Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

The Effect of EGR Dilution on the Heat Release Rates of Boosted Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-1134
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the impact of EGR dilution on the tradeoff between flame and end-gas autoignition heat release in a Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) combustion engine. The mixture was maintained stoichiometric and fuel-to-charge equivalence ratio (ϕ') was controlled by varying the EGR dilution level at constant engine speed. Under all conditions investigated, end-gas autoignition timing was maintained constant by modulating the mixture temperature and spark timing. Experiments at constant intake pressure and spark timing showed that as ϕ' is increased, lower mixture temperatures are needed to match end-gas autoignition timing. Higher ϕ' mixtures exhibited faster initial flame burn rates, which were attributed to the higher estimated laminar flame speeds immediately after spark timing.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging Studies of Gasoline Fuel Sprays at Fuel Injection Pressures from 300 to 1500 bar

2018-04-03
2018-01-0294
High-pressure gasoline fuel injection is a means to improve combustion efficiency and lower engine-out emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of fuel injection pressure on transient gasoline fuel spray development for a wide range of injection pressures, including over 1000 bar, using a constant volume chamber and high-speed imaging. Reference grade gasoline was injected at fuel pressures of 300, 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 bar into the chamber, which was pressurized with nitrogen at 1, 5, 10, and 20 bar at room temperature (298 K). Bulk spray imaging data were used to quantify spray tip penetration distance, rate of spray tip penetration and spray cone angle. Near-nozzle data were used to evaluate the early spray development.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Speed on Spray Behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” Gasoline Injector

2018-04-03
2018-01-0305
Non-reacting spray behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” gasoline fuel injector were investigated at flash and non-flash boiling conditions in an optically accessible single cylinder engine and a constant volume spray chamber. High-speed Mie-scattering imaging was used to determine transient liquid-phase spray penetration distances and observe general spray behaviors. The standardized “G2” and “G3” test conditions recommended by the Engine Combustion Network were matched in this work and the fuel was pure iso-octane. Results from the constant volume chamber represented the zero (stationary piston) engine speed condition and single cylinder engine speeds ranged from 300 to 2,000 RPM. As expected, the present results indicated the general spray behaviors differed significantly between the spray chamber and engine. The differences must be thoughtfully considered when applying spray chamber results to guide spray model development for engine applications.
Technical Paper

A Model Based Approach for Generating Pre-Calibration Data for Two-Wheelers

2017-11-05
2017-32-0038
Today, 99% of the two wheelers in India operate with carburetor based fuel delivery system. But with implementation of Bharath Stage VI emission norms, compliance to emission limits along with monitoring of components in the system that contributes towards tail pipe emissions would be challenging. With the introduction of the OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics) and emission durability, mass migration to electronically controlled fuel delivery system is very much expected. The new emission norms also call for precise metering of the injected fuel and therefore demands extended calibration effort. The calibration of engine management system starts with the generation of pre-calibration dataset capable of operating the engine at all operating points followed by base calibration of the main parameters such as air charge estimation, fuel injection quantity, injection timing and ignition angles relative to the piston position.
Technical Paper

Physics-Based Exhaust Pressure and Temperature Estimation for Low Pressure EGR Control in Turbocharged Gasoline Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0575
Low pressure (LP) and cooled EGR systems are capable of increasing fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines, however they introduce control challenges. Accurate exhaust pressure modeling is of particular importance for real-time feedforward control of these EGR systems since they operate under low pressure differentials. To provide a solution that does not depend on physical sensors in the exhaust and also does not require extensive calibration, a coupled temperature and pressure physics-based model is proposed. The exhaust pipe is split into two different lumped sections based on flow conditions in order to calculate turbine-outlet pressure, which is the driving force for LP-EGR. The temperature model uses the turbine-outlet temperature as an input, which is known through existing engine control models, to determine heat transfer losses through the exhaust.
Technical Paper

A Control Algorithm for Low Pressure - EGR Systems Using a Smith Predictor with Intake Oxygen Sensor Feedback

2016-04-05
2016-01-0612
Low-pressure cooled EGR (LP-cEGR) systems can provide significant improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency and knock resistance. However, open-loop control of these systems is challenging due to low pressure differentials and the presence of pulsating flow at the EGR valve. This research describes a control structure for Low-pressure cooled EGR systems using closed loop feedback control along with internal model control. A Smith Predictor based PID controller is utilized in combination with an intake oxygen sensor for feedback control of EGR fraction. Gas transport delays are considered as dead-time delays and a Smith Predictor is one of the conventional methods to address stability concerns of such systems. However, this approach requires a plant model of the air-path from the EGR valve to the sensor.
Journal Article

