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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive CFD-FEA Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis for Diesel and Gasoline Engines

As the efforts to push capabilities of current engine hardware to their durability limits increases, more accurate and reliable analysis is necessary to ensure that designs are robust. This paper evaluates a method of Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) analysis for a gasoline and a diesel engine that combines combustion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), engine Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and cooling jacket CFD with the goal of obtaining more accurate temperature distribution and heat loss predictions in an engine compared to standard de-coupled CFD and FEA analysis methods. This novel CHT technique was successfully applied to a 2.5 liter GM LHU gasoline engine at 3000 rpm and a 15.0 liter Cummins ISX heavy duty diesel engine operating at 1250 rpm. Combustion CFD simulations results for the gasoline and diesel engines are validated with the experimental data for cylinder pressure and heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Advances Toward the Goal of a Genuinely Conjugate Engine Heat Transfer Analysis

As the design of engines advances and continues to push the capabilities of current hardware closer to their durability limits, more accurate and reliable analysis is necessary to ensure that designs are robust. This research evaluates a method of conjugate heat transfer analysis for a diesel engine that combines the combustion CFD, Engine FEA, and cooling jacket CFD with the aim of getting more accurate heat loss predictions and a more accurate temperature distribution in the engine than with current analysis methods. A 15.0 L Cummins ISX heavy duty engine operating at 1250 RPM and 15 bar BMEP load is selected for this work. Spray combustion computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for the diesel engine and the results are validated with experimental data. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations were performed in a separate software platform.
Journal Article

Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine and an Advanced Technology Emissions System - Thermal Management Strategies

The most recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a tailpipe limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Swirl Ratio on Combustion Performance of a Non-Pent Roof Combustion Chamber Engine

In response to the sensitivity to diesel aftertreatment costs in the medium duty market, a John Deere 4045 was converted to burn gasoline with high levels of EGR. This presented some unique challenges not seen in light duty gasoline engines as the flat head and diesel adapted ports do not provide optimum in-cylinder turbulence. As the bore size increases, there is more opportunity for knock or incomplete combustion to occur. Also, the high dilution used to reduce knock slows the burn rates. In order to speed up the burn rates, various levels of swirl were investigated. A four valve head with different levels of port masking showed that increasing the swirl ratio decreased the combustion duration, but ultimately ran into high pumping work required to generate the desired swirl. A two valve head was used to overcome the breathing issue seen in the four valve head with port masking.
Journal Article

Test Protocols for Motorcoach Fire Safety

The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated to simulate a representative engine compartment and wheel well.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Heat Transfer in a Diesel Engine: Low Heat Rejection Engine Revisited

A large amount of the heat generated during the engine combustion process is lost to the coolant system through the surrounding metal parts. Therefore, there is a potential to improve the overall cycle efficiency by reducing the amount of heat transfer from the engine. In this paper, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool has been used to evaluate the effects of a number of design and operating variables on total heat loss from an engine to the coolant system. These parameters include injection characteristics and orientation, shape of the piston bowl, percentage of EGR and material property of the combustion chamber. Comprehensive analyses have been presented to show the efficient use of the heat retained in the combustion chamber and its contribution to improve thermal efficiency of the engine. Finally, changes in design and operating parameters have been suggested based on the analytical results to improve heat loss reduction from an engine.
Technical Paper

A High-Energy Continuous Discharge Ignition System for Dilute Engine Applications

SwRI has developed the DCO® ignition system, a unique continuous discharge system that allows for variable duration/energy events in SI engines. The system uses two coils connected by a diode and a multi-striking controller to generate a continuous current flow through the spark plug of variable duration. A previous publication demonstrated the ability of the DCO system to improve EGR tolerance using low energy coils. In this publication, the work is extended to high current (≻ 300 mA/high energy (≻ 200 mJ) coils and compared to several advanced ignition systems. The results from a 4-cylinder, MPI application demonstrate that the higher current/higher energy coils offer an improvement over the lower energy coils. The engine was tested at a variety of speed and load conditions operating at stoichiometric air-fuel ratios with gasoline and EGR dilution.
Journal Article

