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Technical Paper

Design, Development and Integration of a Wing-Morphing, Bimodal Unmanned Vehicle

2018-10-30
2018-01-1960
This paper relates to the design and development of a multi-modal UAV capable of aerial flight and underwater propulsion. A novel hybrid propulsion system has been manufactured and tested. Consisting of folding blades, the propeller has been optimized for propulsion both in air and water. The critical water to air transition phase is achieved by an additional impulsive thruster powered by a C02 cartridge. To decrease the drag in underwater cruise and reduce the potential damage when the vehicle impacts the water, a morphing wing has been developed. This consists of foam-carbon fiber lay-up constructed wings in a variable sweep configuration. The actuation of the sweep is achieved by linear servos mounted on the sleeve shaped spar. An integrated prototype is constructed, using an unconventional, anhedral horizontal stabilizers to allow clearance for the morphing wing.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stiffness Investigation of an Automotive Body-in-White by Utilizing Response Surface Methodology

2018-06-13
2018-01-1479
Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) attribute is needed to be included in the vehicle structure design since improving the NVH characteristics enhances the ride quality experienced by the occupants. In this regard, an efficient method was proposed to investigate the structural dynamic response of an automotive body considering low-frequency NVH performances. Moreover, the improvement of an automotive structure under the constraint of NVH behavior was investigated by using the design of experiments (DOEs) method. The DOEs methodology was for screening of the design space and generating approximation models. Here, the thicknesses of panels consisting of a body-in-white (BIW) of an automotive were employed as design variables for optimization, whose objective was to increase the first torsional and bending natural frequencies. Central composite design (CCD) for DOEs sampling and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to optimize the dynamic stiffness.
Technical Paper

Natural-Gas Direct-Injection for Spark-Ignition Engines - A Review on Late-Injection Studies

2017-01-10
2017-26-0067
Significant research has been made on traditional pre-mixed charge Spark-Ignition Natural-Gas engines which have seen widespread usage across the automotive sector. Many researchers including those in industry are now exploring the Direct-Injection concept for Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition engines. Direct-Injection has significant performance benefits over port-fuel injection, primarily due to increased volumetric efficiency as a result of injecting the fuel after intake valve closure. This could lead to enhanced driving performance over port-fuel injection comparable to gasoline engines. Furthermore, Direct-Injection with increased compression ratio in conjunction with downsizing concepts has the potential to increase thermal efficiency while exhibiting significantly lower CO2 emissions. Advanced combustion strategies like stratified mixture combustion has been widely studied for gasoline and proven to increase the low load thermal efficiency over homogeneous stoichiometric combustion.
Technical Paper

Investigation of GNSS Integrity Augmentation Synergies with Unmanned Aircraft Sense-and-Avoid Systems

2015-09-15
2015-01-2456
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can support the development of low-cost and high performance navigation and guidance architectures for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and, in conjunction with suitable data link technologies, the provision of Automated Dependent Surveillance (ADS) functionalities for cooperative Sense-and-Avoid (SAA). In non-cooperative SAA, the adoption of GNSS can also provide the key positioning and, in some cases, attitude data (using multiple antennas) required for automated collision avoidance. A key limitation of GNSS for both cooperative (ADS) and non-cooperative applications is represented by the achievable levels of integrity. Therefore, an Avionics Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) solution is proposed to support the development of an Integrity-Augmented SAA (IAS) architecture suitable for both cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Cooperative and Non-Cooperative RPAS Detect-and-Avoid

2015-09-15
2015-01-2470
A unified approach to cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) is a key enabler for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Aerodynamics of a 3D Wing Hosting Synthetic Jet Actuators

2015-09-15
2015-01-2455
The implementation of Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provides a safe test-bed for analysis of improved performance, in the hope of certification of this technology on commercial aircraft in the future. The use of high resolution numerical methods (i.e. CFD) to capture the details of the effects of SJAs on flows and on the hosting lifting surface are computationally expensive and time-consuming, which renders them ineffective for use in real-time flow control implementations. Suitable alternatives include the use of Reduced Order Models (ROMs) to capture the lower resolution overall effects of the jets on the flow and the hosting structure. This research paper analyses the effects of SJAs on aircraft wings using a ROM for the purpose of determining the unsteady aerodynamic forces modified by the presence of the SJAs. The model developed is a 3D unsteady panel code where the jets are represented by source panels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on a 3D Wing Section Hosting Multiple SJAs for Stall Control Purpose