Assessment of Cooled Low Pressure EGR in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1253
The use of Low Pressure - Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is intended to allow displacement reduction in turbocharged gasoline engines and improve fuel economy. Low Pressure EGR designs have an advantage over High Pressure configurations since they interfere less with turbocharger efficiency and improve the uniformity of air-EGR mixing in the engine. In this research, Low Pressure (LP) cooled EGR is evaluated on a turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine with variable valve timing using both simulation and experimental results. First, a model-based calibration study is conducted using simulation tools to identify fuel efficiency gains of LP EGR over the base calibration. The main sources of the efficiency improvement are then quantified individually, focusing on part-load de-throttling of the engine, heat loss reduction, knock mitigation as well as decreased high-load fuel enrichment through exhaust temperature reduction.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Effect of Ambient Condition on SACI Combustion Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0828
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) has the potential for significant fuel efficiency improvements and low engine-out emissions but a major limitation is its relatively small operating range, limited by pressure rise rate at high loads and cyclic variability and incomplete combustion at low loads. Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) can extend the operating range of HCCI, but since SACI includes both flame propagation and auto-ignition, it experiences higher cyclic variance than HCCI combustion and phasing control can be challenging. This paper investigates the effects of environmental conditions on SACI combustion. The first part of the paper investigates whether CA50 (the location of 50% heat release and the most commonly used combustion parameter for describing combustion phasing) is the best metric to describe combustion phasing and facilitate its control. CA50 and four other combustion phasing metrics are evaluated and compared in this study.
Technical Paper

Characterization of SACI Combustion for Use in Model Based Controls

2014-04-01
2014-01-1289
Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) aims to increase the load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, enabling the benefits of dilute combustion over a larger engine operation range. Compared to HCCI, SACI exhibits higher cyclic variation of several combustion features. Due to the necessity of control of the timing of the auto-ignition event during SACI operation, a suitable characterization of the combustion at a given set of actuator inputs is required to enable robust model-based controls of combustion. This paper investigates statistical approaches to analyze in-cylinder pressure data of SACI in order to find a real or reconstructed cycle that will represent the important characteristics of combustion. To determine the representativeness of such a cycle, several combustion characteristics were compared that could serve as operational limits.
Journal Article

Design of a 4-Cylinder GTDI Engine with Part-Load HCCI Capability

2013-04-08
2013-01-0287
This paper focuses on the engine design portion of the Advanced Combustion Controls Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) project, a joint research project partially funded by a Department of Energy grant. The main goal of the project is to improve fuel economy in a gasoline fueled light-duty vehicle by 25% while maintaining similar performance and meeting SULEV emission standards. A Cadillac CTS with a high-feature naturally-aspirated 3.6L V6 engine was chosen as the baseline vehicle. To achieve the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline engine configuration, gasoline turbocharged direct-injection (GTDI) technology was utilized for engine downsizing in combination with part-load lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for further fuel economy gains. The GM 2.0L I4 GTDI Ecotec engine was used as the platform for the basis of this design.
Journal Article

Steady-State Combustion Development of a Downsized Multi-Cylinder Engine with Range Extended HCCI/SACI Capability

2013-04-08
2013-01-1655
This paper focuses on the combustion development portion of the Advanced Combustion Controls Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) project, a joint research project partially funded by a Department of Energy grant. The main goal of the project is to improve fuel economy in a gasoline fueled light-duty vehicle by 30% while maintaining similar performance and meeting SULEV emission standards for the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. In this study, several combustion modes Spark Ignited (SI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Spark- Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI)) were compared under various conditions (naturally aspirated, boosted, lean, and stoichiometric) to compare the methods of controlled auto-ignition on a downsized, boosted multi-cylinder engine with an advanced valvetrain system capable of operating under wide negative valve overlap (NVO) conditions.
Journal Article

A New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

2013-04-08
2013-01-0850
Accurate evaluation of vehicles' transient total power requirement helps achieving further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency. When operated, the air-conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle, therefore accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation models, such as "Autonomie," have been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. However, the load from the A/C system on the engine or on the energy storage system has not always been modeled in sufficient detail. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software MATLAB/Simulink® is frequently used by vehicle controls engineers to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls.
Technical Paper

Energy Management - A Key Approach to Design The System Structure of Powertrain Control: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9007
The electrification of the powertrain, the diversity and the complexity of the more or less individual technical solutions which are preferred by different car manufacturers, create a steadily increasing challenge for the whole automotive industry. Missing standards and sales volumes still below the market expectations on the one hand, and the increasing interaction of the main powertrain domains (engine, transmission, e-drive) caused by upcoming cross domain functions on the other hand, lead to increasing development costs and non-optimal solutions concerning fuel economy improvement. Within the domain of engine management systems Bosch established in the mid-nineties the so called torque structure as the solution to a similar situation addressing the coordination of air management, fuel injection and ignition.
Journal Article

Understanding the Dynamic Evolution of Cyclic Variability at the Operating Limits of HCCI Engines with Negative Valve Overlap

