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Technical Paper

A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

2019-09-16
2019-01-1883
Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and positioners. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head. Once the ball-head gets into the ball-socket, the pneumatic system will drive the pistons to move to the specified location.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure on Nozzle Internal Flow and Jet Breakup under Sub-Cooled and Flash Boiling Test Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0286
Injection pressure plays a vital role in spray break-up and atomization. High spray injection pressure is usually adopted to optimize the spray atomization in gasoline direct injection fuel system. However, higher injection pressure also leads to engine emission problem related to wall wetting. To solve this problem, researchers are trying to use flash boiling method to control the spray atomization process under lower injection test conditions. However, the effect of injection pressure on the spray atomization under flash boiling test condition has not been adequately investigated yet. In this study, quantitative study of internal flow and near nozzle spray breakup were carried out based on a two-dimensional transparent nozzle via microscopic imaging and phase Doppler interferometery. N-hexane was chosen as test fluid with different injection pressure conditions. Fuel temperature varied from 112°C to 148°C, which covered a wide range of superheated conditions.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Impinging Spray and Corresponding Fuel Film under Different Injection and Ambient Pressure

2019-04-02
2019-01-0277
It has been found that the spray impingement on piston for SIDI engines significantly influences engine emission and combustion efficiency. Fuel film sticking on the wall will dramatically cause deterioration of engine friction performance, incomplete combustion, and substantial cycle-to-cycle variations. When increasing the injection pressure, these effects are more pronounce. Besides, the ambient pressure also plays an important role on the spray structure and influences the footprint of impinging spray on the plate. However, the dynamic behavior of impinging spray and corresponding film was not investigated thoroughly in previous literature. In this study, simultaneous measurements of macroscopic structure (side view) and its corresponding footprint (bottom view) of impinging spray was conducted using a single-hole, prototype injector in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characteristics of Gas Cooler in a CO2 Automobile Heat Pump System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0912
An automobile heat pump system with conventional refrigerant (HFC-134a or HFO-1234yf) suffers significantly diminishment of heating capacity and system efficiency as the ambient temperature decreases. Natural refrigerant CO2 (GWP = 1) is considered as a promising alternative to HFC-134a in automobile air conditioning (MAC) applications with environmentally friendly advantage. In addition, CO2 automobile heat pump system is a promising heat pump technology for EVs with great heating advantages in a cold climate. This study aims to investigate the supercritical heat transfer characteristics of a compact micro-channel gas cooler applied in an automobile CO2 heat pump system. A simulation model of automobile gas cooler was developed by using segment-by-segment method, and validated by experimental results from Series Gas cooler (SGC) and One Gas cooler (OGC) CO2 heat pump systems. The error of heating capacity between calculated results and experimental results was less than 7%.
Technical Paper

A High Reliable Automated Percussive Riveting System for Aircraft Assembly

2019-03-19
2019-01-1335
Percussive riveting is a widely used way of fastening in the field of aircraft assembly, which used to be done manually. Nowadays, replacing the traditional percussive riveting with automated percussive riveting becomes a trend worldwide, which improves the quality of riveting significantly. For the automated riveting system used in aircraft assembly, reliability is of great importance, deserving to be deeply researched and fully enhanced. In this paper, a high reliable automated percussive riveting system integrated into a dual robot drilling and riveting system is proposed. The riveting system consists of the hammer part and the bucking bar part. And both parts have been optimized to enhance the reliability. In the hammer side, proximity switches are fully used to detect the state of rivet insertion.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emissions from a Dual-Injection Gasoline Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0055
European standards have set stringent PN (particle number) regulation (6×1011 #/km) for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, posing a great challenge for the particulate emission control of GDI engines. Dual-injection, which combines direct-injection (DI) with port-fuel-injection (PFI), is an effective approach to reduce particle emissions of GDI engine while maintaining good efficiency and power output. In order to investigate the PN emission characteristics under different dual-injection strategies, a DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to characterize the effects of injection strategies on particulates emissions from a dual-injection gasoline engine. In this study, the injection strategies include injection timing, injection ratio and injection pressure of direct-injection.
Technical Paper

