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Video

Bridging the Knock Severity Gap to CFR Octane Rating Engines

2020-09-17
It is widely acknowledged that the CFR octane rating engines are not representative of modern engines and that there is a gap in the quantification of knock severity between the two engine types. As part of a comprehensive study of the autoignition of different fuels in both the CFR octane rating engines and a modern, direct injection, turbocharged spark-ignited engine, a series of fuel blends were tested with varying composition, octane numbers and ethanol blend levels. The paper reports on the fourth part of this study where cylinder pressures were recorded under standard knock conditions in CFR engines under RON and MON conditions using the ASTM prescribed instrumentation. By the appropriate signal conditioning of the D1 detonation pickups on the CFR engines, a quantification of the knock severity was possible that had the same frequency response as a cylinder pressure transducer.
Video

Engine test cycle development to evaluate effect of oil formulation on emulsion formation

2020-09-16
With the increased number of hybrid vehicle applications in the market, there is an increased concern regarding the formation of water-in-oil and fuel-in-oil emulsions due to the absence of sustained engine operation. In hybrid or plug-in hybrids, the electric drive system is providing much of the power needed for low speed commuting cycles. When engine oil is not allowed to reach operating temperature, there can be a build-up of water and fuel in the oil that can lead to emulsification of the oil and white sludge in the valve train. The white sludge can sometimes be seen under the oil cap and has led to consumer complaints. The current suggested solution is to drive the hybrid vehicle on the highway to bring the oil to operating temperature to burn off the water and fuel in the oil. Due to a desire to better understand this phenomena and evaluate the performance of different oil formulations, a two-stage test development was selected.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay Model Parameterization Using Single-Cylinder Engines Data

2020-09-15
2020-01-2005
The confluence of increasing fuel economy requirements and increased use of ethanol as a gasoline blend component has led to various studies into the efficiency and performance benefits of higher octane numbers and high ethanol content fuels in modern engines. As part of a comprehensive study of the autoignition of different fuels in both the CFR octane rating engine and a modern, direct injection, turbocharged spark-ignited engine, a series of fuel blends were prepared with varying composition, octane numbers and ethanol blend levels. The paper reports on the third part of this study where cylinder pressures were recorded for fuels under knocking conditions in both a single-cylinder research engine (SCE), utilizing a GM LHU head and piston, as well as the CFR engines used for octane ratings.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Partial and Total Dilution Systems for the Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Speciation in Diesel Exhaust

2020-09-15
2020-01-2190
Two methods of sampling exhaust emissions are typically used for characterizing emissions from diesel engines: total dilution which uses a constant volume sampling (CVS) system and partial flow dilution which relies on proportionally diluting a small part from the main exhaust stream. The CVS dilutes the entire exhaust flow to a constant volumetric flowrate which allows for proportional sampling of the exhaust species during transient engine operation. For partial dilution sampling during transient engine operation, obtaining a proportional sample is more rigorous and dilution of the extracted sample must be continuously changed throughout the cycle in order for the extracted sample flowrate to be proportional to the continuously changing exhaust flow. Typically, regulated emissions measured using both methods for an engine platform have shown good correlation. The focus for this work was on the experimental investigation of the two methods for the measurement of unregulated species.
Technical Paper

Bridging the Knock Severity Gap to CFR Octane Rating Engines

2020-09-15
2020-01-2050
It is widely acknowledged that the CFR octane rating engines are not representative of modern engines and that there is a gap in the quantification of knock severity between the two engine types. As part of a comprehensive study of the autoignition of different fuels in both the CFR octane rating engines and a modern, direct injection, turbocharged spark-ignited engine, a series of fuel blends were tested with varying composition, octane numbers and ethanol blend levels. The paper reports on the fourth part of this study where cylinder pressures were recorded under standard knock conditions in CFR engines under RON and MON conditions using the ASTM prescribed instrumentation. By the appropriate signal conditioning of the D1 detonation pickups on the CFR engines, a quantification of the knock severity was possible that had the same frequency response as a cylinder pressure transducer.
Technical Paper

