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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Injection Strategies to Improve Intelligent Charge Compression Ignition (ICCI) Combustion with Methanol and Biodiesel Direct Injection

Applications of methanol and biodiesel in internal combustion engines have raised widespread concerns, but there is still huge scope for improvement in efficiency and emissions. The brand-new combustion mode, named as Intelligent Charge Compression Ignition (ICCI) combustion, was proposed with methanol-biodiesel dual fuel direct injection. In this paper, effects of injection parameters such as two-stage split-injections, injection timings, injection pressure and intake pressure on engine combustion and emissions were investigated at IMEP = 8, 10, and 12 bar. Results show that the indicated thermal efficiency up to 53.5% and the NOx emissions approaching to EURO VI standard can be obtained in ICCI combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Impinging Spray and Corresponding Fuel Film under Different Injection and Ambient Pressure

It has been found that the spray impingement on piston for SIDI engines significantly influences engine emission and combustion efficiency. Fuel film sticking on the wall will dramatically cause deterioration of engine friction performance, incomplete combustion, and substantial cycle-to-cycle variations. When increasing the injection pressure, these effects are more pronounce. Besides, the ambient pressure also plays an important role on the spray structure and influences the footprint of impinging spray on the plate. However, the dynamic behavior of impinging spray and corresponding film was not investigated thoroughly in previous literature. In this study, simultaneous measurements of macroscopic structure (side view) and its corresponding footprint (bottom view) of impinging spray was conducted using a single-hole, prototype injector in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure on Nozzle Internal Flow and Jet Breakup under Sub-Cooled and Flash Boiling Test Conditions

Injection pressure plays a vital role in spray break-up and atomization. High spray injection pressure is usually adopted to optimize the spray atomization in gasoline direct injection fuel system. However, higher injection pressure also leads to engine emission problem related to wall wetting. To solve this problem, researchers are trying to use flash boiling method to control the spray atomization process under lower injection test conditions. However, the effect of injection pressure on the spray atomization under flash boiling test condition has not been adequately investigated yet. In this study, quantitative study of internal flow and near nozzle spray breakup were carried out based on a two-dimensional transparent nozzle via microscopic imaging and phase Doppler interferometery. N-hexane was chosen as test fluid with different injection pressure conditions. Fuel temperature varied from 112°C to 148°C, which covered a wide range of superheated conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emissions from a Dual-Injection Gasoline Engine

European standards have set stringent PN (particle number) regulation (6×1011 #/km) for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, posing a great challenge for the particulate emission control of GDI engines. Dual-injection, which combines direct-injection (DI) with port-fuel-injection (PFI), is an effective approach to reduce particle emissions of GDI engine while maintaining good efficiency and power output. In order to investigate the PN emission characteristics under different dual-injection strategies, a DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to characterize the effects of injection strategies on particulates emissions from a dual-injection gasoline engine. In this study, the injection strategies include injection timing, injection ratio and injection pressure of direct-injection.
Journal Article

In-Flame Soot Sampling and Morphology Analysis in an Optical Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine

Stringent particulate emission regulations are applied to spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, calling for a significant in-cylinder reduction of soot particles. To enhance fundamental knowledge of the soot formation and oxidation process inside the cylinder of the engine, a new in-flame particle sampling system has been developed and implemented in a working optical SIDI engine with a side-mounted, wall-guided injection system. Using the sampling probes installed on the piston top, the soot particles are directly sampled from the petrol flame for detailed analysis of particle size distribution, structure, and shape. At the probe tip, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid is stored for the soot collection via thermophoresis, which is imaged and post-processed for statistical analysis. Simultaneously, the flame development was recorded using two high-speed cameras to evidence the direct exposure of the sampling grids to the soot-laden diffusion flames and pool fires.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of the Flame Lift-Off Length on Direct Injection Diesel Sprays Using High Speed Schlieren Imaging and OH Chemiluminescence

Lift-off length is defined as the distance from injector hole to the location where flame stabilized on a high injection pressure direct injection (DI) diesel spray. In this paper we used the high-speed (40 kHz) Schlieren and time-averaged OH chemiluminescence imaging technique to simultaneously measure the flame lift-off locations on a DI diesel spray in an optically accessible and constant-volume combustion vessel. The time-resolved development of the diesel spray acquired from the high-speed Schlieren imaging system enabled us to observe the instantaneous spray structure details of the spray flames. The OH chemiluminescence image obtained from a gated, intensified CCD video camera with different delay and width settings was used to determine the quiescent lift-off length. Experiments were conducted under various ambient temperatures, ambient gas densities, injection pressures and oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Binary Surrogate Model for Biodiesel

