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Technical Paper

Detection of Pinion Grinding Defects in a Nested Planetary Gear System using a Narrowband Demodulation Approach

2021-08-31
2021-01-1100
Nested planetary gear trains, which consist of two integrated co-axial single-stage planetary gearsets, have recently been widely implemented in automobile transmissions and various other applications. In the current study, a non-destructive vibrational and acoustical monitoring technique is developed to detect a common type of gear grinding defect for a complex nested gear train structure. A nested gear train which has an unground pinion with unpolished teeth profile is used to exemplify the developed methodology. An experimental test stand with an open and vertical mounting configuration has been designed to acquire both vibrational and acoustical data. The measured data are investigated using several signal processing techniques to identify unground pinions in the gear system. A general frequency spectrum analysis is performed initially, which is then followed by a peak finding algorithm to identify the peaks in the spectrum.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Eco-Driving and Eco-Heating Strategies for Connected and Automated HEVs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0435
This paper presents experimental results that validate eco-driving and eco-heating strategies developed for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). By exploiting vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, traffic signal timing, and queue length estimations, optimized and smoothed speed profiles for the ego-vehicle are generated to reduce energy consumption. Next, the planned eco-trajectories are incorporated into a real-time predictive optimization framework that coordinates the cabin thermal load (in cold weather) with the speed preview, i.e., eco-heating. To enable eco-heating, the engine coolant (as the only heat source for cabin heating) and the cabin air are leveraged as two thermal energy storages. Our eco-heating strategy stores thermal energy in the engine coolant and cabin air while the vehicle is driving at high speeds, and releases the stored energy slowly during the vehicle stops for cabin heating without forcing the engine to idle to provide the heating source.
Technical Paper

High-Speed 3D Optical Sensing and Information Processing for Automotive Industry

2021-04-06
2021-01-0303
This paper explains the basic principles behind two platform technologies that my research team has developed in the field of optical metrology and optical information processing: 1) high-speed 3D optical sensing; and 2) real-time 3D video compression and streaming. This paper will discuss how such platform technologies could benefit the automotive industry including in-situ quality control for additive manufacturing and autonomous vehicle systems. We will also discuss some of other applications that we have been working on such as crime scene capture in forensics.
Technical Paper

Graphene Coating as a Corrosion Protection Barrier for Metallic Terminals in Automotive Environments

2021-04-06
2021-01-0354
Inside an automobile, hundreds of connectors and electrical terminals in various locations experience different corrosive environments. These connectors and electrical terminals need to be corrosion-proof and provide a good electrical contact for a vehicle’s lifetime. Saltwater and sulfuric acid are some of the main corrosion concerns for these electrical terminals. Currently, various thin metallic layers such as gold (Au), silver (Ag), or tin (Sn) are plated with a nickel (Ni) layer on copper alloy (Cu) terminals to ensure reliable electrical conduction during service. Graphene due to its excellent chemical stability can serve as a corrosion protective layer and prevent electrochemical oxidation of metallic terminals. In this work, effects of thin graphene layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Au and Ag terminals and thin-film devices were investigated. Various mechanical, thermal/humidity, and electrical tests were performed.
Technical Paper

Friction Force Reduction for Electrical Terminals using Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating

2021-04-06
2021-01-0348
Electrical connectors and terminals are widely used in the automotive industry. It is desirable to mate the electrical connections using materials or coatings with low friction force to improve the ergonomics of the assembly process while maintaining good electrical conduction over the lifetime of the vehicle. We have previously shown that plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of graphene on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) terminals can significantly reduce the insertion force (friction force during the terminal insertion process). However, the cost of this deposition method is rather high, and its high temperature process (> 400 oC) makes it impractical for materials with low melting temperatures. For example, tin (Sn) coating with a melting temperature of 232 oC is commonly used in electrical connectors, which cannot sustain the high temperature process. In this study, reduced graphene oxide was prepared using a low-cost solution process and applied onto metallic terminals.
Technical Paper

Bayesian Optimization of Active Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2021-04-06
2021-01-0765
The design of better active materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial to satisfy the increasing demand of high performance batteries for portable electronics and electric vehicles. Currently, the development of new active materials is driven by physical experimentation and the designer’s intuition and expertise. During the development process, the designer interprets the experimental data to decide the next composition of the active material to be tested. After several trial-and-error iterations of data analysis and testing, promising active materials are discovered but after long development times (months or even years) and the evaluation of a large number of experiments. Bayesian global optimization (BGO) is an appealing alternative for the design of active materials for LIBs. BGO is a gradient-free optimization methodology to solve design problems that involve expensive black-box functions. An example of a black-box function is the prediction of the cycle life of LIBs.
Technical Paper