Effects of EGR Dilution and Fuels on Spark Plug Temperatures in Gasoline Engines

The addition of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has demonstrated the potential to significantly improve engine efficiency by allowing high CR operation due to a reduction in knock tendency, heat transfer, and pumping losses. In addition, EGR also reduces the engine-out emission of nitrogen oxides, particulates, and carbon monoxide while further improving efficiency at stoichiometric air/fuel ratios. However, improvements in efficiency through enhanced combustion phasing at high compression ratios can result in a significant increase in cylinder pressure. As cylinder pressure and temperature are both important parameters for estimating the durability requirements of the engine - in effect specifying the material and engineering required for the head and block - the impact of EGR on surface temperatures, when combined with the cylinder pressure data, will provide an important understanding of the design requirements for future cylinder heads.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefits of Electric and Hydraulic Off Engine Accessories

This paper will describe the fuel economy benefits that can be obtained when traditionally engine-driven accessories such as water pumps, oil pumps, power steering pumps, radiator cooling fans and air conditioning compressors are decoupled from the engine and are remotely driven and controlled. Simulation results for different vehicle configurations such as heavy duty trucks operated over urban and highway driving cycles and light duty vehicles such as mini vans will be presented. These results will quantify the heavy dependence of fuel economy benefits associated with different types of driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Intentional Failure of a 5000 psig Hydrogen Cylinder Installed in an SUV Without Standard Required Safety Devices

A vehicle's gasoline fuel tank was removed and replaced with a 5,000-psig, Type-III, aluminum-lined hydrogen cylinder. High-pressure cylinders are typically installed with a thermally-activated pressure relief device (PRD) designed to safely vent the contents of the cylinder in the event of accidental exposure to fire. The objective of this research was to assess the results of a catastrophic failure in the event that a PRD were ineffective. Therefore, no PRD was installed on the vehicle to ensure cylinder failure would occur. The cylinder was pressurized and exposed to a propane bonfire in order to simulate the occurrence of a gasoline pool fire on the underside of the vehicle. Measurements included temperature and carbon monoxide concentration inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle to evaluate tenability. Measurements on the exterior of the vehicle included blast wave pressures. Documentation included standard, infrared, and high-speed video.
Technical Paper

Accessory Electrification in Class 8 Tractors

Fuel costs to operate large trucks have risen substantially in the last few years and, based on petroleum supply/demand curves, that trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Non-propulsion or parasitic loads in a large truck account for a significant percentage of overall engine load, leading to reductions in overall vehicle fuel economy. Electrification of parasitic loads offers a way of minimizing non-propulsion engine loads, using the full motive force of the engine for propulsion and maximizing vehicle fuel economy. This paper covers the integration and testing of electrified accessories, powered by a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) in a Class 8 tractor. It is a continuation of the efforts initially published in SAE paper 2005-01-0016.
Technical Paper

Using the Cone Calorimeter to Predict FMVSS 302 Performance of Interior and Exterior Automotive Materials

Forty-eight materials from parts used inside and outside the passenger compartment of six motor vehicles were tested according to FMVSS 302. All samples passed the test although the FMVSS 302 test requirements do not apply to exterior materials. The same materials were also tested in the Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E 1354) at three heat fluxes. The FMVSS 302 performance diagram developed earlier on the basis of Cone Calorimeter data for 18 exterior materials from two vehicles appears to have more general validity for solid plastic parts, regardless whether they are taken from locations inside or outside of the passenger compartment. The previously-developed performance diagram is not applicable to plastic foams and fabrics. Additional criteria are proposed to predict whether a foam or fabric is likely to pass the FMVSS 302 test based on ignition time and peak heat release rate measured in the Cone Calorimeter at a heat flux of 35 kW/m2.
Technical Paper

Electric Air Conditioning for Class 8 Tractors

Air conditioning and heating of heavy-duty truck cabs is an important contributor to engine efficiency, fuel economy and driver comfort. The air conditioner condenser coil and engine radiator typically share a common cooling fan, making it necessary to run the large engine cooling fan to provide condenser cooling. Engagement of the radiator cooling fan consumes a large amount of energy, further contributing to engine exhaust and noise emissions. Even under moderate temperature conditions, when the conventional engine-driven air conditioning compressor is not in use, the belt drive system adds a small speed-dependent parasitic load to the engine. Electrically driven air conditioning systems have the potential for lower energy consumption than their mechanical counterparts: Electrically driven air conditioning systems can reduce engine idle time by decoupling the air conditioner system from the engine cooling fan while offering near zero parasitic load when not in use.
Technical Paper

