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Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis on the Effect of Fuel Properties on Knocking Performance at Boosted Conditions

In recent years, boosted and downsized engines have gained much attention as a promising technology to improve fuel economy; however, knocking is a common issue of such engines that requires attention. To understand the knocking phenomenon under downsized and boosted engine conditions deeply, fuels with different Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) were prepared, and the knocking performances of these fuels were evaluated using a single cylinder engine, operated under a variety of conditions. Experimental results showed that the knocking performance at boosted conditions depend on both RON and MON. While higher RON showed better anti-knocking performance, lower MON showed better anti-knocking performance. Furthermore, the tendency for a reduced MON to be beneficial became stronger at lower engine speeds and higher boost pressures, in agreement with previously published modelling work.
Technical Paper

Effect of Octane Number on the Performance of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Gasoline Passenger Cars

Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are used to describe gasoline combustion which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. Some workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of gasoline knock resistance. Previous Concawe work investigated the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline passenger cars during an especially-designed acceleration test cycle.
Technical Paper

Octane Requirement and Efficiency in a Fleet of Modern Vehicles

In light of increasingly stringent CO2 emission targets, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) have been driven to develop engines which deliver improved combustion efficiency and reduce energy losses. In spark ignition engines one strategy which can be used to reach this goal is the full utilization of fuel octane number. Octane number is the fuel´s knock resistance and is characterized as research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). Engine knock is caused by the undesired self-ignition of the fuel air mixture ahead of the flame front initiated by the spark. It leads to pressure fluctuations that can severely damage the engine. Modern vehicles utilize different strategies to avoid knock. One extreme strategy assumes a weak fuel quality and, to protect the engine, retards the spark timing at the expense of combustion efficiency. The other extreme carefully detects knock in every engine cycle and retards the spark timing only when knock is detected.
Technical Paper

An Optical Characterization of the Effect of High-Pressure Hydrodynamic Cavitation on Diesel

Most modern high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection systems employ an internal pressure equalization system in order to support needle lift, enabling precise control of the injected fuel mass. This results in the return of a fraction of the high-pressure diesel back to the fuel tank. The diesel fuel flow occurring in the injector spill passages is expected to be a cavitating flow, which is known to promote fuel ageing. The cavitation of diesel promotes nano-particle formation through induced pyrolysis and oxidation, which may result in deposits in the vehicle fuel system. A purpose-built high-pressure cavitation flow rig has been employed to investigate the stability of unadditised crude-oil derived diesel and paraffin-blend model diesel, which were subjected to continuous hydrodynamic cavitation flow across a single-hole research diesel nozzle.
Journal Article

Understanding the Octane Appetite of Modern Vehicles

Octane appetite of modern engines has changed as engine designs have evolved to meet performance, emissions, fuel economy and other demands. The octane appetite of seven modern vehicles was studied in accordance with the octane index equation OI=RON-KS, where K is an operating condition specific constant and S is the fuel sensitivity (RONMON). Engines with a displacement of 2.0L and below and different combinations of boosting, fuel injection, and compression ratios were tested using a decorrelated RONMON matrix of eight fuels. Power and acceleration performance were used to determine the K values for corresponding operating points. Previous studies have shown that vehicles manufactured up to 20 years ago mostly exhibited negative K values and the fuels with higher RON and higher sensitivity tended to perform better.
Technical Paper

An Optical Characterization of Atomization in Non-Evaporating Diesel Sprays

High-speed planar laser Mie scattering and Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) were employed for the determination of Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution in non-evaporating diesel sprays. The effect of rail pressure, distillation profile, and consequent fuel viscosity on the drop size distribution developing during primary and secondary atomization was investigated. Samples of conventional crude-oil derived middle-distillate diesel and light distillate kerosene were delivered into an optically accessible mini-sac injector, using a customized high-pressure common rail diesel fuel injection system. Two optical channels were employed to capture images of elastic Mie and inelastic LIF scattering simultaneously on a high-speed video camera at 10 kHz. Results are presented for sprays obtained at maximum needle lift during the injection. These reveal that the emergent sprays exhibit axial asymmetry and vorticity.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85).
Journal Article