2012-04-16
2012-01-1106
An experimental study is performed for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion focusing on late phasing conditions with high cyclic variability (CV) approaching misfire. High CV limits the feasible operating range and the objective is to understand and quantify the dominating effects of the CV in order to enable controls for widening the operating range of HCCI. A combustion analysis method is developed for explaining the dynamic coupling in sequences of combustion cycles where important variables are residual gas temperature, combustion efficiency, heat release during re-compression, and unburned fuel mass. The results show that the unburned fuel mass carries over to the re-compression and to the next cycle creating a coupling between cycles, in addition to the well known temperature coupling, that is essential for understanding and predicting the HCCI behavior at lean conditions with high CV.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Flamelet Modeling of Multiple Injection Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-0133
To enable the modeling of modern diesel engines, this work furthers the development of multi-dimensional flamelet models for application to designs that employ multiple injection strategies. First, the flamelet equations are extended to two dimensions following the work of Hasse and Peters [1] and Doran et al. [2] and a method of coupling the resulting equations interactively to a turbulent flow simulation for use in unsteady calculations is described. The external parameters required to solve the flamelet equations are the scalar dissipation rates. In previous studies, the dissipation rates of each mixture fraction have been scaled according to their realizable bounds and the cross-dissipation rate between mixture fractions has been neglected.
Journal Article

On-System Engine Cooling Fan Measurement as a Tool for Optimizing Cooling System Airflow Performance and Noise

2011-04-12
2011-01-1169
When designing the vehicle cooling system, accurate knowledge of the required airflow through the heat exchangers is necessary for proper specification of the cooling fan, the heat exchangers, and the associated electrical loads. The simplest method of expressing the engine cooling fan performance requirement is based on the “open air” performance curve measured on the airflow test chamber, excluding effects of the heat exchangers and vehicle environment. However, the difference between open air and on-system airflow performance and noise (installed on the heat exchangers) can be significant due to the influence of the heat exchangers, fan shroud, and downstream blockage on the airflow through the fan. If these factors are neglected in the evaluation of the cooling fan, incorrect specification of the fan performance can result.
Technical Paper

Holistic Vehicle Energy Management - Moving Towards CAFE's Target

2011-04-12
2011-01-1014
EPA and NHTSA have harmonized Regulations for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) for model year (MY) 2012-16, published on April 1st, 2010. This requirement applies to all passenger cars and light trucks. Therefore the reduction of CO₂ emissions will be a major challenge for the automotive industry in the coming years to achieve the targets (GHG & CAFE) of 250 g/mi CO₂ and 35.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for MY 2016. In addition to combustion engine improvements, vehicle energy management and operating strategies offer a huge potential to reduce CO₂ emissions through innovative electronic systems. The paper will show a possible implementation of a holistic vehicle energy management system including the operating strategy "Free wheeling." Starting from a top-down approach, we have developed operating strategies that offer the possibility to optimize the energy usage of the entire system.
Technical Paper

Effects of B20 Fuel and Catalyst Entrance Section Length on the Performance of UREA SCR in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1173
The current study focused on the effects B20 fuel (20% soybean-based biodiesel) and SCR entrance shapes on a light-duty, high-speed, 2.8L common-rail 4-cylinder diesel engine, at different exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that B20 has less deNOX efficiency at low temperature than ULSD, and that N₂O emission need to be characterized as well as NH₃ slip. If a mixer and enough mixing length are used, longer divergence section does not improve the deNOX efficiency significantly under the speed ranges tested.
Journal Article

A Study of Effects of Brake Contact Interfaces on Brake Squeal

2009-05-19
2009-01-2100
Brake squeal is caused by the friction-induced vibration at the rotor/pad interfaces (primary contact interfaces) in a disc brake system. While there have been numerous research work evaluating the influence of primary contact interfaces on brake squeal, few studies can be found on the effect of the secondary contact interfaces, i.e., outer pad/caliper fingers, inner pad/pistons and pad/abutment, which can also significantly affect brake squeal based on our various dynamometer and vehicle tests. It is therefore the objective of this paper to investigate both the primary and the secondary contact interfaces and their influence on brake squeal. Simplified analytical models are created to gain insight into the stability of the brake system under low and high brake pressure; non-linear FEA analysis is employed for parametric study and countermeasure development; dynamometer and vehicle tests are used for verification.
Technical Paper

Humidity Effects on a Carbon Hydrocarbon Adsorber

2009-04-20
2009-01-0873
Because combustion engine equipped vehicles must conform to stringent hydrocarbon (HC) emission requirements, many of them on the road today are equipped with an engine air intake system that utilizes a hydrocarbon adsorber. Also known as HC traps, these devices capture environmentally dangerous gasoline vapors before they can enter the atmosphere. A majority of these adsorbers use activated carbon as it is cost effective and has excellent adsorption characteristics. Many of the procedures for evaluating the adsorbtive performance of these emissions devices use mass gain as the measurand. It is well known that activated carbon also has an affinity for water vapor; therefore it is useful to understand how well humidity must be controlled in a laboratory environment. This paper outlines investigations that were conducted to study how relative humidity levels affect an activated carbon hydrocarbon adsorber.
X