The Nozzle Flows and Atomization Characteristics of the Two-Component Surrogate Fuel of Diesel from Indirect Coal Liquefaction at Engine Conditions

2018-09-10
2018-01-1691
Recently, all world countries facing the stringent emission regulations have been encouraged to explore the clean fuel. The diesel from indirect coal liquefaction (DICL) has been verified that can reduce the soot and NOx emissions of compression-ignition engine. However, the atomization characteristics of DICL are rarely studied. The aim of this work is to numerically analyze the inner nozzle flow and the atomization characteristics of the DICL and compare the global and local flow characteristics of the DICL with the NO.2 diesel (D2) at engine conditions. A surrogate fuel of the DICL (a mixture of 72.4% n-dodecane and 27.6% methylcyclohexane by mass) was built according to its components to simulate the atomization characteristics of the DICL under the high-temperature and high-pressure environment (non-reacting) by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).
Journal Article

In-Flame Soot Sampling and Morphology Analysis in an Optical Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1418
Stringent particulate emission regulations are applied to spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, calling for a significant in-cylinder reduction of soot particles. To enhance fundamental knowledge of the soot formation and oxidation process inside the cylinder of the engine, a new in-flame particle sampling system has been developed and implemented in a working optical SIDI engine with a side-mounted, wall-guided injection system. Using the sampling probes installed on the piston top, the soot particles are directly sampled from the petrol flame for detailed analysis of particle size distribution, structure, and shape. At the probe tip, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid is stored for the soot collection via thermophoresis, which is imaged and post-processed for statistical analysis. Simultaneously, the flame development was recorded using two high-speed cameras to evidence the direct exposure of the sampling grids to the soot-laden diffusion flames and pool fires.
Technical Paper

Contrary Effects of Nozzle Length on Spray Primary Breakup under Subcooled and Superheated Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0302
Nozzle length has been proven influencing fuel spray characteristics, and subsequently fuel-air mixing and combustion processes. However, almost all existing related studies are conducted when fuel is subcooled, of which fuel evaporation is extremely weak, especially at the near nozzle region. In addition, injector tip can be heated to very high temperature in SIDI engines, which would trigger flash boiling fuel spray. Therefore, in this study, effect of nozzle length on spray characteristics is investigated under superheated conditions. Three single-hole injectors with different nozzle length were studied. High speed backlit imaging technique was applied to acquire magnified near nozzle spray images based on an optical accessible constant volume chamber. Fuel pressure was maintained at 15 MPa, and n-hexane was chosen as test fuel.
Technical Paper

System Characteristics of Direct and Secondary Loop Heat Pump for Electrical Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0063
The electricity energy consumption for passenger cabin heating can drastically shorten the driving range for electric vehicles in cold climates. Mobile heat pump system is considered as an effective method to improve heating efficiency. This study investigates the system characteristics of mobile heat pump systems for electrical vehicle application. Based on KULI thermal management software, simulation models including HFC-R134a direct heat pump (DHP) and secondary loop heat pump (SLHP) were developed. The secondary loop employed in the SLHP includes a coolant pump, an indoor heater core and a plate heat exchanger, instead of an indoor condenser in the DHP. The use of a secondary loop has advantages to improve air outlet temperature uniformity. The simulation models were verified by measured data obtained from calorimeter experiments. By adopting simulation models, the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures on system performance and cycle characteristics were discussed.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of the Flame Lift-Off Length on Direct Injection Diesel Sprays Using High Speed Schlieren Imaging and OH Chemiluminescence