The Effects of EGR Composition on Combustion Performance and Efficiency

2020-09-15
2020-01-2052
Because of the thermodynamic relationship of pressure, temperature and volume for processes which occur in an internal-combustion engine (ICE), and their relationship to ideal efficiency and efficiency-limiting phenomena e.g. knock in spark-ignition engines, changing the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge should be considered as an increment in the development of the ICE engine for future efficiency improvements. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark-ignited gasoline engines is one increment that has been made to alter the in-cylinder charge. EGR gives proven thermal efficiency benefits for SI engines which improve vehicle fuel economy, as demonstrated through literature and production applications. The thermal efficiency benefit of EGR is due to lower in-cylinder temperatures, reduced heat transfer and reduced pumping losses. The next major increment could be modifying the constituents of the EGR stream, potentially through the means of a membrane.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Enhancement through Advanced Casting Technologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-1162
There is growing interest in additive manufacturing technologies for prototype if not serial production of complex internal combustion engine components such as cylinder heads and pistons. In support of this general interest the authors undertook an experimental bench test to evaluate opportunities for cooling jacket improvement through geometries made achievable with additive manufacturing. A bench test rig was constructed using electrical heating elements and careful measurement to quantify the impact of various designs in terms of heat flux rate and convective heat transfer coefficients. Five designs were compared to a baseline - a castable rectangular passage. With each design the heat transfer coefficients and heat flux rates were measured at varying heat inputs, flow rates and pressure drops. Four of the five alternative geometries outperformed the baseline case by significant margins.
Technical Paper

Portable In-Cylinder Pressure Measurement and Signal Processing System for Real-Time Combustion Analysis and Engine Control

2020-04-14
2020-01-1144
This paper presents an in-cylinder pressure measurement system for cycle-to-cycle feedback combustion control purposes. Such a system uses off-the-shelf components to measure cylinder pressure and performs user-defined algorithms for heat release analysis. The working principle of the device is discussed as well as the simplifications for heat release analysis required for fast computation. The system is benchmarked against a commercially-available combustion analyzer in order to quantify the accuracy and time response. The results showed that the system is satisfactorily accurate for combustion phasing control. The main advantage, however, comes from the reduction of calculation and communication delays observed in the commercially-available system. This enables the use of cycle-to-cycle cylinder pressure-based feedback control algorithms.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Measurement of Component Efficiency in Connected and Automated Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1284
Connected and automated driving technology is known to improve real-world vehicle efficiency by considering information about the vehicle’s environment such as traffic conditions, traffic lights or road grade. This study shows how the powertrain of a hybrid-electric vehicle realizes those efficiency benefits by developing methods to directly measure real-time transient power losses of the vehicle’s powertrain components through chassis-dynamometer testing. This study is a follow-on to SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0116, Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles [1], to understand the sources of efficiency gains resulting from connected and automated vehicle driving. A 2017 Toyota Prius Prime was instrumented to collect power measurements throughout its powertrain and driven over a specific driving schedule on a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control of Brake and Accelerator Pedals for Precise Efficiency Testing of Electrified Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1282
Efficiency testing of hybrid-electric vehicles is challenging, because small run-to-run differences in pedal application can change when the engine fires or the when the friction brakes supplement regenerative braking, dramatically affecting fuel use or energy regeneration. Electronic accelerator control has existed for years, thanks to the popularity of throttle-by-wire (TBW). Electronic braking control is less mature, since most vehicles don’t use brake-by-wire (BBW). Computer braking control on a chassis dynamometer typically uses a mechanical actuator (which may suffer backlash or misalignment) or braking the dynamometer rather than the vehicle (which doesn’t yield regeneration). The growth of electrification and autonomy provides the means to implement electronic brake control. Electrified vehicles use BBW to control the split between friction and regenerative braking. Automated features, e.g. adaptive cruise control, require BBW to actuate the brakes without pedal input.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Heavy-Duty Diesel Cylinder Deactivation on Exhaust Temperature, Fuel Consumption, and Turbocharger Performance up to 3 bar BMEP

