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Technical Paper

Toward the Environmentally-Friendly Small Engine: Fuel, Lubricant, and Emission Measurement Issues

1991-11-01
911222
Small engines which are friendly toward the environment are needed all over the world, whether the need is expressed in terms of energy efficiency, useful engine life, health benefits for the user, or emission regulations enacted to protect a population or an ecologically-sensitive area. Progress toward the widespread application of lower-impact small engines is being made through engine design, matching of engine to equipment and task, aftertreatment technology, alternative and reformulated fuels, and improved lubricants. This paper describes three research and development projects, focused on the interrelationships of fuels, lubricants, and emissions in Otto-cycle engines, which were conducted by Southwest Research Institute. All the work reported was funded internally as part of a commitment to advance the state of small engine technology and thus enhance human utility.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Strategies for Small Utility Engines

1991-09-01
911807
Recent approval of emission standards for small utility engines by the California Air Resources Board(1)* suggests that substantial reductions in emissions from small utility engines will soon be required. While 1994 standards may be met with simple engine adjustments or modifications, 1999 standards are much more stringent and may require the use of catalysts in conjunction with other emission reduction technologies. Assessing the feasibility of candidate emission control strategies is an important first step. Various emission reduction technologies were applied to three different 4-stroke engines. Emission tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of air/fuel ratio changes, thermal oxidation, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic oxidation with and without supplemental air. Results of these evaluations, along with implications for further work, are presented. One engine's emissions were reduced below the levels of 1999 ARB standards.
Technical Paper

A Next-Generation Emission Test Procedure for Small Utility Engines - Part 1, Background and Approach

1990-09-01
901595
Measurement of emissions from small utility engines has usually been accomplished using steady-state raw emissions procedures such as SAE Recommended Practice J1088. While raw exhaust measurements have the advantage of producing modal exhaust gas concentration data for design feedback; they are laborious, may influence both engine performance and the emissions themselves, and have no provision for concurrent particulate measurements. It is time to consider a full-dilution procedure similar in principle to automotive and heavy-duty on-highway emission measurement practice, leading to improvements in many of the areas noted above, and generally to much higher confidence in data obtained. When certification and audit of small engine emissions become a reality, a brief dilute exhaust procedure generating only the necessary data will be a tremendous advantage to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Petroleum and Alternate-Source Diesel Fuel Effects on Light-Duty Diesel Emissions

1983-10-31
831712
Exhaust emission data from several fuel effects studies were normalized and subjected to statistical analyses. The goal of this work was to determine whether emission effects of property variation in alternate-source fuels were similar, less pronounced, or more pronounced than the effects of property variation in petroleum fuels. A literature search was conducted, reviewing hundreds of studies and finally selecting nine which dealt with fuel property effects on emissions. From these studies, 15 test cases were reported. Due to the wide variety of vehicles, fuels, test cycles, and measurement techniques used in the studies, a method to relate them all in terms of general trends was developed. Statistics and methods used included bivariate correlation coefficients, regression analysis, scattergrams and goodness-of-fit determinations.
Technical Paper

Fuel and Additive Effects on Diesel Particulate-Development and Demonstration of Methodology

1976-02-01
760130
To develop a methodology for characterizing particulate emissions from diesel engines, one 2-stroke cycle engine and one 4-stroke cycle engine were operated in both individual steady-state modes and according to a variation of the 13-mode diesel emissions measurement procedure. Both engines were operated on three fuels, each used with one of two available diesel fuel additives as well as by itself. The primary particulate sampling technique employed was a dilution tunnel, and secondary evaluation techniques included a diluter-sampler developed under contract to EPA by another organization, a light extinction smokemeter, and a filter-type sampling smokemeter. Gaseous emissions were also measured, providing a running check on engine condition. Particulate mass rates were calculated from gravimetric data; and analysis of particulate included determination of sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phenols, nitrosamines, trace metals, and organic solubles.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Farm, Construction, and Industrial Engines and Their Impact

