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Technical Paper

A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

2019-09-16
2019-01-1883
Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and positioners. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head. Once the ball-head gets into the ball-socket, the pneumatic system will drive the pistons to move to the specified location.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Optimization for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0161
Excellent energy consumption performance of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is usually attributed to its hybrid drive mode. However, the factors including vehicle performance, driver behavior and traffic status have been shown to cause unsatisfactory performance. This phenomenon leads to a necessity of study on energy consumption control strategies under real-world driving conditions. This paper proposes a new approach for energy management optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on real-world driving data for two purposes. One is for improving the energy consumption of PHEV under real-world driving conditions and the other is for reducing the computational complexity of optimization methods in simulation models. In this process, the paper collected real-world driving record data from 180 drivers within 6 months. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to extract and define the hidden factors from the initial real-world driving data.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Gas Cooler in a CO2 Automobile Heat Pump System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0912
An automobile heat pump system with conventional refrigerant (HFC-134a or HFO-1234yf) suffers significantly diminishment of heating capacity and system efficiency as the ambient temperature decreases. Natural refrigerant CO2 (GWP = 1) is considered as a promising alternative to HFC-134a in automobile air conditioning (MAC) applications with environmentally friendly advantage. In addition, CO2 automobile heat pump system is a promising heat pump technology for EVs with great heating advantages in a cold climate. This study aims to investigate the supercritical heat transfer characteristics of a compact micro-channel gas cooler applied in an automobile CO2 heat pump system. A simulation model of automobile gas cooler was developed by using segment-by-segment method, and validated by experimental results from Series Gas cooler (SGC) and One Gas cooler (OGC) CO2 heat pump systems. The error of heating capacity between calculated results and experimental results was less than 7%.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of a Novel Magnetorheological Fluid Dual Clutch for Electric Vehicle Transmission

2019-02-18
2019-01-5014
A novel magnetorheological fluid dual clutch (MRFDC) for electric vehicle transmission is proposed in this article. The structure was based on the MR fluid clutch and traditional dual clutch equipped on internal combustion engine vehicle. Therefore the MRFDC combines the advantages of MR fluid clutch and dual clutch transmission (DCT) to achieve high control accuracy and fast response. The structure of MRFDC was designed by Unigraphics (UG) three-dimensional (3D) modeling software. Then, finite element analysis (FEA) for magnetic field was conducted by ANSYS under different applied currents from 0.1A to 1A with 0.1A space to obtain the relation between the applied current and magnetic field. In this article, Herschel-Bulkley model is used to predict the MR fluid behavior because of the high shear rate of MR fluid.
Technical Paper

Application of the Newly Developed KLSA Model into Optimizing the Compression Ratio of a Turbocharged SI Engine with Cooled EGR

2018-10-30
2018-32-0037
Owing to the stochastic nature of engine knock, determination of the knock limited spark angle (KLSA) is difficult in engine cycle simulation. Therefore, the state-of-the-art knock modeling is mostly limited to either merely predicting knock onset (i.e. auto-ignition of end gas) or combining a simple unburned mass fraction (UMF) model representative of knock intensity (KI). In this study, a newly developed KLSA model, which takes both predictions of knock onset and intensity into account, is firstly introduced. Multiple variables including the excess air ratio, EGR ratio, cylinder pressure and the end gas temperature are included in the knock onset model. Based on the auto-ignition theory of hot spots in end gas, both the energy density and heat release rate in hot spots are taken into consideration in the KI model.
Technical Paper

The Nozzle Flows and Atomization Characteristics of the Two-Component Surrogate Fuel of Diesel from Indirect Coal Liquefaction at Engine Conditions

2018-09-10
2018-01-1691
Recently, all world countries facing the stringent emission regulations have been encouraged to explore the clean fuel. The diesel from indirect coal liquefaction (DICL) has been verified that can reduce the soot and NOx emissions of compression-ignition engine. However, the atomization characteristics of DICL are rarely studied. The aim of this work is to numerically analyze the inner nozzle flow and the atomization characteristics of the DICL and compare the global and local flow characteristics of the DICL with the NO.2 diesel (D2) at engine conditions. A surrogate fuel of the DICL (a mixture of 72.4% n-dodecane and 27.6% methylcyclohexane by mass) was built according to its components to simulate the atomization characteristics of the DICL under the high-temperature and high-pressure environment (non-reacting) by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Rate Profiles on Auto-Ignition in Ignition Quality Tester

2018-09-10
2018-01-1695
Ignition quality tester (IQT) is a standard experimental device to determine ignition delay time of liquid fuels in a controlled environment in the absence of gas exchange. The process involves fuel injection, spray breakup, evaporation and mixing, which is followed by auto-ignition. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used for prediction of auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol. In particular, the sensitivity of the ignition behavior to different injection rate profiles is investigated. Fluctuant rate profile derived from needle lift data from experiments performs better than square rate profile in ignition delay predictions. DEE, when used with fluctuant injection rate profile resulted in faster ignition, while for ethanol the situation was reversed. The contrasting results are attributed to the difference in local mixing.
Technical Paper