Modification of the Internal Flows of Thermal Propulsion Systems Using Local Aerodynamic Inserts

2020-09-15
2020-01-2039
Modern thermal propulsion systems (TPS) as part of hybrid powertrains are becoming increasingly complex. They have an increased number of components in comparison to traditionally powered vehicles leading to increased demand in packaging requirements. Many of the components in these systems relate to achieving efficiency gains, weight saving and pollutant reduction. This includes turbochargers and diesel or gasoline particulate filters for example and these are known to be very sensitive to inlet boundary conditions. When overcoming packaging requirements, sub-optimal flow distributions throughout the TPS can easily occur. Moreover, the individual components are often designed in isolation assuming relatively flat and artificially quiescent inlet flow conditions in comparison to those they are actually presented with. Thus, some of the efficiency benefits are lost through reduced component aerodynamic efficiency.
Technical Paper

Does the Interaction between Vehicle Headlamps and Roadway Lighting Affect Visibility? A Study of Pedestrian and Object Contrast

2020-04-14
2020-01-0569
Vehicle headlamps and roadway lighting are the major sources of illumination at night. These sources affect contrast - defined as the luminance difference of an object from its background - which drives visibility at night. However, the combined effect of vehicle headlamps and intersection lighting on object contrast has not been reported previously. In this study, the interactive effects of vehicle headlamps and overhead lighting on object contrast were explored based on earlier work that examined drivers’ visibility under three intersection lighting designs (illuminated approach, illuminated box, and illuminated approach + box). The goals of this study were to: 1) quantify object luminance and contrast as a function of a vehicle’s headlamps and its distance to an intersection using the three lighting designs; and, 2) to assess whether contrast influences visual performance and perceived visibility in a highly dynamic intersection environment.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of Rubber Compounds on Tire Performance on Ice

2020-04-14
2020-01-1228
Mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber compounds of a tire play an important role in the overall performance of the tire when it is in contact with the terrain. Although there are many studies conducted on the properties of the rubber compounds of the tire to improve some of the tire characteristics such as the wear of the tread, there is a limited number of studies that focused on the performance of the tire when it is in contact with ice. This study is a part of a more comprehensive project looking into tire-ice performance and modeling. A significant part of this study is the experimental investigation of the effect of rubber compounds on tire performance in contact with ice. For this, four tires have been selected for testing. Three of them are completely identical in all tire parameters (such as tire dimensions), except for the rubber compounds. Several tests were conducted for the chosen tires in three modes: free rolling, braking, and traction.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

2019-06-05
2019-01-1533
Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknown sound source are used to reconstruct the sound field so that source distributions can be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-Field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization of Thin-Walled Tubular Structures for Progressive Collapse Using Hybrid Cellular Automaton with a Prescribed Response Field

2019-04-02
2019-01-0837
The design optimization of thin-walled tubular structures is of relevance in the automotive industry due to their low cost, ease of manufacturing and installation, and high-energy absorption efficiency. This study presents a methodology to design thin-walled tubular structures for crashworthiness applications. During an impact, thin-walled tubular structures may exhibit progressive collapse/buckling, global collapse/buckling, or mixed collapse/buckling. From a crashworthiness standpoint, the most desirable collapse mode is progressive collapse due to its high-energy absorption efficiency, stable deformation, and low peak crush force (PCF). In the automotive industry, thin-walled components have complex structural geometries. These complexities and the several loading conditions present in a crash reduce the possibility of progressive collapse. The Hybrid Cellular Automata (HCA) method has shown to be an efficient continuum-based approach in crashworthiness design.
Technical Paper

Unconventional Truck Chassis Design with Multi-Functional Cross Members

2019-04-02
2019-01-0839
An unconventional conceptual design of truck chassis with multi-functional cross-members is proposed, and an optimization framework is developed to optimize its structure to minimize mass while satisfying stiffness and modal frequency constraints. The side rails are C-sectional channels of variable height and were divided into six sections, each with different thickness distribution for the flanges and the web. The gearbox cross-member and the intermediate cross-members are compressed-air cylinders, and hence they act as multi-functional components. The dimensions and thickness of the side rails and the air-tank cross members are defined by a set of parameters which are considered as design variables in the optimization problem. The structure consists of three additional fixed cross-members which are modeled using beam elements. The limits of the design variables are decided while considering manufacturing limits.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Damage Modeling Approach Based on Evolutionary Power Spectrum Density

