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Technical Paper

Characteristics of Impinging Spray and Corresponding Fuel Film under Different Injection and Ambient Pressure

2019-04-02
2019-01-0277
It has been found that the spray impingement on piston for SIDI engines significantly influences engine emission and combustion efficiency. Fuel film sticking on the wall will dramatically cause deterioration of engine friction performance, incomplete combustion, and substantial cycle-to-cycle variations. When increasing the injection pressure, these effects are more pronounce. Besides, the ambient pressure also plays an important role on the spray structure and influences the footprint of impinging spray on the plate. However, the dynamic behavior of impinging spray and corresponding film was not investigated thoroughly in previous literature. In this study, simultaneous measurements of macroscopic structure (side view) and its corresponding footprint (bottom view) of impinging spray was conducted using a single-hole, prototype injector in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Energy Management Optimization for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0161
Excellent energy consumption performance of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is usually attributed to its hybrid drive mode. However, the factors including vehicle performance, driver behavior and traffic status have been shown to cause unsatisfactory performance. This phenomenon leads to a necessity of study on energy consumption control strategies under real-world driving conditions. This paper proposes a new approach for energy management optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on real-world driving data for two purposes. One is for improving the energy consumption of PHEV under real-world driving conditions and the other is for reducing the computational complexity of optimization methods in simulation models. In this process, the paper collected real-world driving record data from 180 drivers within 6 months. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to extract and define the hidden factors from the initial real-world driving data.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Coolant Temperature on Particle Emissions from a Dual Injection Gasoline Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0051
Euro VI emission standards have set a very strict limitation on particulate matter emissions of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. It is difficult for GDI engine to meet the Euro VI PN regulation (6×1011#/km) without a series of complicated after-treatment devices such as Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF). Previous research shows that GDI vehicles under cold start condition account for more than 50% of both particle number and mass emissions during the entire NEDC driving cycle. Dual Injection Gasoline engine is based on the GDI engine by adding a set of port fuel injection system. The good mixing characteristics of the port fuel injection system can help to reduce the particulate matter emissions of the GDI engine during the cold start condition.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emissions from a Dual-Injection Gasoline Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0055
European standards have set stringent PN (particle number) regulation (6×1011 #/km) for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, posing a great challenge for the particulate emission control of GDI engines. Dual-injection, which combines direct-injection (DI) with port-fuel-injection (PFI), is an effective approach to reduce particle emissions of GDI engine while maintaining good efficiency and power output. In order to investigate the PN emission characteristics under different dual-injection strategies, a DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to characterize the effects of injection strategies on particulates emissions from a dual-injection gasoline engine. In this study, the injection strategies include injection timing, injection ratio and injection pressure of direct-injection.
Technical Paper

Application of the Newly Developed KLSA Model into Optimizing the Compression Ratio of a Turbocharged SI Engine with Cooled EGR

2018-10-30
2018-32-0037
Owing to the stochastic nature of engine knock, determination of the knock limited spark angle (KLSA) is difficult in engine cycle simulation. Therefore, the state-of-the-art knock modeling is mostly limited to either merely predicting knock onset (i.e. auto-ignition of end gas) or combining a simple unburned mass fraction (UMF) model representative of knock intensity (KI). In this study, a newly developed KLSA model, which takes both predictions of knock onset and intensity into account, is firstly introduced. Multiple variables including the excess air ratio, EGR ratio, cylinder pressure and the end gas temperature are included in the knock onset model. Based on the auto-ignition theory of hot spots in end gas, both the energy density and heat release rate in hot spots are taken into consideration in the KI model.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study of Lean Limit Extension of Alcohol HCCI Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1679
The purpose of present numerical study was to extend the operating range of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine under low load conditions. Ignition of pure methanol and ethanol under HCCI mode of operation requires high intake temperatures and misfires at low loads are common in HCCI engines. Three methods have been adapted to optimize the use of methanol and ethanol for HCCI operation without increasing the intake temperature. First, blending methanol and ethanol with ignition improver, namely di-methyl ether (DME) and di-ethyl ether (DEE), was used to increase the cetane number and ignitability of premixed charge. Second, based on the blended fuels, the spark assistance was used to reduce required intake temperature for auto-ignition. Third, DME and DEE were directly injected to methanol and ethanol operated HCCI engine, in the form of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion.
Technical Paper

