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Technical Paper

Extending the Limits of Fuel Economy through Lubrication

It is anticipated that worldwide energy demand will approximately double by 2050, whilst at the same time, CO2 emissions need to be halved. Therefore, there is increasing pressure to improve the efficiency of all machines, with great focus on improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. The use of downsized, boosted, gasoline engines, can lead to exceptional fuel economy, and on a well-to-wheels basis, can give similar CO2 emissions to electric vehicles (depending, of course, on how the electricity is generated). In this paper, the development of a low weight concept car is reported. The car is equipped with a three-cylinder 0.66 litre gasoline engine, and has achieved over 100 miles per imperial gallon, in real world driving conditions.
Journal Article

A Chemical and Morphological Study of Diesel Injector Nozzle Deposits - Insights into their Formation and Growth Mechanisms

Modern diesel passenger car technology continues to develop rapidly in response to demanding emissions, performance, refinement, cost and fuel efficiency requirements. This has included the implementation of high pressure common rail fuel systems employing high precision injectors with complex injection strategies, higher hydraulic efficiency injector nozzles and in some cases <100µm nozzle hole diameters. With the trend towards lower diameter diesel injector nozzle holes and reduced cleaning through cavitation with higher hydraulic efficiency nozzles, it is increasingly important to focus on understanding the mechanism of diesel injector nozzle deposit formation and growth. In this study such deposits were analysed by cross-sectioning the diesel injector along the length of the nozzle hole enabling in-depth analysis of deposit morphology and composition change from the inlet to the outlet, using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques.
Journal Article

Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Octane, Sensitivity and K on the Performance and Fuel Economy of a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Vehicle

This study investigates the effects of octane quality on the performance, i.e., acceleration and power, and fuel economy (FE) of one late model US vehicle, which is powered by a small displacement, turbocharged, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The relative importance of the gasoline parameters Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) in meeting the octane requirement of this engine to run at an optimum spark timing for the given demand was considered by evaluating the octane index (OI), where OI = (1-K) RON + K MON and K is a constant depending on engine design and operating conditions. Over wide open throttle (WOT) accelerations, the average K of this Pontiac Solstice was determined as −0.75, whereby a lower MON would give a higher OI, a higher knock resistance and better performance.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Journal Article

Formation and Removal of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Cars

Deposits forming in the injector nozzle holes of modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the fuel injected into the combustion chamber, causing reduced or less efficient combustion, resulting in power loss and increased fuel consumption. A study of the factors affecting injector nozzle tip temperature, a parameter critical to nozzle deposit formation, has been conducted in a Peugeot DW10 passenger car bench engine, as used in the industry standard CEC F-098 injector nozzle deposit test, [1]. The findings of the bench engine study were applied in the development of a Chassis Dynamometer (CD) based vehicle test method using Euro 5 compliant vehicles. The developed test method was refined to tune the conditions as far as practicable towards a realistic driving pattern whilst maintaining sufficient deposit forming tendency to enable test duration to be limited to a reasonable period.
Technical Paper

The Application of Telematics to the High-Precision Assessment of Fuel-Borne Fuel Economy Additives

The demonstration benefit from fuel-borne fuel-economy additives to a precision of 1%, or better, traditionally requires very careful experimental design and considerable resource intensity. In practice, the process usually requires the use of well-defined drive cycles (e.g. emission certification cycles HFET, NEDC) in conjunction with environmentally-controlled chassis dynamometer facilities. Against this background, a method has been developed to achieve high-precision fuel economy comparison of gasoline fuels with reduced resource intensity and under arbitrary real-world driving conditions. The method relies upon the inference of instantaneous fuel consumption via the collection of OBD data and the simultaneous estimation of instantaneous engine output from vehicle dynamical behaviour.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects in a Boosted DISI Engine

Due to the recent drive to reduce CO₂ emissions, the turbocharged direct injection spark ignition (turbo DISI) gasoline engine has become increasingly popular. In addition, future turbo DISI engines could incorporate a form of charge dilution (e.g., lean operation or external EGR) to further increase fuel efficiency. Thus, the conditions experienced by the fuel before and during combustion are and will continue to be different from those experienced in naturally aspirated SI engines. This work investigates the effects of fuel properties on a modern and prototype turbo DISI engine, with particular focus on the octane appetite: How relevant are RON and MON in predicting a fuel's anti-knock performance in these modern/future engines? It is found that fuels with high RON and low MON values perform the best, suggesting the current MON requirements in fuel specifications could actually be detrimental.
Journal Article

