Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 9 of 9
Technical Paper

Study on the Pre-Chamber Fueling Ratio Effect on the Main Chamber Combustion Using Simultaneous PLIF and OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

Pre-chamber combustion (PCC) enables leaner air-fuel ratio operation by improving its ignitability and extending flammability limit, and consequently, offers better thermal efficiency than conventional spark ignition operation. The geometry and fuel concentration of the pre-chamber (PC) is one of the major parameters that affect overall performance. To understand the dynamics of the PCC in practical engine conditions, this study focused on (i) correlation of the events in the main chamber (MC) with the measured in-cylinder pressure traces and, (ii) the effect of fuel concentration on the MC combustion characteristics using laser diagnostics. We performed simultaneous acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) from the side, and OH* chemiluminescence imaging from the bottom in a heavy-duty optical engine. Two different PC Fueling Ratios (PCFR, the ratio of PC fuel to the total fuel), 7%, and 13%, were investigated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-Chamber Enrichment on Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Spark Ignition Combustion Concept with a Narrow-Throat Geometry

Pre-chamber spark ignition (PCSI) combustion is an emerging lean-burn combustion mode capable of extending the lean operation limit of an engine. The favorable characteristic of short combustion duration at the lean condition of PCSI results in high efficiencies compared to conventional spark ignition combustion. Since the engine operation is typically lean, PCSI can significantly reduce engine-out NOx emissions while maintaining short combustion durations. In this study, experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty engine at lean conditions at mid to low load. Two major studies were performed. In the first study, the total fuel energy input to the engine was fixed while the intake pressure was varied, resulting in varying the global excess air ratio. In the second study, the intake pressure was fixed while the amount of fuel was changed to alter the global excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization of a Multi-Cylinder CI Engine Running with a Low RON Gasoline Fuel Considering Different Air Loop and After-Treatment Configurations

Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low research octane number (RON) gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different cetane number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aromatics on Combustion Stratification and Particulate Emissions from Low Octane Gasoline Fuels in PPC and HCCI Mode

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatic on combustion stratification and particulate emissions for PRF60. Experiments were performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for TPRF0 (100% v/v PRF60), TPRF20 (20% v/v toluene + 80% PRF60) and TPRF40 (40% v/v toluene + 60% PRF60). TPRF mixtures were prepared in such a way that the RON of all test blends was same (RON = 60). Single injection strategy with a fuel injection pressure of 800 bar was adopted for all test fuels. Start of injection (SOI) was changed from early to late fuel injection timings, representing various modes of combustion viz HCCI, PPC and CDC. High-speed video of the in-cylinder combustion process was captured and one-dimensional stratification analysis was performed from the intensity of images. Particle size, distribution and concentration were measured and linked with the in-cylinder combustion images.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effect on Combustion Stratification in Partially Premixed Combustion

The literature study on PPC in optical engine reveals investigations on OH chemiluminescence and combustion stratification. So far, mostly PRF fuel is studied and it is worthwhile to examine the effect of fuel properties on PPC. Therefore, in this work, fuel having different octane rating and physical properties are selected and PPC is studied in an optical engine. The fuels considered in this study are diesel, heavy naphtha, light naphtha and their corresponding surrogates such as heptane, PRF50 and PRF65 respectively. Without EGR (Intake O2 = 21%), these fuels are tested at an engine speed of 1200 rpm, fuel injection pressure of 800 bar and pressure at TDC = 35 bar. SOI is changed from late to early fuel injection timings to study PPC and the shift in combustion regime from CI to PPC is explored for all fuels. An increased understanding on the effect of fuel octane number, physical properties and chemical composition on combustion and emission formation is obtained.
Journal Article

On Knock Intensity and Superknock in SI Engines

Most studies on knock ignore the stochastic nature of knock and focus on the onset of knock which is determined by chemical kinetics. This paper focuses on knock intensity (KI) which is determined by the evolution of the pressure wave following knock onset in a hot spot and highlights the stochastic processes involved. KI is defined in this study as the maximum peak-to-peak pressure fluctuation that follows the onset of knock. It depends on ξ = (a/ua) where ua is the speed of the autoignition front and a is the speed of sound. When ua is small, KI can be related to the product of a parameter Z, which depends on Pko, the pressure at knock onset and the square of (∂x/∂T), which is the inverse of the gradient of temperature with distance in the hot spot. Both Z and (∂x/∂T) were calculated using measured KI and Pko for hundreds of individual knocking cycles for different fuels.
Technical Paper

Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure.
Technical Paper

Using Engine Experiments to Isolate Fuel Equivalence Ratio Effects on Heat Release in HCCI Combustion

Detailed combustion studies have historically been conducted in simplified reacting systems, such as shock-tubes and rapid compression machines. The reciprocating internal combustion engine presents many challenges when used to isolate the effects of fuel chemistry from thermodynamics. On the other hand, the conditions in such engines are the most representative in terms of pressure and temperature histories. This paper describes the use of a single-cylinder research engine as an advanced reactor to better determine fuel effects experimentally. In particular, a single-cylinder engine was operated in a manner that allowed the effects of changes in charge composition and temperatures to be isolated from changes in equivalence ratio. An example study is presented where the relative effects of low-temperature and high-temperature chemistry, and their effects on combustion phasing, are isolated and examined.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Effect of Fuel Equivalence Ratio in an HCCI Combustion Engine Using PRF 60

The effect of fuel equivalence ratio on the autoignition and combustion processes in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been studied using a primary reference fuel (PRF60). Experiments have been performed on a single-cylinder engine operated in an alternate-fire mode. The operating conditions of the engine used in this work were an intake air pressure and temperature of 1.5 bar and 75°C respectively, an engine speed of 1200 rpm, compression ratio of 12:1, with varying fuel equivalence ratio (φ). A single zone CHEMKIN model using reduced chemical kinetic model of 560 species and 2818 reactions based on a 5 components gasoline surrogate from Reaction Design's Model Fuels Consortium was used to predict the HCCI engine combustion behavior for different fuel equivalence ratios.