The Nozzle Flows and Atomization Characteristics of the Two-Component Surrogate Fuel of Diesel from Indirect Coal Liquefaction at Engine Conditions

2018-09-10
2018-01-1691
Recently, all world countries facing the stringent emission regulations have been encouraged to explore the clean fuel. The diesel from indirect coal liquefaction (DICL) has been verified that can reduce the soot and NOx emissions of compression-ignition engine. However, the atomization characteristics of DICL are rarely studied. The aim of this work is to numerically analyze the inner nozzle flow and the atomization characteristics of the DICL and compare the global and local flow characteristics of the DICL with the NO.2 diesel (D2) at engine conditions. A surrogate fuel of the DICL (a mixture of 72.4% n-dodecane and 27.6% methylcyclohexane by mass) was built according to its components to simulate the atomization characteristics of the DICL under the high-temperature and high-pressure environment (non-reacting) by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Rate Profiles on Auto-Ignition in Ignition Quality Tester

2018-09-10
2018-01-1695
Ignition quality tester (IQT) is a standard experimental device to determine ignition delay time of liquid fuels in a controlled environment in the absence of gas exchange. The process involves fuel injection, spray breakup, evaporation and mixing, which is followed by auto-ignition. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used for prediction of auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol. In particular, the sensitivity of the ignition behavior to different injection rate profiles is investigated. Fluctuant rate profile derived from needle lift data from experiments performs better than square rate profile in ignition delay predictions. DEE, when used with fluctuant injection rate profile resulted in faster ignition, while for ethanol the situation was reversed. The contrasting results are attributed to the difference in local mixing.
Technical Paper

System Characteristics of Direct and Secondary Loop Heat Pump for Electrical Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0063
The electricity energy consumption for passenger cabin heating can drastically shorten the driving range for electric vehicles in cold climates. Mobile heat pump system is considered as an effective method to improve heating efficiency. This study investigates the system characteristics of mobile heat pump systems for electrical vehicle application. Based on KULI thermal management software, simulation models including HFC-R134a direct heat pump (DHP) and secondary loop heat pump (SLHP) were developed. The secondary loop employed in the SLHP includes a coolant pump, an indoor heater core and a plate heat exchanger, instead of an indoor condenser in the DHP. The use of a secondary loop has advantages to improve air outlet temperature uniformity. The simulation models were verified by measured data obtained from calorimeter experiments. By adopting simulation models, the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures on system performance and cycle characteristics were discussed.
Technical Paper

Early Pilot Injection Strategies for Reactivity Control in Diesel-ethanol Dual Fuel Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0265
This paper examines the diesel-ethanol dual fuel combustion at medium engine loads on a single-cylinder research diesel engine with a compression ratio of 16.5:1. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and ethanol energy ratio was investigated for the dual fuel combustion to achieve simultaneously ultra-low NOx and soot emissions. A medium ethanol ratio of about 0.6 was found suitable to meet the requirements for mixing enhancement and ignition control, which resulted in the lowest NOx and soot emissions among the tested ethanol ratios. A double-pilot injection strategy was found competent to lower the pressure rise rate owing to the reduced fuel quantity in the close-to-TDC injection. The advancement of pilot injection timing tended to reduce the CO and THC emissions, which is deemed beneficial for high EGR operations. The reactivity mutual-modulation between the diesel pilot and the background ethanol mixture was identified.
Technical Paper

Partial Premixing Effects on the Evolution of Soot Morphology and Nanostructure in Co-Flow Flames of a Biodiesel Surrogate