2019-04-02
2019-01-0524
Fatigue damage prediction approaches in both time and frequency domains have been developed to simulate the operational life of mechanical structures under random loads. Fatigue assessment of mechanical structures and components subjected to those random loads is increasingly being addressed by frequency domain approaches because of time and cost savings. Current frequency-based fatigue prediction methods focus on stationary random loadings (stationary Power Spectral Density), but many machine components, such as jet engines, rotating machines, and tracked vehicles are subjected to non-stationary PSD conditions under real service loadings. This paper describes a new fatigue damage modeling approach capable of predicting fatigue damage for structures exposed to non-stationary (evolutionary) PSD loading conditions where the PSD frequency content is time-varying.
Journal Article

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1023
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

2019-04-02
2019-01-0827
The kinematic flow ripple for gerotor pumps is often used as a metric for comparison among different gearsets. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the real flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. To counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual prototyping. In this work, a multi-objective optimization by genetic algorithm using an experimentally validated, lumped parameter, fluid-dynamic model is used to design the port geometry.
Technical Paper

EcoRouting Strategy Using Variable Acceleration Rate Synthesis Methodology

2018-04-16
2018-01-5005
This paper focuses on the analysis of an EcoRouting system with minimum and maximum number of conditional stops. The effect on energy consumption with the presence and absence of road-grade information along a route is also studied. An EcoRouting system has been developed that takes in map information and converts it to a graph of nodes containing route information such as speed limits, stop lights, stop signs and road grade. A variable acceleration rate synthesis methodology is also introduced in this paper that takes into consideration distance, acceleration, cruise speed and jerk rate as inputs to simulate driver behavior on a given route. A simulation study is conducted in the town of Blacksburg, Virginia, USA to analyze the effects of EcoRouting in different driving conditions and to examine the effects of road grade and stop lights on energy consumption.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for a Tandem External Gear Pump for Automotive Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0403
This paper describes a simulation approach for the modeling of tandem external gear pumps. A tandem gear pump is the combination of two pumps with a common drive shaft. Such design architecture finds application in certain automotive transmission systems. The model presented in this work is applicable for pumps with both helical and spur gears. The simulation model is built on the HYGESim (HYdraulic GEars machines Simulator) previously developed by the authors for external spur gear units. In this work, the model formulation is properly extended to the capabilities of simulating helical gears. Starting directly from the CAD drawings of the unit, the fluid-dynamic model solves the internal instantaneous tooth space volume pressures and the internal flows following a lumped parameter approach. The simulation tool considers also the radial micro-motion of the gears, which influences the internal leakages and the features of the meshing process.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Tire-Road Contact Forces: A Comparison between Artificial Neural Network and Observed Theory Approaches

2018-04-03
2018-01-0562
One of the principal goals of modern vehicle control systems is to ensure passenger safety during dangerous maneuvers. Their effectiveness relies on providing appropriate parameter inputs. Tire-road contact forces are among the most important because they provide helpful information that could be used to mitigate vehicle instabilities. Unfortunately, measuring these forces requires expensive instrumentation and is not suitable for commercial vehicles. Thus, accurately estimating them is a crucial task. In this work, two estimation approaches are compared, an observer method and a neural network learning technique. Both predict the lateral and longitudinal tire-road contact forces. The observer approach takes into account system nonlinearities and estimates the stochastic states by using an extended Kalman filter technique to perform data fusion based on the popular bicycle model.
Technical Paper

Development of a Torque-Based Control Strategy for a Mode-Switching Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1007
An increase in the number of vehicles per capita coupled with stricter emission regulations have made the development of newer and better hybrid vehicle architectures indispensable. Although electric hybrids have more visibility and are now commercially available, hydraulic hybrids, with their higher power densities and cheaper components, have been rigorously explored as the alternative. Several architectures have been proposed and implemented for both on and off highway applications. The most commonly used architecture is the series hybrid, which requires an energy conversion from the primary source (engine) to the secondary domain. From he re, the power flows either into the secondary source (high-pressure accumulator) or to the wheels depending upon the state of charge of the accumulator. A mode-switching hydraulic hybrid, which is a combination of a hydrostatic transmission and a series hybrid, was recently developed in the author’s research group.
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