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Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
Journal Article

Understanding the Octane Appetite of Modern Vehicles

Octane appetite of modern engines has changed as engine designs have evolved to meet performance, emissions, fuel economy and other demands. The octane appetite of seven modern vehicles was studied in accordance with the octane index equation OI=RON-KS, where K is an operating condition specific constant and S is the fuel sensitivity (RONMON). Engines with a displacement of 2.0L and below and different combinations of boosting, fuel injection, and compression ratios were tested using a decorrelated RONMON matrix of eight fuels. Power and acceleration performance were used to determine the K values for corresponding operating points. Previous studies have shown that vehicles manufactured up to 20 years ago mostly exhibited negative K values and the fuels with higher RON and higher sensitivity tended to perform better.
Technical Paper

Development of an Injector Deposit Formation Test Method for a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

In a modern diesel engine, a high fuel injection pressure is achieved by a common-rail system. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of fuel properties on engine performances because a diesel fuel could deteriorate inside an injector at such severe conditions. The test methods so far basically use the fuel with pro-fouling agent to form deposit on injector. In this study, a novel test procedure was developed to evaluate the effect of the use of the fuel with and without zinc contaminant on injector performance. With Zn doped European specification B7 fuel (7% biodiesel) as a reference, the test result showed that an engine torque decreased almost lineally over time, and the overall torque drop was 9% after 300 hours. The investigation of the dismantled injector after the test revealed that the deposit was not formed on the sliding parts of the injector, but on the nozzle hole surface.
Journal Article

Linking the Physical Manifestation and Performance Effects of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Engines

The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them. In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1]. In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles. During both studies, deposits were compared after fouling and after subsequent cleaning using a novel fuel borne detergent.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85).
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Deposit Flaking and Startability Problems in Three Different Engines

A field problem associated with flakes of combustion chamber deposits getting trapped on the exhaust valve seat and causing starting problems has appeared recently. Four fuels have been tested in three different car models using a deposit flaking road test procedure. For each piston top, flaking can be characterised using T1 and T2, the mean deposit thickness on the piston crown before and after flaking respectively. A new measure of deposit flaking, ΔT, the mean of (T1-T2) averaged over all cylinders has been introduced and its variance established for the standard test using one of the models. ΔT quantifies the actual amount of deposits that have flaked and is likely to be a more relevant indicator of flaking for startability problems than Rw, the mean of the ratio of T2 to T1, used in previous work. Deposit flaking is directly related to an increase in valve leakage rates and startability problems.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Driveability on Emissions in European Gasoline Vehicles

Fuel volatility and vehicle characteristics have long been recognised as important parameters influencing the exhaust emissions and the driveability of gasoline vehicles. Limits on volatility are specified in a number of world-wide / national fuel specifications and, in addition, many Oil Companies monitor driveability performance to ensure customer satisfaction. However, the relationship between driveability and exhaust emissions is relatively little explored. A study was carried out to simultaneously measure driveability and exhaust emissions in a fleet of 10 European gasoline vehicles. The vehicles were all equipped with three-way catalysts and single or multi-point fuel injection. The test procedure and driving cycle used were based on the European Cold Weather Driveability test method.