1975-02-01
750788
The research program on which this paper is based included both laboratory emission measurements and extrapolation of results to the national population of heavy-duty farm, construction, and industrial engines. Emission tests were made on four gasoline engines and eight diesel engines typical of those used in F, C, and I equipment. Gaseous and particulate emissions were measured during engine operation on well-accepted steady-state procedures, and diesel smoke was measured during both steady-state conditions and the Federal smoke test cycle. Emissions measured were hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aliphatic aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulate, and smoke. Emission of sulfur oxides (SOx) was estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and both evaporative and blowby hydrocarbons were also estimated where applicable (gasoline engines only). Data on emissions obtained from this study were compared with those available in the literature, where possible.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Emissions, Their Impact, and Possible Control Techniques

1974-02-01
740627
Seven motorcycles, ranging in size from 100 to 1200 cm3, were tested for emissions characterization purposes. They were operated on the federal seven-mode test procedure (for 1971 and older light-duty vehicles), the federal LA-4 test procedure (for 1972 and later LDVs), and under a variety of steady-state conditions. Four of the machines tested had 4-stroke engines, and the other three had 2-stroke engines. Emissions which were measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbon losses were also estimated. Crankcase “blowby” emissions from one 4-stroke machine were measured. The impact of motorcycles on national pollutant totals was estimated, based on the test results and information from a variety of sources on national population and usage of motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from 2-Stroke Outboard Motors and Their Impact

1974-02-01
740737
To characterize exhaust emissions from water-cooled 2-stroke outboard motors (the predominant type), four new motors were tested on dynamometer stands. The engines ranged from 4-65 hp in size, and operating conditions were chosen along lines of simulated boat loading. All the measurements were taken at steady-state conditions. Emission concentrations were measured in raw exhaust gas and after the gases had been bubbled through water in a specially constructed tank. Constituents measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, light hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and all the exhaust emissions data were used with available information on population and usage of motors to estimate exhaust emission factors and national exhaust emissions impact.
Technical Paper

Snowmobile Engine Emissions and Their Impact

1974-02-01
740735
This paper describes a research program on exhaust emissions from snowmobile engines, including both emissions characterization and estimation of national emissions impact. Tests were conducted on three popular 2-stroke twins and on one rotary (Wankel) engine. Emissions that were measured included total hydrocarbons, (paraffinic) hydrocarbons by NDIR, CO, CO2, NO (by two methods), NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulate, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbons were projected to be negligible for actual snowmobile operation. During emissions tests, intake air temperature was controlled to approximately -7°C (20°F), and room air at approximately 24°C (75°F) was used for engine cooling. Based on test results and the best snowmobile population and usage data available, impact of snowmobile emissions on a national scale was computed to be minimal.
Technical Paper

Public Opinion of Diesel Odor

1974-02-01
740214
This paper describes the results of a public opinion survey on testing of diesel exhaust odors conducted during 1969 and 1970. Major goals of the research were to relate public opinion of the odors and the objectionability associated with them to odor intensity, and to obtain a dose-response curve as the primary result. The dose-response curve was needed to assess odor-control technology by providing a criterion for deciding whether or not the effect of a given control item would be noticed by the general public, reduce complaints, or be worth the cost and effort required for its implementation. The engine used as the live odor source for the subject research was a two-stroke cycle type similar to those used in many buses. This engine type was chosen because its exposure to the public in urban bus applications is very widespread, and because a large portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's odor research had been performed with similar engines.
Technical Paper

Small Engine Emissions and Their Impact

1973-02-01
730859
In an attempt to characterize emissions from small air-cooled utility engines, five gasoline-fueled models were operated over a variety of speeds and loads, and important exhaust constituents were measured. These emissions included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of the fuel consumed; evaporative losses of hydrocarbons were also estimated. The impact of small engine emissions was calculated on the basis of the test results and information on national engine populations and usage. From these data, it appears that the 50 million or more small engines currently being used account for only a small part of pollutants from all sources.
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