Octane Response in a Downsized, Highly Boosted Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Increasingly strict government emissions regulations in combination with consumer demand for high performance vehicles is driving gasoline engine development towards highly downsized, boosted direct injection technologies. In these engines, fuel consumption is improved by reducing pumping, friction and heat losses, yet performance is maintained by operating at higher brake mean effective pressure. However, the in-cylinder conditions of these engines continue to diverge from traditional naturally aspirated technologies, and especially from the Cooperative Fuels Research engine used to define the octane rating scales. Engine concepts are thus key platforms with which to screen the influence of fundamental fuel properties on future engine performance.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Performance Analysis of Conventional and Future Fuels using Advanced CAE

In recent years, there has been rapid progress in characterizing the detailed chemical kinetics associated with the oxidation of liquid hydrocarbons and their blends. However adding these fuel models to the industrial engineer's toolkit has proven a major challenge due to issues associated with high CPU cost and the poor suitability of many of the most promising and well known fuel models to IC engine applications. This paper demonstrates the state-of-the-art in the analysis and modelling of current and future transportation fuels or fuel blends for internal combustion engine applications. First-of-all, a benchmarking of eleven representative fuel models (39 to 1034 species in size) is carried out at engine/engine-like operating conditions by adopting the standard Research Octane and Cetane Number test data for comparison. Next, methods to construct a fuel model for a commercial fuel are outlined using a simple, yet robust surrogate mapping technique.
Technical Paper

The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation

An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
Technical Paper

Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with Oxygenate Fuel Blends

The blending of oxygenated compounds with gasoline is projected to increase because oxygenate fuels can be produced renewably, and because their high octane rating allows them to be used in substitution of the aromatic fraction in gasoline. Blending oxygenates with gasoline changes the fuels' properties and can have a profound affect on the distillation curve, both of which are known to affect engine-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon and particulate emissions is experimentally determined in a spray guided direct injection engine. Particulate number concentration and size distribution were measured using a Cambustion DMS500. These data are presented for different air fuel ratios, loads, ignition timings and injection timings. In addition, the ASTM D86 distillation curve was modeled using the binary activity coefficients method for the fuel blends used in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Relevance of Research and Motor Octane Numbers to the Prediction of Engine Autoignition

Links between the RON, MON and Octane Index (OI) of a gasoline are explored and factors influencing knock severity are discussed. The OI was calculated by considering how the autoignition delay time changes with temperature and pressure. Three fuels were examined: a 65/35% toluene/heptane test fuel, and two primary reference fuels (PRF), one with the RON value of the test fuel and the other with the MON value. PRF autoignition times were taken from Adomeit et al and test fuel autoignition times were generated from mathematical models of RON/MON tests plus two experimental sets of engine autoignition data. The toluene/heptane OI depended strongly on engine conditions and could easily exceed the RON. With a lean mixture at high pressure it was 100.2 whereas the RON was only 83.9. Knock severity is governed by the nature of localized “hot spots”. Severe knock is associated with developing detonations towards the end of the delay time.
Technical Paper

Combustion Imaging and Analysis in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

A single cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access has been used for combustion studies with both early injection and late injection for stratified charge operation. Cylinder pressure records have been used for combustion analysis that has been synchronised with the imaging. A high speed cine camera has been used for imaging combustion within a cycle, while a CCD camera has been used for imaging at fixed crank angles, so as to obtain information on cycle-by-cycle variations. The CCD images have also been analysed to give information on the quantity of soot present during combustion. Tests have been conducted with a reference unleaded gasoline (ULG), and pure fuel components: iso-octane (a representative alkane), and toluene (a representative aromatic). The results show diffusion-controlled combustion occurring in so-called homogeneous combustion with early injection.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Engine Concepts by Using a Simple Model for Knock Prediction

The objective of this paper is to present a simulation model for controlling combustion phasing in order to avoid knock in turbocharged SI engines. An empirically based knock model was integrated in a one-dimensional simulation tool. The empirical knock model was optimized and validated against engine tests for a variety of speeds and λ. This model can be used to optimize control strategies as well as design of new engine concepts. The model is able to predict knock onset with an accuracy of a few crank angle degrees. The phasing of the combustion provides information about optimal engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Amplified Pressure Waves During Autoignition: Relevance to CAI Engines