Tumble Vortex Characterization by Complex Moments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0207
Rotating flow inside an internal combustion engine cylinder is deliberately engineered for improved fuel-air mixing and combustion. The details of the rotating flow structure vary temporally over an engine cycle as well as cyclically at the same engine phase. Algorithms in the literature to identify these structural details of the rotating flow invariably focus on locating its center and, on occasion, measuring its rotational strength and spatial extent. In this paper, these flow structure parameters are evaluated by means of complex moments, which have been adapted from image (scalar field) recognition applications to two-dimensional flow pattern (vector field) analysis. Several additional detailed characteristics of the rotating flow pattern - the type and extent of its deviation from the ideal circular pattern, its rotational and reflectional symmetry (if exists), and thus its orientation - are also shown to be related to the first few low-order complex moments of the flow pattern.
Journal Article

Experiment and Simulation Study on Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Composite Component under Dynamic Three-Point Bending Loading

2018-04-03
2018-01-0096
In the current work, unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber composite hatsection component with two different layups are studied under dynamic three-point bending loading. The experiments are performed at various impact velocities, and the effects of impactor velocity and layup on acceleration histories are compared. A macro model is established with LS-DYNA for a more detailed study. The simulation results show that the delamination plays an important role during dynamic three-point bending test. Based on the analysis with a high-speed camera, the sidewall of hatsection shows significant buckling rather than failure. Without considering the delamination, the current material model cannot capture the post-failure phenomenon correctly. The sidewall delamination is modeled by assumption of larger failure strain together with slim parameters, and the simulation results of different impact velocities and layups match the experimental results reasonably well.
Journal Article

Multidisciplinary Optimization of Auto-Body Lightweight Design Using Hybrid Metamodeling Technique and Particle Swarm Optimizer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0583
Because of rising complexity during the automotive product development process, the number of disciplines to be concerned has been significantly increased. Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methodology, which provides an opportunity to integrate each discipline and conduct compromise searching process, is investigated and introduced to achieve the best compromise solution for the automotive industry. To make a better application of MDO, the suitable coupling strategy of different disciplines and efficient optimization techniques for automotive design are studied in this article. Firstly, considering the characteristics of automotive load cases which include many shared variables but rare coupling variables, a multilevel MDO coupling strategy based on enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO) is studied to improve the computational efficiency of MDO problems.
Technical Paper

System Characteristics of Direct and Secondary Loop Heat Pump for Electrical Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0063
The electricity energy consumption for passenger cabin heating can drastically shorten the driving range for electric vehicles in cold climates. Mobile heat pump system is considered as an effective method to improve heating efficiency. This study investigates the system characteristics of mobile heat pump systems for electrical vehicle application. Based on KULI thermal management software, simulation models including HFC-R134a direct heat pump (DHP) and secondary loop heat pump (SLHP) were developed. The secondary loop employed in the SLHP includes a coolant pump, an indoor heater core and a plate heat exchanger, instead of an indoor condenser in the DHP. The use of a secondary loop has advantages to improve air outlet temperature uniformity. The simulation models were verified by measured data obtained from calorimeter experiments. By adopting simulation models, the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures on system performance and cycle characteristics were discussed.
Technical Paper

Optimization-Based Control Strategy for Large Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1030
Electric vehicles (EVs) have become a hot research topic due to the petroleum crisis and air pollution issues, and Hybrid EVs (HEVs) equipped with engines and motors are popular nowadays due to their advantage over Pure EVs. The energy distribution between the engine and the motor is the major task of the control strategy or energy management for HEVs. Rule-based and optimization-based approaches are developed in this area, but not much work has been done for large-size super-capacitor (SC) equipped HEVs, like Hybrid buses. In this paper, a new optimization-based control strategy for a hybrid bus equipped with SCs as the energy regeneration system is presented. Considering the driving patterns of a bus that is of frequent accelerations and decelerations, it is proposed to characterize each time instant by its speed and acceleration, and the energy distribution is optimized based on these two state variables.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Study on Similarity of Diesel Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0235
Based on the similarity theory and conservation equations, some of the important dimensionless numbers in diesel combustion are deduced and discussed. Existence of similarity is theoretically proved in diffusion (or mixing-controlled) combustion and premixed combustion as well as in spray mixture formation processes in different size diesel engines. With the prerequisite of geometric similarity, scaling rules for some parameters including engine speed, injection pressure and injection duration are established to realize the similarity between large-bore and small-bore diesel engines. To verify the similarity theories, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation are conducted, and three scaling rules, which keep the engine speed, injection pressure and lift-off length constant, respectively, are compared under the conditions of the light load (0.3 MPa IMEP) and high load (1.55 MPa IMEP) operations.
Journal Article

