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Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging Studies of Gasoline Fuel Sprays at Fuel Injection Pressures from 300 to 1500 bar

2018-04-03
2018-01-0294
High-pressure gasoline fuel injection is a means to improve combustion efficiency and lower engine-out emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of fuel injection pressure on transient gasoline fuel spray development for a wide range of injection pressures, including over 1000 bar, using a constant volume chamber and high-speed imaging. Reference grade gasoline was injected at fuel pressures of 300, 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 bar into the chamber, which was pressurized with nitrogen at 1, 5, 10, and 20 bar at room temperature (298 K). Bulk spray imaging data were used to quantify spray tip penetration distance, rate of spray tip penetration and spray cone angle. Near-nozzle data were used to evaluate the early spray development.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0358
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has become the preferred technology for spark-ignition engines resulting in greater specific power output and lower fuel consumption, and consequently reduction in CO2 emission. However, GDI engines face a substantial challenge in meeting new and future emission limits, especially the stringent particle number (PN) emissions recently introduced in Europe and China. Studies have shown that the fuel used by a vehicle has a significant impact on engine out emissions. In this study, nine fuels with varying chemical composition and physical properties were tested on a modern turbo-charged side-mounted GDI engine with design changes to reduce particulate emissions. The fuels tested included four fuels meeting US certification requirements; two fuels meeting European certification requirements; and one fuel meeting China 6 certification requirements being proposed at the time of this work.
Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Technical Paper

Physics-Based Exhaust Pressure and Temperature Estimation for Low Pressure EGR Control in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0575
Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust pipe is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Effect of Ambient Condition on SACI Combustion Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0828
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) has the potential for significant fuel efficiency improvements and low engine-out emissions but a major limitation is its relatively small operating range, limited by pressure rise rate at high loads and cyclic variability and incomplete combustion at low loads. Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) can extend the operating range of HCCI, but since SACI includes both flame propagation and auto-ignition, it experiences higher cyclic variance than HCCI combustion and phasing control can be challenging. This paper investigates the effects of environmental conditions on SACI combustion. The first part of the paper investigates whether CA50 (the location of 50% heat release and the most commonly used combustion parameter for describing combustion phasing) is the best metric to describe combustion phasing and facilitate its control. CA50 and four other combustion phasing metrics are evaluated and compared in this study.
Technical Paper

Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0372
The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
Journal Article

Assessment of Cooled Low Pressure EGR in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1253
The use of Low Pressure - Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is intended to allow displacement reduction in turbocharged gasoline engines and improve fuel economy. Low Pressure EGR designs have an advantage over High Pressure configurations since they interfere less with turbocharger efficiency and improve the uniformity of air-EGR mixing in the engine. In this research, Low Pressure (LP) cooled EGR is evaluated on a turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine with variable valve timing using both simulation and experimental results. First, a model-based calibration study is conducted using simulation tools to identify fuel efficiency gains of LP EGR over the base calibration. The main sources of the efficiency improvement are then quantified individually, focusing on part-load de-throttling of the engine, heat loss reduction, knock mitigation as well as decreased high-load fuel enrichment through exhaust temperature reduction.
Journal Article

Design of a 4-Cylinder GTDI Engine with Part-Load HCCI Capability

2013-04-08
2013-01-0287
This paper focuses on the engine design portion of the Advanced Combustion Controls Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) project, a joint research project partially funded by a Department of Energy grant. The main goal of the project is to improve fuel economy in a gasoline fueled light-duty vehicle by 25% while maintaining similar performance and meeting SULEV emission standards. A Cadillac CTS with a high-feature naturally-aspirated 3.6L V6 engine was chosen as the baseline vehicle. To achieve the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline engine configuration, gasoline turbocharged direct-injection (GTDI) technology was utilized for engine downsizing in combination with part-load lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for further fuel economy gains. The GM 2.0L I4 GTDI Ecotec engine was used as the platform for the basis of this design.
Journal Article

Steady-State Combustion Development of a Downsized Multi-Cylinder Engine with Range Extended HCCI/SACI Capability

2013-04-08
2013-01-1655
This paper focuses on the combustion development portion of the Advanced Combustion Controls Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) project, a joint research project partially funded by a Department of Energy grant. The main goal of the project is to improve fuel economy in a gasoline fueled light-duty vehicle by 30% while maintaining similar performance and meeting SULEV emission standards for the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. In this study, several combustion modes Spark Ignited (SI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Spark- Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI)) were compared under various conditions (naturally aspirated, boosted, lean, and stoichiometric) to compare the methods of controlled auto-ignition on a downsized, boosted multi-cylinder engine with an advanced valvetrain system capable of operating under wide negative valve overlap (NVO) conditions.
Technical Paper

Energy Management - A Key Approach to Design The System Structure of Powertrain Control: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9007
The electrification of the powertrain, the diversity and the complexity of the more or less individual technical solutions which are preferred by different car manufacturers, create a steadily increasing challenge for the whole automotive industry. Missing standards and sales volumes still below the market expectations on the one hand, and the increasing interaction of the main powertrain domains (engine, transmission, e-drive) caused by upcoming cross domain functions on the other hand, lead to increasing development costs and non-optimal solutions concerning fuel economy improvement. Within the domain of engine management systems Bosch established in the mid-nineties the so called torque structure as the solution to a similar situation addressing the coordination of air management, fuel injection and ignition.
Journal Article

