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Journal Article

Motorcycle Stability Control - The Next Generation of Motorcycle Safety and Riding Dynamics

2015-11-17
2015-32-0834
Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) for motorcycles have already contributed significantly to the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTW) on public roads by improving bike stability and controllability in emergency braking situations. In order to address further riding situations, another step forward has been achieved with Motorcycle Stability Control (MSC) system. By combining ABS, electronically combined braking system (eCBS), traction control and inertial sensors even in situations like braking and accelerating in corners the riders' safety can be improved. The MSC system controls the distribution of braking and traction forces using an algorithm that takes into account all available vehicle information from wheels, power train and vehicle attitude. With its ability to control fundamental vehicle dynamics, the MSC system will be a basis for further development and integration of comprehensive safety systems.
Technical Paper

Benefit Estimation of Anti-Lock Braking System for Powered Two Wheeler On Indian Highways

2015-01-14
2015-26-0167
Motorized two wheelers, also known as powered two wheelers (PTW) are the most common mode of transportation in India. Around one in four deaths that occurred on the roads in India in 2012 involved a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. This constitutes the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver travelling the same route [2]. An investigation conducted by Bosch looked at the accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). This investigation revealed interesting facts about the Indian motorcycle accident situation, such as root causes of powered two wheeler collisions and riders behaviour including their braking patterns during the pre-crash phase of the accident.
Technical Paper

Behaviour of Car Drivers in Accidents used to Estimate the Benefit of Car Antilock Brake System on Indian Highways

2015-01-14
2015-26-0172
In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
Technical Paper

ABS5 and ASR5: The New ABS/ASR Family to Optimize Directional Stability and Traction

1993-03-01
930505
In 1978, Bosch was the first supplier on the market to offer full-function antilock braking systems. In 1993, six years will have passed since Bosch delivered the first traction control system for passenger cars. In the meantime, a considerable amount of experience has been gained through ongoing development and testing. This experience enabled us to define the requirements for directional stability, optimum control strategy, maximum usage of the entire spectrum of drive torque intervention possibilities, and optimized hydraulics for automatic brake intervention. The result is Bosch ABS/ASR5, which in now being introduced to the market. This new ABS/ASR family is designed in modules, which offers high flexibility in function and assembly. Systems are available with traction improvement, or with optimized directional stability and traction. Each version is adapted to the needs of the vehicle drive layout, and adaptable to customer requirements.
Technical Paper

Traction Control (ASR) Using Fuel-Injection Suppression - A Cost Effective Method of Engine-Torque Control

1992-02-01
920641
Traction control (ASR) is the logical ongoing development of the antilock braking system (ABS). Due to the high costs involved though, the widespread practice of reducing the engine power by electronic throttle control (or electronic enginepower control) has up to now prevented ASR from becoming as widely proliferated as ABS. A promising method has now been developed in which fuel-injection suppression at individual cylinders is used as a low-price actuator for a budget-priced ASR. First of all, an overview of the possibilities for influencing wheel-torque by means of intervention at the engine and/or brake as a means of reducing driven wheel slip is presented. Then, the system, the control strategy, and the demands on the electronic engine-management system with sequential fuel injection are discussed. The system's possibilities and its limitations are indicated, and fears of damaging effects on the catalytic converter are eliminated.
Technical Paper

Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) for Commercial Vehicles - Status 1990 and Future Prospects

1990-10-01
901177
The paper begins with an overview of the history of ABS for commercial vehicles followed by a brief description of the technology of the BOSCH ABS at the time it went into mass production in 1981. Subsequently it describes the field experiences with ABS including the experiences of drivers and operators. These experiences are reflected in the equipment which BOSCH offers today. Additional functions such as ASR (traction control) have been integrated. The paper provides an overview of the functions available today and their implementation. The paper concludes with a discussion on potential continued developments and an attempt to describe the systems which will be required by the mid 9os.
Technical Paper