2017-10-08
2017-01-2397
Biodiesel is a potential alternative fuel which can meet the growing need for sustainable energy. Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) is an important low-temperature combustion strategy to reduce NOx and soot emission of diesel engines. To investigate partial premixing impact on particle formation in flames of biodiesel or biodiesel surrogates, an experimental study was performed to compare the soot morphology and nanostructure evolution in laminar co-flow methyl decanoate non-premixed flame (NPF) and partially premixed flame (PPF). The thermophoretic sampling technique was used to capture particles along flame centerlines. Soot morphology information and volume fraction were obtained from TEM analysis and nanostructure features were evaluated by HR-TEM. With primary equivalence ratio of 19, gas temperature of PPF is higher along flame centerline compared with NPF. The results show an initially stronger sooting tendency in PPF at lower positions.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Binary Surrogate Model for Biodiesel

2017-10-08
2017-01-2326
In the present study a novel surrogate model for biodiesel including methyl decanoate (MD) and methyl crotonate (MC) was proposed and validated. In the binary mixture of surrogate fuel, MD was chosen to represent saturated methyl esters, which exhibited great low-temperature reactivity with typical negative temperature-coefficient (NTC) behavior and MC represented unsaturated components in real biodiesel, which was mainly responsible for soot formation and evolution. The proportion of MD and MC was determined by matching the characteristics such as derived cetane number (DCN), molecular weight (MW), atom number, H/C ratio and unsaturated degree. All of the criterions were calculated by the least square principles and the calculated surrogate of biodiesel was comprised of 92% MD and 8% MC in mole fraction. Furthermore, detailed kinetic model of the surrogate fuel was constructed and developed with modifications, which was composed of 2918 species and 9164 reactions.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Frequency Acoustic Field on Atomization Behavior of Ethanol and Kerosene

2017-10-08
2017-01-2318
Combustion instability often occurs inside the combustion chamber of aero engine. Fuel atomization and evaporation, one of the controlling processes of combustion rate, is an important mechanism of the combustion instability. To tackle combustion instability, it challenges a deep understanding of the underlying mechanism of fuel atomization and evaporation. In this paper, acoustic field was established to simulate the pressure oscillation. Transient spray images of ethanol and kerosene were recorded using high-speed camera. The obtained images were processed by MATLAB to extract and analyze the related data. Spatial fuel atomization characteristics was analytically examined by multi-threshold image method to analyze the effect of the high frequency acoustic field on the fuel break-up and disintegration. The results show that the half spray cone angle on the side with speaker is suppressed by the presence of the imposed acoustic field compared with the case without speaker.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning PID Design for Slip Control of Wedge Clutches

2017-03-28
2017-01-1112
The wedge clutch takes advantages of small actuation force/torque, space-saving and energy-saving. However, big challenge arises from the varying self-reinforced ratio due to the varying friction coefficient inevitably affected by temperature and wear. In order to improve the smoothness and synchronization time of the slipping process of the wedge clutch, this paper proposes a self-tuning PID controller based on Lyapunov principle. A new Lyapunov function is developed for the wedge clutch system. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID obtains much less error than the conventional PID with fixed gains. Moreover, the self-tuning PID is more adaptable to the variation of the friction coefficient for the error is about 1/5 of the conventional PID.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Film Characteristics of Ethanol Impinging Spray at Ultra-Low Temperature

2017-03-28
2017-01-0851
Increasing the injection pressure in DISI engine is an efficient way to obtain finer droplets but it will also potentially cause spray impingement on the cylinder wall and piston. Consequently, the fuel film sticking on the wall can dramatically increase the soot emission of the engine especially in a cold start condition. On the other hand, ethanol is widely used as an alternative fuel in DI engine due to its sustainable nature and high octane number. In this study, the fuel film characteristics of single-plume ethanol impinging spray was investigated. The experiments were performed under ultra-low fuel/plate temperature to simulate the cold start condition in cold areas. A low temperature thermostatic bath combined with specially designed heat exchangers were used to achieve ultra-low temperature for both the impinging plate and the fuel. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique was employed to measure the thickness of fuel film deposited on the impinging plate.
Journal Article

