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Technical Paper

Design, Development and Integration of a Wing-Morphing, Bimodal Unmanned Vehicle

This paper relates to the design and development of a multi-modal UAV capable of aerial flight and underwater propulsion. A novel hybrid propulsion system has been manufactured and tested. Consisting of folding blades, the propeller has been optimized for propulsion both in air and water. The critical water to air transition phase is achieved by an additional impulsive thruster powered by a C02 cartridge. To decrease the drag in underwater cruise and reduce the potential damage when the vehicle impacts the water, a morphing wing has been developed. This consists of foam-carbon fiber lay-up constructed wings in a variable sweep configuration. The actuation of the sweep is achieved by linear servos mounted on the sleeve shaped spar. An integrated prototype is constructed, using an unconventional, anhedral horizontal stabilizers to allow clearance for the morphing wing.
Technical Paper

Natural-Gas Direct-Injection for Spark-Ignition Engines - A Review on Late-Injection Studies

Significant research has been made on traditional pre-mixed charge Spark-Ignition Natural-Gas engines which have seen widespread usage across the automotive sector. Many researchers including those in industry are now exploring the Direct-Injection concept for Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition engines. Direct-Injection has significant performance benefits over port-fuel injection, primarily due to increased volumetric efficiency as a result of injecting the fuel after intake valve closure. This could lead to enhanced driving performance over port-fuel injection comparable to gasoline engines. Furthermore, Direct-Injection with increased compression ratio in conjunction with downsizing concepts has the potential to increase thermal efficiency while exhibiting significantly lower CO2 emissions. Advanced combustion strategies like stratified mixture combustion has been widely studied for gasoline and proven to increase the low load thermal efficiency over homogeneous stoichiometric combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on a 3D Wing Section Hosting Multiple SJAs for Stall Control Purpose

Flow control over aerodynamic shapes in order to achieve performance enhancements has been a lively research area for last two decades. Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) are devices able to interact actively with the flow around their hosting structure by providing ejection and suction of fluid from the enclosed cavity containing a piezo-electric oscillating membrane through dedicated orifices. The research presented in this paper concerns the implementation of zero-net-mass-flux SJAs airflow control system on a NACA0015, low aspect ratio wing section prototype. Two arrays with each 10 custom-made SJAs, installed at 10% and 65% of the chord length, make up the actuation system. The sensing system consists of eleven acoustic pressure transducers distributed in the wing upper surface and on the flap, an accelerometer placed in proximity of the wing c.g. and a six-axis force balance for integral load measurement.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Throw Distance Impact Speed Contour Plots Using PC-Crash

Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances, the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However, based on investigated pedestrian collisions, the location where the pedestrian has engaged with the vehicle can and does significantly influence the throw distance (and projection) and subsequent impact speed analysis. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at varying speeds and vehicle impact locations, creating pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots. This paper presents the pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of nine vehicle types.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Regenerative Braking Efficiency of a Latest Electric Vehicle

Kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) placed on one axle coupled to a traditional thermal engine on the other axle is possibly the best solution presently available to dramatically improve the fuel economy while providing better performances within strict budget constraints. Different KERS may be built purely electric, purely mechanic, or hybrid mechanic/electric differing for round trip efficiency, packaging, weights, costs and requirement of further research and development. The paper presents an experimental analysis of the energy flow to and from the battery of a latest Nissan Leaf covering the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). This analysis provides a state-of-the-art benchmark of the propulsion and regenerative braking efficiencies of electric vehicles with off-the-shelve technologies.