2017-10-08
2017-01-2307
Lift-off length is defined as the distance from injector hole to the location where flame stabilized on a high injection pressure direct injection (DI) diesel spray. In this paper we used the high-speed (40 kHz) Schlieren and time-averaged OH chemiluminescence imaging technique to simultaneously measure the flame lift-off locations on a DI diesel spray in an optically accessible and constant-volume combustion vessel. The time-resolved development of the diesel spray acquired from the high-speed Schlieren imaging system enabled us to observe the instantaneous spray structure details of the spray flames. The OH chemiluminescence image obtained from a gated, intensified CCD video camera with different delay and width settings was used to determine the quiescent lift-off length. Experiments were conducted under various ambient temperatures, ambient gas densities, injection pressures and oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Binary Surrogate Model for Biodiesel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2326
In the present study a novel surrogate model for biodiesel including methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl crotonate (MC) was proposed and validated. In the binary mixture of surrogate fuel, MD was chosen to represent saturated methyl esters, which exhibited great low-temperature reactivity with typical negative temperature-coefficient (NTC) behavior and MC represented unsaturated components in real biodiesel, which was mainly responsible for soot formation and evolution. The proportion of MD and MC was determined by matching the characteristics such as derived cetane number (DCN), molecular weight (MW), atom number, H/C ratio and unsaturated degree. All of the criterions were calculated by the least square principles and the calculated surrogate of biodiesel was comprised of 92% MD and 8% MC in mole fraction. Furthermore, detailed kinetic model of the surrogate fuel was constructed and developed with modifications, which was composed of 2918 species and 9164 reactions.
Technical Paper

A Novel Normal Measurement Method for Robotic Drilling and Countersinking

2017-09-19
2017-01-2088
A novel normal measurement device for robotic drilling and countersinking has been developed. This device is mainly composed of three contact displacement sensors and a spherically compliant clamp pad. The compliance of the clamp pad allows it to be perpendicular to the part when the Multi-Function End Effector (MFEE) drives it to clamp the part surface prior to drilling, while the displacement sensors are used to measure the movement of the clamp pad relative to the MFEE. Once the sensors’ position is calibrated, the rotation angle of the clamp pad can be calculated by the displacement of the sensors. Then, the normal adjustment of MFEE is obtained, and the adjustment process can be achieved by the Rotation Tool Center Point (RTCP) function of robot. Thus, an innovative method based on laser tracker to identify the position of sensors is proposed.
Technical Paper

A Novel Method Studying the Effects of Journal Straightness in Three-Dimensional Space on Lubrication of Bearing

2017-03-28
2017-01-1347
Conventionally, the engines are calibrated under the assumption that engines will be made exactly to the prints, and all the engines from the same batch will be identical. However, engine-to-engine variations do exist which will affect the engine performances, and part-to-part variations, i.e., the tolerance, is an important factor leading to engine-to-engine variations. There are researches conducted on the influence of dimensional tolerances on engine performance, however, the impact of straightness, which is an important geometric tolerance, on lubrication is an unsolved issue. This study presents a systematic method to model the straightness and to analyze its effects on the friction loss. The bearing model is built based on elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory. Meanwhile a novel modeling method to represent any form of straightness in three-dimensional space is proposed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Characterization at Ultra-High Injection Pressure of DENSO 250 MPa Common Rail Fuel Injection System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0821
High fuel injection pressure has been regarded as a key controlling factor for internal combustion engines to achieve good combustion performance with reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency. For common-rail injection system (CRS) used in advanced diesel engines, fuel injection pressure can often be raised to beyond 200 MPa. Although characteristics of diesel spray has been thoroughly studied, little work has been done at ultra-high injection pressures. In this work, the characteristics of CRS diesel spray under ultra-high injection pressure up to 250 MPa was investigated. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume chamber. The injection pressure varied from 50 MPa to up to 250 MPa. Both non-evaporating condition and evaporating condition were studied. A single-hole injector was specially designed for this investigation.
Journal Article

Effects of Journal Roundness Phase and Amplitude on Lubrication of Engine Bearings with Consideration of Straightness