Design and Development of a Switching Roller Finger Follower for Discrete Variable Valve Lift in Gasoline Engine Applications

2012-09-10
2012-01-1639
Global environmental and economic concerns regarding increasing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission are driving changes to legislative regulations and consumer demand. As regulations become more stringent, advanced engine technologies must be developed and implemented to realize desired benefits. Discrete variable valve lift technology is a targeted means to achieve improved fuel economy in gasoline engines. By limiting intake air flow with an engine valve, as opposed to standard throttling, road-load pumping losses are reduced resulting in improved fuel economy. This paper focuses on the design and development of a switching roller finger follower system which enables two mode discrete variable valve lift on end pivot roller finger follower valvetrains. The system configuration presented includes a four-cylinder passenger car engine with an electro-hydraulic oil control valve, dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster, and switching roller finger follower.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

2012-09-10
2012-01-1640
An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Holistic Vehicle Energy Management - Moving Towards CAFE's Target

2011-04-12
2011-01-1014
EPA and NHTSA have harmonized Regulations for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) for model year (MY) 2012-16, published on April 1st, 2010. This requirement applies to all passenger cars and light trucks. Therefore the reduction of CO₂ emissions will be a major challenge for the automotive industry in the coming years to achieve the targets (GHG & CAFE) of 250 g/mi CO₂ and 35.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for MY 2016. In addition to combustion engine improvements, vehicle energy management and operating strategies offer a huge potential to reduce CO₂ emissions through innovative electronic systems. The paper will show a possible implementation of a holistic vehicle energy management system including the operating strategy "Free wheeling." Starting from a top-down approach, we have developed operating strategies that offer the possibility to optimize the energy usage of the entire system.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Measurements

2010-04-12
2010-01-0166
Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concentration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estimation of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust performance in such vehicles. Even if an ethanol sensor is utilized, an estimation scheme independent of the ethanol sensor measurement retains advantages in enhancing the reliability of ethanol estimation and allowing on-board diagnostics. It is well-known that an exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor could be utilized to estimate the ethanol content, which exploits the difference in stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (SAFR) between ethanol (9.0) and gasoline (14.6). The SAFR-based ethanol estimation has been shown to be prone to large errors with mass air flow sensor bias and/or fuel injector shift.
Technical Paper

Effects of B20 Fuel and Catalyst Entrance Section Length on the Performance of UREA SCR in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1173
The current study focused on the effects B20 fuel (20% soybean-based biodiesel) and SCR entrance shapes on a light-duty, high-speed, 2.8L common-rail 4-cylinder diesel engine, at different exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that B20 has less deNOX efficiency at low temperature than ULSD, and that N₂O emission need to be characterized as well as NH₃ slip. If a mixer and enough mixing length are used, longer divergence section does not improve the deNOX efficiency significantly under the speed ranges tested.
Technical Paper

Thermal-Mechanical Durability of DOC and DPF After-treatment System for Light Heavy Pickup Truck Application

2009-11-02
2009-01-2707
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s heavy duty diesel emission standard was tightened beginning from 2007 with the introduction of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. Most heavy duty diesel applications were required to equip Particulate Matter (PM) after-treatment systems to meet the new tighter, emission standard. Systems utilizing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed-Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) are a mainstream of modern diesel PM after-treatment systems. To ensure appropriate performance of the system, periodic cleaning of the PM trapped in DPF by its oxidation (a process called “regeneration”) is necessary. As a result, of this regeneration, DOC’s and DPF’s can be exposed to hundreds of thermal cycles during their lifetime. Therefore, to understand the thermo-mechanical performance of the DOC and DPF is an essential issue to evaluate the durability of the system.
Journal Article

Exhaust Valve & Valve Seat Insert – Development for an Industrial LPG Application

2009-05-13
2009-01-1602
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Technical Paper

Concept and Implementation of a Robust HCCI Engine Controller

2009-04-20
2009-01-1131
General Motors recently demonstrated two driveable test vehicles powered by a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. HCCI combustion has the potential of a significant fuel economy benefit with reduced after-treatment cost. However, the biggest challenge of realizing HCCI in vehicle applications is controlling the combustion process. Without a direct trigger mechanism for HCCI's flameless combustion, the in-cylinder mixture composition and temperature must be tightly controlled in order to achieve robust HCCI combustion. The control architecture and strategy that was implemented in the demo vehicles is presented in this paper. Both demo vehicles, one with automatic transmission and the other one with manual transmission, are powered by a 2.2-liter HCCI engine that features a central direct-injection system, variable valve lift on both intake and exhaust valves, dual electric camshaft phasers and individual cylinder pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0143
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Journal Article

Hot Surface Ignition of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Mixtures

2009-04-20
2009-01-0016
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of hot surface ignition (HSI) testing and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) auto-ignition testing (AIT) performed on gasoline fuel mixtures containing varying levels of ethanol. With the increased consumer interest in ethanol-based fuels as a measure of reducing the United States dependence on foreign oil, the use of E85 and other ethanol/petroleum fuel blends is on the increase. While some autoignition data for summer and winter blends of gasoline on hot surfaces exist beyond the standard ASTM E659-78 test procedure [1], there is little data on ethanol-based fuels and their HSI characteristics.
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