ABS and ASR for Passenger Cars -Coals and Limits

1989-02-01
890834
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) and Traction Control Systems (ASR) should ensure maximum stability and steerability even under extreme driving conditions. Since high performance systems additionally improve brake distance and traction within the given physical limits, every vehicle equipped with ABS and ASR offers considerably higher active safety. ABS was introduced into the market by the Robert Bosch GmbH more than ten years ago, and more than 3 million systems have been produced by the end of 1988. Volume production of ASR began in 1987. This paper describes several high-, medium-, and low performance concepts and compares them with regard to safety and performance. Although it seems to be nearly impossible to define a cost/benefit ratio between monetary values and safety, our purpose here is to identify further development strategies through the use of a decision matrix.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Simulation of Transient Tire Forces

1989-02-01
890640
High performance Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) are well known to allow for very rapid pressure changes in the wheel brake cylinders. Recordings of the wheel speed during ABS control show oscillations just after the rapid pressure changes. The oscillations can not be explained by simulation if the usual stationary brake force versus slip curves are used. Thus the investigation of the oscillations requires a different approach to the modelling of the tire. As a first step in the alternative modelling of the tire the forces and moments on the running tire were measured using an experimental car. During the measurement the pressure in the wheel brake cylinder was modulated stepwise. A new Rotating Wheel Dynamometer was used to take those measurements. The results showed that the oscillations which were observed in the wheel speed could also be found in the braking force on the tire. Contrarily, the corresponding oscillations could not be found in the braking torque.
Technical Paper

Anti-Lock Braking System for Commercial Vehicles

1988-10-01
881821
Commercial vehicles must convey people and goods safely and reliable, irrespective of the weather and road conditions. The ABS safety braking systems are an essential prerequisite for fulfillment of this primary task. ABS has been used in European commercial vehicles since 1981. Today there are already fittet as standard in buses to some extend. The contribution to increasing road safety is causing the European lawmakers to make ABS statutory for commercial vehicles and to make it part of their compulsory equipment. Suitable anti-lock braking systems and closed loop configurations for commercial vehicles are demonstrated by theoretical observations and technical driving trials, their axlespecific and closed-loop control characteristics are highlighted.
Technical Paper

Traction Control (ASR) for Commercial Vehicles. A Further Step Towards Safety on our Roads

1987-11-01
872272
Alongside steering, accelerating and braking are the basic operations in the automobile which are nowadays still left to the driver to perform in their entirety. In performing these basic functions, it may come about that excessive demands are made upon a driver, these arising due to poor road conditions - rain, snow and ice - or as a result of suddenly changing traffic situations. With the introduction of anti-lock braking systems (ABS), a decisive step has been taken to increase active driving and traffic safety. The ABS prevents the lockup of the wheels during overbraking. The vehicle remains steerable and retains stable directional control. Furthermore, in many cases, a shorter braking distance is gained compared to braking with the wheels locked up. BOSCH has been manufacturing and supplying ABS for passenger cars since 1978 and for commercial vehicles and buses since 1981. ABS has proved to be an overwhelming success in practical usage.
Technical Paper

ASR - Traction Control - A Logical Extension of ABS

1987-02-01
870337
Control of a car is lost, or considerably reduced, whenever one or more of the wheels exceed the stability limit during braking or accelerating due to excessive brake or drive slip. The problem of ensuring optimum stability, steerability and brake distance of a car during hard braking is solved by means of the well-known Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). The task to guarantee stability, steerability and optimum traction during acceleration, particularly on asymmetrical road surfaces and during cornering maneuvers, is being performed by the traction control system (ASR). Several means to provide an optimum traction control are described, e. g the control of engine torque by influencing the throttle plate and/or the ignition and/or the fuel injection.
Technical Paper

BOSCH-ABS - Designed for the User

1986-11-01
861977
Bosch's antilock braking system (ABS) is available for any type of vehicle design. It has been developed in cooperation with vehicle manufacturers and users. Safety and reliability were the eminent targets of this development. A new feature is a self-diagnostic system.
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