2015-09-15
2015-01-2453
Flow control over aerodynamic shapes in order to achieve performance enhancements has been a lively research area for last two decades. Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) are devices able to interact actively with the flow around their hosting structure by providing ejection and suction of fluid from the enclosed cavity containing a piezo-electric oscillating membrane through dedicated orifices. The research presented in this paper concerns the implementation of zero-net-mass-flux SJAs airflow control system on a NACA0015, low aspect ratio wing section prototype. Two arrays with each 10 custom-made SJAs, installed at 10% and 65% of the chord length, make up the actuation system. The sensing system consists of eleven acoustic pressure transducers distributed in the wing upper surface and on the flap, an accelerometer placed in proximity of the wing c.g. and a six-axis force balance for integral load measurement.
Technical Paper

Bistatic DIAL for Multi-Species Aviation Pollutant Measurements from RPAS

2015-09-15
2015-01-2477
This paper presents the conceptual design of a new low-cost measurement system for the determination of pollutant concentrations associated with aircraft operations. The proposed system employs Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and passive electro-optics equipment installed in two non-collocated components. The source component consists of a tuneable small-size and low-cost/weight LIDAR emitter, which can be installed either on airborne or ground-based autonomous vehicles, or in fixed surface installations. The sensor component includes a target surface calibrated for reflectance and passive electro-optics equipment calibrated for radiance, both installed on an adjustable support. The proposed bistatic system determines the column-averaged molecular and aerosol pollutant concentrations along the LIDAR beam by measuring the cumulative absorption and scattering phenomena along the optical slant range.
Technical Paper

A 3D User and Maintenance Manual for UAVs and Commercial Aircrafts Based on Augmented Reality

2015-09-15
2015-01-2473
Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
Technical Paper

Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Techniques for RPAS Detect, Track and Avoid

2015-09-15
2015-01-2475
Accurate and robust tracking of objects is of growing interest amongst the computer vision scientific community. The ability of a multi-sensor system to detect and track objects, and accurately predict their future trajectory is critical in the context of mission- and safety-critical applications. Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) are currently not equipped to routinely access all classes of airspace since certified Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) systems are yet to be developed. Such capabilities can be achieved by incorporating both cooperative and non-cooperative DAA functions, as well as providing enhanced communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) services. DAA is highly dependent on the performance of CNS systems for Detection, Tacking and avoiding (DTA) tasks and maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Automated ATM System Enabling 4DT-Based Operations

2015-09-15
2015-01-2539
As part of the current initiatives aimed at enhancing safety, efficiency and environmental sustainability of aviation, a significant improvement in the efficiency of aircraft operations is currently pursued. Innovative Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies and operational concepts are being developed to achieve the ambitious goals for efficiency and environmental sustainability set by national and international aviation organizations. These technological and operational innovations will be ultimately enabled by the introduction of novel CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems, featuring higher levels of automation. A core feature of such systems consists in the real-time multi-objective optimization of flight trajectories, incorporating all the operational, economic and environmental aspects of the aircraft mission.
Technical Paper

Communication, Navigation and Surveillance Performance Criteria for Safety-Critical Avionic Systems

2015-09-15
2015-01-2544
Avionic system developers are currently working on innovative technologies that are required in view of the rapid expansion of global air transport and growing concerns for environmental sustainability of aviation sector. Novel Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) system designs are being developed in the CNS/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and Avionics (CNS+A) context for mission-and safety-critical applications. The introduction of dedicated software modules in Next Generation Flight Management Systems (NG-FMS), which are the primary providers of automated navigation and guidance services in manned aircraft and Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), has the potential to enable the significant advances brought in by time and trajectory based operations. High-integrity, high-reliability and all-weather services are required in the context of four dimensional Trajectory Based Operations / Intent Based Operations (TBO/IBO).
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of a Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) Vehicle