In-Flame Soot Sampling and Morphology Analysis in an Optical Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1418
Stringent particulate emission regulations are applied to spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, calling for a significant in-cylinder reduction of soot particles. To enhance fundamental knowledge of the soot formation and oxidation process inside the cylinder of the engine, a new in-flame particle sampling system has been developed and implemented in a working optical SIDI engine with a side-mounted, wall-guided injection system. Using the sampling probes installed on the piston top, the soot particles are directly sampled from the petrol flame for detailed analysis of particle size distribution, structure, and shape. At the probe tip, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid is stored for the soot collection via thermophoresis, which is imaged and post-processed for statistical analysis. Simultaneously, the flame development was recorded using two high-speed cameras to evidence the direct exposure of the sampling grids to the soot-laden diffusion flames and pool fires.
Technical Paper

A Novel Normal Measurement Method for Robotic Drilling and Countersinking

2017-09-19
2017-01-2088
A novel normal measurement device for robotic drilling and countersinking has been developed. This device is mainly composed of three contact displacement sensors and a spherically compliant clamp pad. The compliance of the clamp pad allows it to be perpendicular to the part when the Multi-Function End Effector (MFEE) drives it to clamp the part surface prior to drilling, while the displacement sensors are used to measure the movement of the clamp pad relative to the MFEE. Once the sensors’ position is calibrated, the rotation angle of the clamp pad can be calculated by the displacement of the sensors. Then, the normal adjustment of MFEE is obtained, and the adjustment process can be achieved by the Rotation Tool Center Point (RTCP) function of robot. Thus, an innovative method based on laser tracker to identify the position of sensors is proposed.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Tolerance Optimization Considering Friction Loss for Internal Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0250
Manufacturing of the internal combustion engines (ICEs) has very critical requirements on the precision and tolerance of engine parts in order to guarantee the engine performance. As a typical complex nonlinear system, small changes in dimensions of ICE components may have great impact on the performance and cost of the manufacturing of ICES. In this regard, it is still necessary to discuss the optimization of the tolerance and manufacturing precision of the critical components of ICEs even though the tolerance optimization in general has been reported in the literature. A systematic process for determining optimal tolerances will overcome the disadvantages of the traditional experience-based tolerance design and therefore improve the system performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning PID Design for Slip Control of Wedge Clutches

2017-03-28
2017-01-1112
The wedge clutch takes advantages of small actuation force/torque, space-saving and energy-saving. However, big challenge arises from the varying self-reinforced ratio due to the varying friction coefficient inevitably affected by temperature and wear. In order to improve the smoothness and synchronization time of the slipping process of the wedge clutch, this paper proposes a self-tuning PID controller based on Lyapunov principle. A new Lyapunov function is developed for the wedge clutch system. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID obtains much less error than the conventional PID with fixed gains. Moreover, the self-tuning PID is more adaptable to the variation of the friction coefficient for the error is about 1/5 of the conventional PID.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Sprays on In-Cylinder Flow Length Scales in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0618
The interaction of fuel sprays and in-cylinder flow in direct-injection engines is expected to alter kinetic energy and integral length scales at least during some portions of the engine cycle. High-speed particle image velocimetry was implemented in an optical four-valve, pent-roof spark-ignition direct-injection single-cylinder engine to quantify this effect. Non-firing motored engine tests were performed at 1300 RPM with and without fuel injection. Two fuel injection timings were investigated: injection in early intake stroke represents quasi-homogenous engine condition; and injection in mid compression stroke mimics the stratified combustion strategy. Two-dimensional crank angle resolved velocity fields were measured to examine the kinetic energy and integral length scale through critical portions of the engine cycle. Reynolds decomposition was applied on the obtained engine flow fields to extract the fluctuations as an indicator for the turbulent flow.
Journal Article

Design of an Adaptive FO-PID Controller for an In-Wheel-Motor Driven Electric Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-0427
An EV prototype, with all the wheels respectively driven by 4 inwheel motors, is developed, and undergoes a series of practical measurements and road tests. Based on the obtained vehicle parameters, a multi-body dynamics model is built by using SolidWorks and Adams/Car, and then validated by track test data. The virtual prototype is served as the control plant in simulation. An adaptive fractional order PID (A-FO-PID) controller is designed to enhance the handling and stability performance of the EV. Considering the model uncertainties, e.g. the variation in body mass distribution and the consequent change in yaw moment of inertial, a Parameter Self-Adjusting Differential Evolution (PSA-DE) algorithm is adopted for tuning the controller parameters, i.e. KP, KI, KD, λ and μ. As a modification of traditional DE algorithm, the so-called Variance of Population’s Fitness is utilized to evaluate the diversity of the population.
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