The Effect of Engine, Axle and Transmission Lubricant, and Operating Conditions on Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy. Part 1: Measurements

It is expected that the world's energy demand will double by 2050, which requires energy-efficient technologies to be readily available. With the increasing number of vehicles on our roads the demand for energy is increasing rapidly, and with this there is an associated increase in CO₂ emissions. Through the careful use of optimized lubricants it is possible to significantly reduce vehicle fuel consumption and hence CO₂. This paper evaluates the effects on fuel economy of high quality, low viscosity heavy-duty diesel engine type lubricants against mainstream type products for all elements of the vehicle driveline. Testing was performed on Shell's driveline test facility for the evaluation of fuel consumption effects due to engine, gearbox and axle oils and the variation with engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

The Effect of Engine, Axle and Transmission Lubricant, and Operating Conditions on Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy: Part 2: Predictions

A predictive model for estimating the fuel saving of “top tier” engine, axle and transmission lubricants (compared to “mainstream” lubricants), in a heavy duty truck, operating on a realistic driving cycle, is described. Simulations have been performed for different truck weights (10, 20 and 40 tonnes) and it was found that the model predicts percentage fuel economy benefits that are of a similar magnitude to those measured in well controlled field trials1. The model predicts the percentage fuel saving from the engine oil should decrease as the vehicle load increases (which is in agreement with field trial results). The percentage fuel saving from the axle and gearbox oils initially decreases with load and then stays more or less constant. This behaviour is due to the detailed way in which axle and gearbox efficiency varies with speed/load and lubricant type.
Journal Article

Application of a Split Lubrication Gasoline Engine to the Screening and Understanding of Friction Modifier Behaviour

A series of viscous and surface friction modifier additives has been studied in a modified SI engine with separable valve train lubrication. From the results, it has been possible to classify the hydrodynamic or boundary lubrication nature of the observed effects for a series of lubricant additives. It is shown that the frictional benefit of a given additive depends not only on the engine operating condition but also on the engine components on which it is acting. For some additives a fuel economy benefit can switch to a disbenefit as operating regime changes and a different aspect of the additive properties becomes important. Such observations are rationalised in the context of conventional lubrication theory.
Technical Paper

A New Protocol for the Road Test Evaluation of Gasoline Additive Packages

The accurate confirmation of fuel economy benefits arising from the use of a gasoline additive package is a difficult exercise. In order to fully understand, and accurately quantify, the interaction between the treated fuel and the engine it is necessary to carry out a fleet test which allows the benefit to be measured precisely yet under realistic conditions. A series of road tests, based on a ‘paired fleet’ design, has been carried out over the last two decades. Careful analysis of the results of these tests has led to the design of a new fleet testing protocol based around ‘quads’ rather than pairs of vehicles. This new test protocol also incorporates advances in vehicle selection and preparation procedures and has resulted in a test that is both more robust and flexible, and that achieves even better resolution than before.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Regulated Emissions from Modern Gasoline Vehicles

The influence of gasoline quality on exhaust emissions has been evaluated using four modern European gasoline cars with advanced features designed to improve fuel economy and CO2 emissions, including stoichiometric direct injection, lean direct injection and MPI with variable valve actuation. Fuel effects studied included sulphur content, evaluated over a range from 4 to 148 mg/kg, and other gasoline properties, including aromatics content, olefins content, volatility and final boiling point (FBP). All four cars achieved very low emissions levels, with some clear differences between the vehicle technologies. Even at these low emissions levels, all four cars showed very little short-term sensitivity to gasoline sulphur content. The measured effects of the other gasoline properties were small and often conflicting, with differing directional responses for different vehicles and emissions.
Technical Paper

The M111 Engine CCD and Emissions Test: Is it Relevant to Real-World Vehicle Data?

A European test procedure for evaluating engine deposits, using the Mercedes Benz M111 bench engine, has already been approved for inlet valve deposits (IVD) and is under development for combustion chamber deposits (CCD) by the Co-ordinating European Council (CEC). This paper describes CCD effects on emissions using a slightly modified version of this engine test procedure and compares it with CCD/emissions data from road vehicles. The engine used was a modern four valve, four cylinder, 2.0 litre passenger car unit and the bench test procedure used extended the operating time from the specified 60 hours to 180 hours. The road vehicle trial used two Mercedes Benz C200 passenger cars fitted with the M111 engine and two Ford Mondeo 2.0 litre passenger cars. Data was collected up to 11200km, approximately equivalent to 180 hours operation of the bench engine.