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Journal Article

Investigation of In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction with Delphi E3 Flexible Unit Injectors on a Heavy-duty Diesel Engine

In-cylinder emission controls were the focus for diesel engines for many decades before the emergence of diesel aftertreatment. Even with modern aftertreatment, control of in-cylinder processes remains a key issue for developing diesel vehicles with low tailpipe emissions. A reduction in in-cylinder emissions makes aftertreatment more effective at lower cost with superior fuel economy. This paper describes a study focused on an in-cylinder combustion control approach using a Delphi E3 flexible fuel system to achieve low engine-out NOx and PM emissions. A 2003 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation Series 60 14L heady-duty diesel engine, modified to accept the Delphi E3 unit injectors, and ultra low sulfur fuel were used throughout this study. The process of achieving premixed low temperature combustion within the limited range of parameters of the stock ECU was investigated.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Alternate Diesel Combustion Modes

Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions (individual hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and nitro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH)) were characterized for the following alternate diesel combustion modes: premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), and low-temperature combustion (LTC). PCCI and LTC were studied on a PSA light-duty high-speed diesel engine. Engine-out emissions of carbonyl compounds were significantly increased for all LTC modes and for PCCI-Lean conditions as compared to diesel operation; however, PCCI-Rich produced much lower carbonyl emissions than diesel operations. For PAH compounds, emissions were found to be substantially increased over baseline diesel operation for LTC-Lean, LTC-Rich, and PCCI-Lean conditions. PCCI-Rich operation, however, gave PAH emission rates comparable to baseline diesel operation.
Technical Paper

Methodologies to Control DPF Uncontrolled Regenerations

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have been shown to effectively reduce particulate emissions from diesel engines. However, uncontrolled DPF regeneration can easily damage the DPF. In this paper, three different types of uncontrolled DPF regeneration are defined. They are: Type A: Uncontrolled high initial exotherm at the start of DPF regeneration, Type B: “Runaway” or uncontrolled regeneration, which takes place when the engine goes to idle during normal DPF regeneration, and Type C: Uneven soot distribution causing excess thermal stress during normal DPF regeneration. In this paper, different control strategies are developed for each of the three types of uncontrolled DPF regenerations. These control strategies include SOF control, exhaust flow pattern improvement, as well as EGR control through intake throttling and A/F ratio control.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an In-cylinder Ion Sensing Assisted HCCI Control Strategy

Recent research activities have greatly expanded the understanding of HCCI, its controlling mechanisms, and operation strategies. However, substantially more work is required before HCCI engines will be ready for production. This includes development of a methodology for feedback and closed-loop control of the fuel and air systems to realize HCCI combustion over the speed load range in a production vehicle. In this paper, we use in-cylinder ion sensing to extract the timing of start of combustion and monitor other combustion information such as knocking as feedback signals for closed loop control of HCCI engines. The ion sensor we use is modified from the existing glow plug. This method will minimize the cost relative to an in-cylinder pressure sensor and signal conditioning circuitry while providing equivalent combustion information for the ECU to control the engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Conditions on In-Cylinder Air/Fuel Ratio Detection Using a Production Ion Sensing Device

In-cylinder ion sensing through sparkplug electrodes can be used to determine in-cylinder A/F ratio by using a modified production coil-on-plug ignition system having ion sensing capability. The in-cylinder ionization can be characterized by the height of the peak, location of the peak from ignition command and area under the ionization signal curve. The effects of A/F ratio on the in-cylinder ionization can be isolated from other affecting factors by conducting tests on a constant volume combustion device in which the initial pressure and temperature can be well controlled. This results in a parabolic correlation of the ionization characteristics with the mixture equivalence ratio. Additionally the ionization characteristics show strong dependence on engine load and speed. Equivalence ratio characteristics during engine cranking and warm up are investigated, and a method for on-line calibration of ionization detection is discussed.