2020-04-14
2020-01-1407
Diesel Cylinder Deactivation (CDA) has been shown in previous work to increase exhaust temperatures, improve fuel efficiency, and reduce engine-out NOx for engine loads up to 3 bar BMEP. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the turbocharger needs to be altered when implementing CDA on a diesel engine. This study investigates the effect of CDA on exhaust temperature, fuel efficiency, and turbocharger performance in a 15L heavy-duty diesel engine under low-load (0-3 bar BMEP) steady-state operating conditions. Two calibration strategies were evaluated. First, a “stay-hot” thermal management strategy in which CDA was used to increase exhaust temperature and reduce fuel consumption. Next, a “get-hot” strategy where CDA and elevated idle speed was used to increase exhaust temperature and exhaust enthalpy for rapid aftertreatment warm-up.
Technical Paper

Improving Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine Efficiency: A Systematic Approach to Application of Dedicated EGR

2020-04-14
2020-01-0818
The worldwide trend of tightening CO2 emissions standards and desire for near zero emissions is driving development of high efficiency natural gas engines for a low CO2 replacement of traditional diesel engines. A Cummins Westport ISX12 G was previously converted to a Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) configuration with two out of the six cylinders acting as the EGR producing cylinders. Using a systems approach, the combustion and turbocharging systems were optimized for improved efficiency while maintaining the potential for achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX standards. A prototype variable nozzle turbocharger was selected to maintain the stock torque curve. The EGR delivery method enabled a reduction in pre-turbine pressure as the turbine was not required to be undersized to drive EGR. A high energy Dual Coil Offset (DCO®) ignition system was utilized to maintain stable combustion with increased EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Extend Syngas Yield through Increasing Rich Limit by Stratified Air Injection in a Single Cylinder Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0958
Dedicated exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR®) concept developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has demonstrated a thermal efficiency increase on many spark-ignited engines at both low and high load conditions. The syngas (H2+CO) produced in the dedicated cylinder (D-cyl) by rich combustion helps to stabilize combustion at highly dilute conditions at low loads and mitigate knock at high loads. The dedicated cylinder with 25% EGR can typically run up to equivalence ratio of 1.4, beyond which the combustion becomes unstable. By injecting fresh air near the spark plug gap at globally rich conditions, a locally lean or near-stoichiometric mixture can be achieved, thus facilitating the ignitability of the mixture and increasing combustion stability. With more stable combustion a richer global mixture can be introduced into the D-cyl to generate higher concentrations of syngas. This in turn can further improve the engine thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Zero Oil Cooling for Improved BTE in a Compression Ignition Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0284
With increasing diesel engine emissions regulations and the desire to increase overall thermal efficiency of the engine, various combustion concepts have been explored. One of the potential pathways to higher efficiency is through reduction of in-cylinder heat transfer. In this paper, a concept aimed at decreasing in-cylinder heat transfer through increased piston temperature is explored. In order to increase piston temperature and ideally reduce in-cylinder heat transfer, a Zero-Oil-Cooling (ZOC) piston concept was explored. To study this concept, the test engine was modified to allow piston oil cooling to be deactivated so that its impact on parameters such as BTE, piston temperature, and emissions could be evaluated. The engine was equipped with in-cylinder pressure measurement for combustion analysis as well as a piston temperature telemetry system to evaluate piston crown temperature. This paper will discuss the process by which the engine was modified to achieve ZOC and tested.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an On-Board, Real-Time Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor Using Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engine Platform

2020-04-14
2020-01-0385
California Air Resources Board (CARB) has instituted requirements for on-board diagnostics (OBD) that makes a spark-plug sized exhaust particulate matter (PM) sensor a critical component of the OBD system to detect diesel particulate filter (DPF) failure. Currently, non-real-time resistive-type sensors are used by engine OEMs onboard vehicles. Future OBD regulations are likely to lower PM OBD thresholds requiring higher sensitivity sensors with better data yield for OBD decision making. The focus of this work was on the experimental evaluation of a real-time PM sensor manufactured by EmiSense Technologies, LLC that may offer such benefits. A 2011 model year on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed DPF followed by urea-based selective catalytic reducer (SCR) and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts was used for this program.
Technical Paper