Effects of Journal Roundness Phase and Amplitude on Lubrication of Engine Bearings with Consideration of Straightness

2017-03-28
2017-01-1313
Manufacturing tolerances are inevitable in nature. For the bearings used in internal combustion engines, the manufacturing tolerances of roundness, which is of the micron scale, can be very close to the bearing radial clearance, and as a result the roundness could affect the lubrication of the bearings and thus affecting the friction loss of the engine. However, there is insufficient understanding of this mechanism. This study aims to find out the effects of the amplitude and the phase of journal roundness in the shape of ellipse on the lubrication of engine bearings. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory is applied to model the bearing since the EHD model takes account of the elastic deformation of the journal and the bearing shell. The analysis of the DOE results shows the existence of roundness can be beneficial to the lubrication in some cases.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Characterization at Ultra-High Injection Pressure of DENSO 250 MPa Common Rail Fuel Injection System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0821
High fuel injection pressure has been regarded as a key controlling factor for internal combustion engines to achieve good combustion performance with reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency. For common-rail injection system (CRS) used in advanced diesel engines, fuel injection pressure can often be raised to beyond 200 MPa. Although characteristics of diesel spray has been thoroughly studied, little work has been done at ultra-high injection pressures. In this work, the characteristics of CRS diesel spray under ultra-high injection pressure up to 250 MPa was investigated. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume chamber. The injection pressure varied from 50 MPa to up to 250 MPa. Both non-evaporating condition and evaporating condition were studied. A single-hole injector was specially designed for this investigation.
Technical Paper

Study on the Optimal Control Strategy of Transient Process for Diesel Engine with Sequential Turbocharging System

2016-10-17
2016-01-2157
Three-phase sequential turbocharging system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve fuel economy performance and reduce emission of the automotive diesel engine, which satisfies wide range of intake flow demand. However, it results in complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control scheme of boost system and fuel injection and evaluate their contributions to the improvement of transient performance. A mean value model for diesel engine was built up in SIMULINK environment and verified by experiment for transient study. Then a mathematical model of optimization issue was established. Strategies of control valves and fuel injection for typical acceleration and loading processes are obtained by coupled calculating of the simulation model and optimization algorithm.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature and Soot (KL) Distributions in Spray Flames of Diesel-Butanol Blends by Two-Color Method Using High-Speed RGB Video Camera

2016-10-17
2016-01-2190
Taking advantages of high speed RGB video cameras, the two-color method can be implemented with a relatively simple setup to obtain the temporal development of the two dimensional temperature and soot (KL) distributions in a reacting diesel jet. However, several issues such as the selection of the two wavelengths, the role of bandpass filters, and the proper optical settings, etc. should be known to obtain a reliable measurement. This paper, at first, discusses about the uncertainties in the measurement of temperature and KL distributions in the diesel flame by the two-color method using the high speed RGB video camera. Since n-butanol, as an alternative renewable fuel, has the potential application in diesel engines, the characteristic of spray combustion of diesel-butanol blends under the diesel-like ambient conditions in a pre-burning constant-volume combustion chamber is studied.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Efficiency Improvement of a Highly Boosted, High Compression Ratio, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine with LIVC and EIVC at Partial and Full Loads

2015-09-01
2015-01-1882
The improvement mechanism of fuel consumption at partial and full loads of a boosted direction-injection gasoline engine with the elevated geometrical compression ratio and Miller cycle by either early or late intake valve closing (EIVC or LIVC) are analyzed based on the first law of thermodynamics and one dimensional engine simulation. An increase in geometric compression ratio increases the theoretical thermal efficiency for all the operating loads, but deteriorates the fuel economy at full loads, owing primarily to the full-load knock limit. Use of Miller cycle improves the fuel economy for both the partial and full load operations by reducing the pumping loss and optimizing the combustion phasing, respectively. A comparison between EIVC and LIVC on the influencing factors on the thermal efficiency at the partial load shows that EIVC leads to higher mechanical efficiency and less heat transfer loss than LIVC, and hence its efficiency improvement is superior over LIVC.
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