Ignition of Underbody and Engine Compartment Hydrogen Releases

Various fire scenarios involving a hydrogen fuel system were simulated to evaluate their associated safety hazards. Scenarios included finite releases of hydrogen with delayed ignition as well as small hydrogen jet-fire releases. The scenarios tested resulted in minimal damage to the vehicle, minimal hazards to the vehicle's surroundings, and no observable damage or hazards within the passenger compartment.
Technical Paper

Electrification and Integration of Accessories on a Class-8 Tractor

This paper describes installation and testing of electrified engine accessories and fuel cell auxiliary power units for a Class-8 tractor. A 2.4 kW fuel cell APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) has been added to supply a 42 V power supply for electrification of air conditioning and water pump systems. A 42/12 V dual alternator was used to replace the OEM alternator to provide safety back-up in case of fuel cell failure. A QNX Real Time Operating System-based (RTOS) Rapid Prototype Electronic Control System (RPECS™), developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI™), is used for supervisory control and coordination between accessories and engine. A Controller Area Network (CAN) interface, from the engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU), and the RS232 interface, from the fuel cell controllers, provide system data and control for RPECS. Custom wiring to the hydrogen, water pump, and air conditioning systems also provide data to RPECS. The water pump system controller is autonomous.
Technical Paper

42-Volt Electric Air Conditioning System Commissioning and Control for a Class-8 Tractor

The electrification of accessories using a fuel cell as an auxiliary power unit reduces the load on the engine and provides opportunities to increase propulsion performance or reduce engine displacement. The SunLine™ Class 8 tractor electric accessory integration project is a United States Army National Automotive Center (NAC™) initiative in partnership with Cummins Inc., Dynetek™ Industries Ltd., General Dynamics C4 Systems, Acumentrics™ Corporation, Michelin North America, Engineered Machine Products (EMP™), Peterbilt™ Motors Company, Modine™ Manufacturing and Masterflux™. Southwest Research Institute is the technical integration contractor to SunLine™ Services Group. In this paper the SunLine™ tractor electric Air Conditioning (AC) system is described and the installation of components on the tractor is illustrated. The AC system has been designed to retrofit into an existing automotive system and every effort was made to maintain OEM components whenever modifications were made.
Technical Paper

Particle Size Distribution and Mass Emissions from a Mining Diesel Engine Equipped with a Dry System Technologies Emission Control System

Particle size distribution, number, and mass emissions from the exhaust of a 92 kW 1999 Isuzu 6BG1 nonroad naturally aspirated diesel engine were measured. The engine exhaust was equipped with a Dry System Technologies® (DST) auxiliary emission control device that included an oxidation catalyst, a heat exchanger, and a disposable paper particulate filter. Particle measurement was taken during the ISO 8178 8-mode test for engine out and engine with the DST using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) in parallel to the standard filter method (SFM), specified in 40 CFR, Part 89. The DST efficiency of removing particles was about 99.9 percent based on particle number, 99.99 percent based on particle mass derived from number and size. However, the efficiency based on mass derived from the SFM was much lower on the order of 90 to 93 percent.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of a Hydrostatic Powertrain in the Presence of Accessory Loads

In off-highway applications the engine torque is distributed between the transmission (propulsion) and other accessories such as power steering, air conditioning and implements. Electronic controls offer the opportunity to more efficiently manage the control of the engine and transmission as an integrated system. This paper deals with development of a steepest descent algorithm for maximizing the efficiency of hydrostatic transmission along with the engine in the presence of accessory load. The methodology is illustrated with an example. The strategy can be extended to the full hydro-mechanical configuration as required. Applications of this approach include adjusting for component wear and intelligent energy management between different accessories for possible size reduction of powertrain components. The potential benefits of this strategy are improved fuel efficiency and operator productivity.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

System Component Coupling for Structure Borne Noise Isolation Studies

Control of structure borne noise transmission into an aircraft cabin generated from component excitation, such as rotor/engine vibration imbalance or firing excitations or from auxiliary equipment induced vibrations, can be studied empirically via impedance characterization of the system components and application of appropriate component coupling procedures. The present study was aimed at demonstrating the usefulness of such impedance modeling techniques as applied to a Bell 206B rotorcraft and a Cessna TR182 general aviation aircraft. Simulated rotor/engine excitations were applied to the assembled aircraft systems to provide baseline structure borne noise transmission data. Thereafter, impedance tests of the system components were carried out to provide a data base from which system component coupling studies were carried out.