this end, experiments were performed to characterize the surface pressure field downstream of straight and notched spoilers mounted on a rigid wall to observe the effects of the notches on the static and dynamic wall pressure. Detailed flow velocity measurements were made using hot-wire anemometry. The results indicated that the presence of notches on the spoiler reduces drag, and thus tends to move the flow reattachment location closer to the spoiler.
Technical Paper

Correlating Dynamic Pressure Signal Features to Diesel Particulate Filter Load

2007-04-16
2007-01-0333
The firing frequency components of the dynamic diesel particulate filter pressure signals carry significant information about the particulate load. Specifically, the normalized magnitude and relative phase of the firing frequency components exhibit clear dependence on the particulate load in a filter. Further, the test-to-test variation and back-to-back repeatability in this work was better for the dynamic pressure signal features than for the mean value pressure drop. This work provides a promising extension or alternative to the mean value pressure drop correlation to particulate load through Darcy's Law. The results may be particularly useful for filter monitoring and control.
Technical Paper

Real-time Thermal Observer for Electric Machines

2006-11-07
2006-01-3102
A temperature estimation algorithm (thermal observer) that provides accurate estimates of the thermal states of an electric machine in real time is presented. The thermal observer is designed to be a Kalman filter that combines thermal state predictions from a lumped-parameter thermal model of the electric machine with temperature measurements from a single external temperature sensor. An analysis based on the error covariance matrix of the Kalman filter is presented to guide the selection of the best sensor location. The thermal observer performance is demonstrated using a 3.8 kW permanent-magnet machine. Comparison of the thermal observer estimates and the actual temperatures demonstrate that this approach can provide accurate knowledge of the machine's thermal states despite modeling uncertainty and unknown initial machine thermal states.
Technical Paper

Water and Energy Transport for Crops under Different Lighting Conditions

2006-07-17
2006-01-2028
When high-intensity discharge (HID) electric lamps are used for plant growth, system inefficiencies occur due to an inability to effectively target light to all photosynthetic tissues of a growing crop stand, especially when it is closed with respect to light penetration. To maintain acceptable crop productivity, light levels typically are increased thus increasing heat loads on the plants. Evapotranspiration (ET) or transparent thermal barrier systems are subsequently required to maintain thermal balance, and power-intensive condensers are used to recover the evaporated water for reuse in closed systems. By accurately targeting light to plant tissues, electric lamps can be operated at lower power settings and produce less heat. With lower power and heat loads, less energy is used for plant growth, and possibly less water is evapotranspired. By combining these effects, a considerable energy savings is possible.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of a Composite Model for Predicting Drop-Drop Collision Outcomes in Multidimensional Spray Computations

2002-03-04
2002-01-0943
The standard model for predicting the outcome of drop-drop collisions in sprays is one developed based on measurements in rain drops under atmospheric pressure conditions. This model includes the possible outcomes of grazing collisions and coalescence. Recent measurements with hydrocarbon drops and at higher pressure (up to 12 bar) indicate the possibility of additional outcomes: bounce, reflexive separation and drop shattering. The measurements also indicate that the Weber number range over which bounce occurs is dependent on the gas pressure. The probability of a drop-drop collision resulting in bounce increases with gas pressure. A composite model that includes all these outcomes as possibilities is employed to carry out computations in a constant volume chamber and in a Diesel engine. A sub-model for bounce that includes the pressure effects is also part of the composite model.
Technical Paper

Conditions In Which Vaporizing Fuel Drops Reach A Critical State In A Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0511
It has been shown recently that the maximum penetration of the liquid phase in a vaporizing Diesel spray is relatively short compared to the overall jet penetration and that this maximum is reached in 2 - 4°CA after start of injection. This implies that the drops that are formed by atomization vaporize in a short characteristic time and length relative to other physical processes. This paper addresses an important question related to this observation: Are the vaporizing fuel drops disappearing because they reach a critical state? Related to this question is another: Under what conditions will vaporizing fuel drops reach a critical state in a Diesel engine? Single drops of pure component liquid hydrocarbons and their mixtures vaporizing in quiescent nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas environments with ambient pressures and temperatures at values typically found in Diesel engines are examined.
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