2015-09-15
2015-01-2571
This paper introduces the Seabus SB-8, a new Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) craft designed for 8 - 10 passengers. The craft will be used for fast transportation across Port Phillip Bay in Melbourne, Australia. With a cruise speed of about 140 km/hr, it can cross the bay in 30 min as compared to 75 min for land transportation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted on the design to determine aerodynamic properties at various angles of attack and operating heights. The influence of ground effect was also determined as well as the effect of Centre of Gravity (CG) position on longitudinal stability. Using flow visualization areas of potential flow separation were identified and interactions of wake vortices with different parts of the aircraft were determined. Note that some aspects of the design are proprietary.
Technical Paper

Airship and Hot Air Balloon Real Time Envelope Shape Prediction through a Cloth Simulation Technique

2015-09-15
2015-01-2578
The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
Journal Article

Modelling and Evaluation of Aircraft Contrails for 4-Dimensional Trajectory Optimisation

2015-09-15
2015-01-2538
Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Throw Distance Impact Speed Contour Plots Using PC-Crash

2015-04-14
2015-01-1418
Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances, the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However, based on investigated pedestrian collisions, the location where the pedestrian has engaged with the vehicle can and does significantly influence the throw distance (and projection) and subsequent impact speed analysis. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at varying speeds and vehicle impact locations, creating pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots. This paper presents the pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of nine vehicle types.
Technical Paper

Transient Dynamic Analysis of Self-Locking Gears

2015-04-14
2015-01-1132
The self-locking gear has great potential application in controlling the position stability of gearbox, which is a critical requirement in some precision machineries and instruments. This study provides important knowledge about the dynamic performance of self-locking gear pairs. An analytical model of variation ratio of contact length (VRCL) was established. The tooth root stress, bearing force, and axial acceleration of three self-locking gear pairs are investigated by using transient dynamic finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA results presented the influences of VRCL on the meshing performance of self-locking gear pairs. The obtained results provide significant knowledge for predicting the dynamic performance of self-locking gear pairs, optimizing their design parameters, and diagnosing possible design errors in self-locking gear pair design.
Technical Paper

A Study of Linear Regenerative Electromagnetic Shock Absorber System

2015-03-10
2015-01-0045
The objective of this research paper is to design and develop a linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber for automotive suspension system. The significance of the arrangement of magnetic and coil materials as components of the linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber is to generate continuous electric energy to deliver power to a vehicles electronics. Different magnets and coil arrangements will be reviewed and analysed. Additionally, a novel design of linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers will be modeled by using the computer aided design software program (SolidWorks®) and tested using apparatus such as a shock absorber dynamometer. The linear regenerative electromagnetic shock absorber system was simulated by using Matlab® and Simulink®. The simulation model was established and validated via experiments. The validated simulation model was then used for the analysis of the system parameter sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Design of a Morphing Bi-Stable Composite Air Intake

2015-03-10
2015-01-0066
A morphing ram-air intake, capable of deploying from a flat, closed surface to an open state is investigated. Via geometric and material optimisation, an origami-inspired folding structure is developed to exhibit bi-stable behaviour. An iterative finite element design process was conducted, noting the effects of the critical design properties of geometry, bending stiffness and material strain limits on bi-stability and the achievable geometric shape change. As a first step, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer materials are proposed while increased stiffness by fibre reinforcements are considered at a later design stage and evaluated under aerodynamic loading. The bi-stable structure is capable of remaining in either open or closed stable configurations without sustained actuation. The ability to retract the intake when not required has the potential to reduce drag. It is envisioned that such a concept may be readily adopted within automotive and aerospace applications.
Technical Paper

Automotive Body Concept Modeling Method for the NVH Performance Optimization

2015-03-10
2015-01-0012
The development and application of the vehicle advanced CAE (computer aided engineering) allowed the vehicle designers to considerably reduce the weight and improve the structural performance of the body. However, the current advanced CAE model can only be available in the late design phase of the vehicle when only minor changes of the structure is feasible. Despite the detailed CAE model, which requires all detailed design, the concept CAE model can be created with less need for the detailed CAD data and it can be created in the early (concept) design phase. The members and panels of the automotive body in white (BIW) are modeled and approximated using beam and shell elements. The joints properties are then obtained from the original detailed CAE model using Guyan reduction method. The automotive seat concept model is also created and added to the concept BIW model.
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