CARB Low NOX Stage 3 Program - Aftertreatment Evaluation and Down Selection

2020-04-14
2020-01-1402
With the conclusion of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Stage 1 Ultra-Low NOX program, there continues to be a commitment for identifying potential pathways to demonstrate 0.02 g/hp-hr NOX emissions. The Stage 1 program focused on achieving the Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) levels utilizing a turbo-compound (TC) engine, which required the integration of novel catalyst technologies and a supplemental heat source. While the aftertreatment configuration provided a potential solution to meet the ULN target, a complicated approach was required to overcome challenges from low temperature exhaust. The Stage 3 program leverages a different engine architecture more representative of the broader heavy-duty industry to meet the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) targets and to simplify the ULN aftertreatment solution. The following work will discuss the aftertreatment technology evaluation, down selection criteria, and the emission results for the candidate ULN systems
Technical Paper

A Controls Overview on Achieving Ultra-Low NOx

2020-04-14
2020-01-1404
The California Air Resources Board (CARB)-funded Stage 3 Heavy-Duty Low NOX program focusses on evaluating different engine and after-treatment technologies to achieve 0.02g/bhp-hr of NOX emission over certification cycles. This paper highlights the controls architecture of the engine and after-treatment systems and discusses the effects of various strategies implemented and tested in an engine test cell over various heavy-duty drive cycles. A Cylinder De-Activation (CDA) system enabled engine was integrated with an advanced after-treatment controller and system package. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) had implemented a model-based controller for the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system in the CARB Stage 1 Low-NOX program. The chemical kinetics for the model-based controller were further tuned and implemented in order to accurately represent the reactions for the catalysts used in this program.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cylinder Deactivation on a Class 8 Truck over Light Load Cycles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0800
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems provide excellent NOX control for diesel engines provided the exhaust aftertreatment inlet temperature remains at 200° C or higher. Since diesel engines run lean, extended light load operation typically causes exhaust temperatures to fall below 200° C and SCR conversion efficiency diminishes. Heated urea dosing systems are being developed to allow dosing below 190° C. However, catalyst face plugging remains a concern. Close coupled SCR systems and lower temperature formulation of SCR systems are also being developed, which add additional expense. Current strategies of post fuel injection and retarded injection timing increases fuel consumption. One viable keep-warm strategy examined in this paper is cylinder deactivation (CDA) which can increase exhaust temperature and reduce fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Opportunities for Electrified Internal Combustion Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-0281
The automotive industry is polarized between external pressures for ‘zero’ emission battery electric vehicles (BEV) and the ability to manufacture them economically and with minimal environmental impact. Most predictions of future BEV market share suggest that the internal combustion engine (ICE) has an important role to play in personal transportation for the next several decades. That engine will very likely be part of a hybrid architecture. Accepting that the engine will be part of a hybrid powertrain permits new design rules and strategies for the ICE. A major change of the engine could be to reduce BMEP, power density and/or engine speed requirements as performance demand will be supplemented by electric machines. This study focuses on simple changes to the ICE to increase thermal efficiency assuming supplemental electric energy.
Technical Paper

CARB Low NOx Stage 3 Program - Modified Engine Calibration and Hardware Evaluations

2020-04-14
2020-01-0318
With the conclusion of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Stage 1 Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) program, there continues to be a commitment for identifying potential pathways to demonstrate 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. The Stage 1 program focused on achieving the ULN levels on the heavy-duty regulatory cycles utilizing a turbo-compound engine which required the integration of novel catalyst technologies and a supplemental heat source. While the aftertreatment configuration provided a potential solution to meet the ULN target, a complicated approach with a greenhouse gas (GHG) penalty was required to overcome challenges from low temperature exhaust. A subsequent Stage 2 program was concerned with the development of a new low load test cycle and evaluating the trade-off between GHG and tailpipe NOX on the Stage 1 ULN solution.
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