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Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Hybrid Electric Command and Control Vehicle

Until recently, U.S. government efforts to dramatically reduce emissions, greenhouse gases and vehicle fuel consumption have primarily focused on passenger car applications. Similar aggressive reductions need to be extended to heavy vehicles such as delivery trucks, buses, and motorhomes. However, the wide range of torques, speeds, and powers that such vehicles must operate under makes it difficult for any current powertrain system to provide the desired improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Hybrid electric powertrains provide the most promising, near-term technology that can satisfy these requirements. This paper highlights the configuration and benefits of a hybrid electric powertrain capable of operating in either a parallel or series mode. It describes the hybrid electric components in the system, including the electric motors, power electronics and batteries.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Current Automatic, Manual and Continuously Variable Transmission Efficiencies and Their Projected Future Improvements

This paper will overview current production manual, automatic, and continuously variable transmission (CVT) efficiencies and efficiency variations across the industry. For automatic transmissions, efficiencies associated with the pump and the gearbox components will be highlighted along with areas for improvements. Efficiencies associated with various types of pumps such as internal-external, gerotor, hypocycloidal, and variable displacement will be compared. For CVT's a comparison of efficiencies for belt type and toroidal types will be provided, along with an examination of external-external and variable displacement type ball pumps.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Current CVT Mechanisms, Forces and Efficiencies

Usage of CVTs in automotive applications has begun to increase, however because of their relative newness and previous usage in nonautomotive applications, a broad base of technical information on the various types of CVT's does not exist. Most importantly though, no comparison information exists on the different types of configurations. Currently, there are a number of CVT technologies that have been used in automotive, off-road and industrial applications. This paper will highlight the characteristics, design limitations and efficiencies of the following basic CVT types:
Technical Paper

A Performance Comparison of Various Automatic Transmission Pumping Systems

The pumping system used in a step ratio automatic transmission can consume up to 20% of the total power required to operate a typical automotive transmission through the EPA city cycle. As such, it represents an area manufacturers have focused their efforts towards in their quest to obtain improved transmission efficiency. This paper will discuss the history of automatic transmission pumps that develop up to 300 psi along with a description of the factors used to size pumps and establish pump flow requirements. The various types of pumps used in current automatic transmissions will be described with a discussion of their characteristics including a comparison based upon observations of their performance. Specific attention will be focused on comparing the volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency, overall efficiency, pumping torque and discharge flow.
Technical Paper

Manual Transmission Efficiency Trends and Characteristics

This paper presents a discussion on manual transmission torque losses and focuses specifically on the relationship between torque loss, input speed and torque. It also includes a discussion on other factors affecting torque loss, such as inclination angle and lube oil temperature. Manual transmissions used in compact light truck applications have torque losses that are a function of input speed and torque. Efficiency studies done on manual transmissions in the engine-driving mode indicate that torque losses, in other than direct-drive gears, are considerably more dependent on input torque than input speed. It was also observed that efficiency was significantly affected by the inclination angle and lube oil temperature.