2017-03-28
2017-01-1313
Manufacturing tolerances are inevitable in nature. For the bearings used in internal combustion engines, the manufacturing tolerances of roundness, which is of the micron scale, can be very close to the bearing radial clearance, and as a result the roundness could affect the lubrication of the bearings and thus affecting the friction loss of the engine. However, there is insufficient understanding of this mechanism. This study aims to find out the effects of the amplitude and the phase of journal roundness in the shape of ellipse on the lubrication of engine bearings. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory is applied to model the bearing since the EHD model takes account of the elastic deformation of the journal and the bearing shell. The analysis of the DOE results shows the existence of roundness can be beneficial to the lubrication in some cases.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Efficiency Improvement of a Highly Boosted, High Compression Ratio, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine with LIVC and EIVC at Partial and Full Loads

2015-09-01
2015-01-1882
The improvement mechanism of fuel consumption at partial and full loads of a boosted direction-injection gasoline engine with the elevated geometrical compression ratio and Miller cycle by either early or late intake valve closing (EIVC or LIVC) are analyzed based on the first law of thermodynamics and one dimensional engine simulation. An increase in geometric compression ratio increases the theoretical thermal efficiency for all the operating loads, but deteriorates the fuel economy at full loads, owing primarily to the full-load knock limit. Use of Miller cycle improves the fuel economy for both the partial and full load operations by reducing the pumping loss and optimizing the combustion phasing, respectively. A comparison between EIVC and LIVC on the influencing factors on the thermal efficiency at the partial load shows that EIVC leads to higher mechanical efficiency and less heat transfer loss than LIVC, and hence its efficiency improvement is superior over LIVC.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Injector Configuration on the Spray Evaporation Characteristics under Superheated Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1900
In spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engines, the injector configuration plays an important role on influencing the spray atomization and evaporation. In order to optimize the injector configuration to generate a better fuel spray, the further study to understand the effect of injector configuration is needed. In this study, the influence of the hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) on the fuel spray evaporation is investigated in a constant volume chamber under various operating conditions. The laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique is utilized to capture the vapor fluorescence signal of fuel spray. The fuel sprays with the fuel temperature ranging from 45°C to 85°C and ambient pressure ranging from 20kPa to 100kPa are investigated to study the influences of superheated degree (SD) on the spray evaporation.
Journal Article

Analyzing the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Vapor and Liquid Phases of Evaporating SIDI Sprays via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Technique

2015-09-01
2015-01-1901
In this study, the spray characteristics of three multi-hole injectors, namely a 2-hole injector, a 4-hole injector, and a 6-hole injector were investigated under various superheated conditions. Fuel pressure was kept constant at 10MPa. Fuel temperature varied from 20°C to 85°C, and back pressure ranged from 20kPa to 100kPa. Both liquid phase and vapor phase of the spray were investigated via laser induced exciplex fluorescence technique. Proper orthogonal decomposition technique was applied to analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of the liquid phase and vapor phase of the fuel spray separately. Effects of fuel temperature, back pressure, superheated degree and nozzle number on spray variation were revealed. It shows that higher fuel temperature led to a more stable spray due to enhanced evaporation which eliminated the fluctuating structures along the spray periphery. Higher back pressure led to higher spray variation due to increased interaction between spray and ambient air.
Technical Paper

Experimental Research on Mixture Distribution of Diesel Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion

2015-09-01
2015-01-1839
The diesel premixed low-temperature combustion mode avoids the generation of thick mixture and the high temperature region in which a great amount of NOx and PM generates. It makes a significant reduction in the emissions of both NOx and PM available at the same time. However, with the quantity of pre-injection increases and the injection time advances, the emission of HC increases significantly, which causes a decrease in the combustion efficiency. Studies have shown that the flame quench caused by too thick or too lean mixture and the oil film on the chamber is the main source for the emission of HC. As a result, understanding the mechanism of atomization and evaporation of the fuel and the formation of the mixture makes significant sense. This paper focuses on the mixture formation process. And the methods of testing the distribution of the mixture, the influential factors and control methods are studied.
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