Controlled autoignition (CAI) engines ideally operate at very lean stoichiometries to achieve low NOx emissions. But at high loads, when combustion approaches stoichiometric, they become noisy and severe engine knock develops. A possible cause is the development of amplifying pressure waves near the hot spots that inevitably occur in the autoigniting gas. This paper presents the results from numerical solutions at realistic engine conditions of the detailed chemical kinetic equations with acoustic wave propagation. Those calculations that involve hot spots must include a spatial dimension. Because of this, they are much more time-consuming than for the homogeneous case. A model system of mixtures of 0.5 H2-0.5 CO with air for equivalence ratios, ϕ, between 0.45 and 1.0 has been used at engine-like temperatures and pressures. These calculations investigate the behaviour for various values of ϕ, hot spot size and temperature elevation.
Technical Paper

Safety Considerations in Retailing Hydrogen

To be used in public, untrained people must be able to handle hydrogen with the same degree of confidence and with no more risk than conventional liquid and gaseous fuels. Physical properties relevant to the safety of hydrogen as a fuel are reviewed and compared to gasoline, LPG and methane. The key parameters are flammability, detonability, ignition energy, materials compatibility, buoyancy and toxicity. For many years, Shell has conducted an experimental programme on gas safety, which has recently been extended to include hydrogen. A selection of results from this programme is presented.
Technical Paper

The Volumetric Efficiency of Direct and Port Injection Gasoline Engines with Different Fuels

A study has been undertaken with a single-cylinder engine, based on the Mitsubishi GDi combustion system, that has the option of either port injection or direct injection. Tests have been undertaken with pure fuel components (methane, iso-octane, toluene and methanol), and a representative gasoline that has also been tested with the addition of 10% methanol and 10% ethanol. The volumetric efficiency depends both on the fuel and its time and place of injection. For stoichiometric operation with unleaded gasoline, changing from port injection to direct injection led to a 9% increase in volumetric efficiency, which was improved by a further 3% when 10% methanol was blended with the gasoline. The improvements in volumetric efficiency will be used to quantify the extent of charge cooling by fuel evaporation, and these will be compared with predictions assuming the maximum possible level of fuel evaporation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Anti-Knock Quality - Part I. Engine Studies

This is the first part of a two-part study on how to define the anti-knock quality of practical fuels. Knock intensity is measured in two single-cylinder research engines using different fuels at different mixture strengths, throttle settings and two compression ratios. The anti-knock quality of a fuel in a given engine operating condition is defined by its octane index OI = RON - KS where K is a constant for that condition and S is the sensitivity, (RON-MON), and RON and MON are the Research and Motor Octane numbers respectively. The higher the octane index, the better the anti-knock quality of the fuel. K is often assumed to be 0.5 so that OI=(RON+MON)/2. However, it is found that K depends on engine operating conditions and in some cases, K is negative so that for a given RON, a fuel with higher sensitivity (lower MON) has better anti-knock quality. The value of K decreases as the engine becomes more prone to knock i.e. as its octane requirement increases.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Various Vehicle Technologies

The well-to-wheel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of selected alternative vehicles are compared to those of a conventional gasoline vehicle. The vehicle technologies investigated are internal combustion engine, hybrid and fuel cell technology. The fuels are assumed to be produced from either crude oil or natural gas. Wherever possible real data has been used. The study shows that hybrid vehicles emit a similar amount of greenhouse gas as fuel cell vehicles. The diesel hybrid uses the least primary energy. The least greenhouse gas emissions are produced by natural gas and hydrogen hybrid and fuel cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Driveability on Emissions in European Gasoline Vehicles

Fuel volatility and vehicle characteristics have long been recognised as important parameters influencing the exhaust emissions and the driveability of gasoline vehicles. Limits on volatility are specified in a number of world-wide / national fuel specifications and, in addition, many Oil Companies monitor driveability performance to ensure customer satisfaction. However, the relationship between driveability and exhaust emissions is relatively little explored. A study was carried out to simultaneously measure driveability and exhaust emissions in a fleet of 10 European gasoline vehicles. The vehicles were all equipped with three-way catalysts and single or multi-point fuel injection. The test procedure and driving cycle used were based on the European Cold Weather Driveability test method.