In the present study a novel surrogate model for biodiesel including methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl crotonate (MC) was proposed and validated. In the binary mixture of surrogate fuel, MD was chosen to represent saturated methyl esters, which exhibited great low-temperature reactivity with typical negative temperature-coefficient (NTC) behavior and MC represented unsaturated components in real biodiesel, which was mainly responsible for soot formation and evolution. The proportion of MD and MC was determined by matching the characteristics such as derived cetane number (DCN), molecular weight (MW), atom number, H/C ratio and unsaturated degree. All of the criterions were calculated by the least square principles and the calculated surrogate of biodiesel was comprised of 92% MD and 8% MC in mole fraction. Furthermore, detailed kinetic model of the surrogate fuel was constructed and developed with modifications, which was composed of 2918 species and 9164 reactions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Characterization at Ultra-High Injection Pressure of DENSO 250 MPa Common Rail Fuel Injection System

High fuel injection pressure has been regarded as a key controlling factor for internal combustion engines to achieve good combustion performance with reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency. For common-rail injection system (CRS) used in advanced diesel engines, fuel injection pressure can often be raised to beyond 200 MPa. Although characteristics of diesel spray has been thoroughly studied, little work has been done at ultra-high injection pressures. In this work, the characteristics of CRS diesel spray under ultra-high injection pressure up to 250 MPa was investigated. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume chamber. The injection pressure varied from 50 MPa to up to 250 MPa. Both non-evaporating condition and evaporating condition were studied. A single-hole injector was specially designed for this investigation.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Injector Configuration on the Spray Evaporation Characteristics under Superheated Conditions

In spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engines, the injector configuration plays an important role on influencing the spray atomization and evaporation. In order to optimize the injector configuration to generate a better fuel spray, the further study to understand the effect of injector configuration is needed. In this study, the influence of the hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) on the fuel spray evaporation is investigated in a constant volume chamber under various operating conditions. The laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique is utilized to capture the vapor fluorescence signal of fuel spray. The fuel sprays with the fuel temperature ranging from 45°C to 85°C and ambient pressure ranging from 20kPa to 100kPa are investigated to study the influences of superheated degree (SD) on the spray evaporation.
Journal Article

Analyzing the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Vapor and Liquid Phases of Evaporating SIDI Sprays via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Technique

In this study, the spray characteristics of three multi-hole injectors, namely a 2-hole injector, a 4-hole injector, and a 6-hole injector were investigated under various superheated conditions. Fuel pressure was kept constant at 10MPa. Fuel temperature varied from 20°C to 85°C, and back pressure ranged from 20kPa to 100kPa. Both liquid phase and vapor phase of the spray were investigated via laser induced exciplex fluorescence technique. Proper orthogonal decomposition technique was applied to analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of the liquid phase and vapor phase of the fuel spray separately. Effects of fuel temperature, back pressure, superheated degree and nozzle number on spray variation were revealed. It shows that higher fuel temperature led to a more stable spray due to enhanced evaporation which eliminated the fluctuating structures along the spray periphery. Higher back pressure led to higher spray variation due to increased interaction between spray and ambient air.
Technical Paper

Experimental Research on Mixture Distribution of Diesel Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion

The diesel premixed low-temperature combustion mode avoids the generation of thick mixture and the high temperature region in which a great amount of NOx and PM generates. It makes a significant reduction in the emissions of both NOx and PM available at the same time. However, with the quantity of pre-injection increases and the injection time advances, the emission of HC increases significantly, which causes a decrease in the combustion efficiency. Studies have shown that the flame quench caused by too thick or too lean mixture and the oil film on the chamber is the main source for the emission of HC. As a result, understanding the mechanism of atomization and evaporation of the fuel and the formation of the mixture makes significant sense. This paper focuses on the mixture formation process. And the methods of testing the distribution of the mixture, the influential factors and control methods are studied.
Journal Article

Estimation on the Location of Peak Pressure at Quick Start of HEV Engine Employing Ion Sensing Technology

In this paper an estimation method on location of peak pressure (LPP) employing flame ionization measurement, with the spark plug as a sensor, was discussed to achieve combustion parameters estimation at quick start of HEV engines. Through the cycle-based ion signal analysis, the location of peak pressure can be extracted in individual cylinder for the optimization of engine quick start control of HEV engine. A series of quick start processes with different cranking speed and engine coolant temperature are tested for establishing the relationship between the ion signals and the combustion parameters. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is used in this study for estimating these two combustion parameters. The experiment results show that the location of peak pressure can be well established by this method.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Electrospray for IC Engine

The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of the electrostatic atomization for its application in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a theoretical model for secondary breakup of charged droplets was established. The electric force reduces the surface tension of liquid, whereby atomization is promoted. To improve the diesel droplet atomization remarkably by means of electrostatic charge, the charge-mass ratio should be at least at the order of 10-6C/g. In the interest of the practical application conditions in internal combustion engines, the high-pressure injected electrospray was generated and investigated under various injection pressures and electric conditions. By means of the Photron high-speed camera, the special features of electrospray were observed. The micro-characters including the drop size distribution and the variance of the drop diameter in the spray front area were investigated.