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Technical Paper

Vehicle Evaluation of Synthetic and Conventional Engine Oils

A five-vehicle, 64 000-km test with 7.45 litre V-8 engines was conducted to determine if synthetic engine oils provided performance sufficiently superior to that of conventional engine oils to permit longer oil change intervals. The results show better performance in two areas of deposit control; inferior performance with respect to wear protection; and essentially equivalent performance in the areas of fuel and oil economies. Based on these data, it was concluded that synthetic engine oils do not provide the necessary performance required to safely recommend their use for extended oil change intervals. In addition, a cost analysis shows that the use of synthetic engine oils, even at a change interval of 32 000 km, will essentially double the customers' cost compared with conventional engine oils at GM's current 12 000-km change interval.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Viscosity Effects on Passenger Car Fuel Economy

As part of General Motors effort to improve fuel economy, the effects of engine and power train lubricant viscosities were investigated in passenger car tests using either high- or low- viscosity lubricants in the engine, automatic transmission, and rear axle. Fuel economy was determined in both constant speed and various driving cycle tests with the car fully warmed-up. In addition, fuel economy was determined in cold-start driving cycle tests. Using low-viscosity lubricants instead of high-viscosity lubricants improved warmed-up fuel economy by as much as 5%, depending upon the differences in lubricant viscosity and type of driving. Cold-start fuel economy with low-viscosity lubricants was 5% greater than that with high-viscosity lubricants. With such improvements, it is concluded that significant customer fuel economy gains can be obtained by using the lowest viscosity engine and power train lubricants recommended for service.
Technical Paper

A Rotary Engine Test to Evaluate Lubricants for Control of Rotor Deposits

During development of the General Motors rotary engine, the lubricant was recognized as important to its success because certain lubricants produced deposits which tended to stick both side and apex seals. Consequently, it was decided to develop a rotary engine-dynamometer test, using a Mazda engine, which could be used for lubricant evaluation. In an investigation using an SE engine oil with which there was rotary engine experience, engine operating variables and engine modifications were studied until the greatest amount of deposits were obtained in 100 h of testing. The most significant engine modifications were: omission of inner side seals, plugging of half the rotor bearing holes, pinning of oil seals, grinding of end and intermediate housings, and using a separate oil reservoir for the metering pump. Using this 100 h test procedure, three engine oils and five automatic transmission fluids were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Projected Lubricant Requirements of Engines Operating with Lead-Free Gasoline

Future low emissions engines will burn unleaded gasoline. Compared with engines of 1970, future engines will have lower concentrations of NOx in the blowby gases, and lower blowby flow-rates; however, oil temperatures will probably be unchanged. The consequences of these conditions for engines using high quality (SE) oils at current drain intervals are: virtual elimination of rust, reduction of sludge, no effect on wear and oil thickening, and possible worsening of varnish. Therefore, extension of the drain interval with SE engine oils in the future may be possible, but final decisions will depend on the findings of research in the areas of engine wear and varnish, and oil thickening.
Technical Paper

Friction Characteristics of Controlled-Slip Differential Lubricants

Controlled-slip differentials (CSD) improve car operation under wheel slipping conditions. The performance of CSD's is dependent upon two criteria associated with clutch friction: “chatter” and “effectiveness.” “Chatter” is an undesirable noise which may occur during differential action. “Effectiveness” is a measure of the ability of the CSD clutches to transfer torque, during wheel slippage, to the wheel with the greater traction. The objective of this investigation was to definitely establish the cause of chatter, measure CSD effectiveness, and relate friction characteristics of lubricants to CSD operation. In tests with an instrumented car, it was found that both chatter and effectiveness are strongly influenced by the lubricant. Chatter occurred with lubricants that produced an increase in clutch friction with decreasing sliding speed. Chatter did not occur with lubricants containing friction modifiers which produced a decrease in clutch friction with decreasing sliding speed.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil MS Test Sequences IIA and IIIA

Engine oil test Sequences IIA and IIIA have been developed to replace Sequences I, II, and III. These new sequences are designed to evaluate lubricants for use in current passenger car engines under severe (MS) service conditions. Lubricant performance is evaluated with respect to scuffing wear, rust, corrosion, deposits, and rumble. The Sequence IIA and IIIA test procedure involves major changes which affect the evaluation of engine rusting and provides improved correlation between test results and short-trip service. Average engine rust ratings correlate with service data within ±0.5 numbers. The new test also provides better repeatability and reproducibility in a significantly shorter schedule. The rust repeatability and reproducibility is less than ±0.2 and ±0.6 numbers, respectively. Test time has been reduced 52%.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance of Trim Materials

As the design of automobiles changed over the past seventy years, manufacturers have increased the usage of decorative trim to further enhance the beauty of styling concepts. As new trim materials were introduced and parts became more complicated in design, producers have continued their efforts to produce decorative trim parts which remain attractive during the service life of the automobile. The service performance of trim materials in several geographic locations, the use of accelerated tests to predict service performance, recent developments in improving the durability of plated parts, and requirements for producing quality exterior decorative trim are reviewed in this paper.