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Technical Paper

Effects of Dual Port Injection and Direct-Injection Technology on Combustion Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0999
Dual injection fuel systems combine the knock and fuel economy benefits of gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology with the lower particulate emissions of port fuel injection (PFI) systems. For many years, this technology was limited to smaller-volume, high-end, vehicle models, but these technologies are now becoming main stream. The combination of two fuel injection systems has an impact on the combustion emission composition as well as the consistency of control strategy and emissions. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for fuel and fuel additive companies, automotive companies, and aftertreatment developers. This paper describes the effects of dual injection technology on both regulated and non-regulated combustion emissions from a 2018 Toyota Camry during several cold-start, 4-bag United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle.
Technical Paper

Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

2019-04-02
2019-01-0249
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels.
Technical Paper

On-Road Monitoring of Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-09-10
2018-01-1676
To meet increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy regulations, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have recently developed and deployed small, high power density engines. Turbocharging, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) has enabled a rapid engine downsizing trend. While these turbocharged GDI (TGDI) engines have indeed allowed for better fuel economy in many light duty vehicles, TGDI technology has also led to some unintended consequences. The most notable of these is an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI is an uncontrolled combustion event that takes place prior to spark ignition, often resulting in knock, and has been known to cause catastrophic engine damage. LSPI propensity depends on a number of factors including engine design, calibration, fuel properties and engine oil formulation. Several engine tests have been developed within the industry to better understand the phenomenon of LSPI.
Technical Paper

Relationship among Various Particle Characterization Metrics Using GDI Engine Based Light-Duty Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0353
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been widely used by manufacturers in light-duty to meet stringent fuel economy and emissions standards. This study focuses on the relationship between various particle metrics such as number, size, surface area and mass of dilute exhaust particles from 12 different light-duty vehicles equipped with GDI engines. The campaign included the measurement of total particulate matter (PM) using Title 40 CFR Part 1066 compliant filter measurement, soot mass using photo-acoustics based analyzer, organic carbon (OC) & elemental carbon (EC) mass using thermo-optical analysis of quartz filter samples, solid particle number using European Union Regulation No. 49 compliant number system and solid particle size/number using an electrical mobility based size spectrometer.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Measurement of Holistic Powertrain Efficiency in Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0324
Conventional methods for determining automotive powertrain efficiency include (1) component-level testing, such as engine dynamometer, transmission stand or axle stand testing, (2) simulations based on component level test data and (3) vehicle-level testing, such as chassis dynamometer or on-road testing. This paper focuses on vehicle-level testing to show where energy is lost throughout a complete vehicle powertrain. This approach captures all physical effects of a vehicle driving in real-world conditions, including torque converter lockup strategies, transmission shifting, engine control strategies and inherent mechanical efficiency of the components. A modern rear-wheel drive light duty pickup truck was instrumented and tested on a chassis dynamometer. Power was measured at the engine crankshaft output, the rear driveshaft and at the dynamometer.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Measurement of Transmission Efficiency in Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1095
SAE Recommended Practice J1540 [1] specifies test procedures to map transmission efficiency and parasitic losses in a manual transmission. The procedure comprises two parts. The first compares input and output torque over a range of speed to determine efficiency. The second measures parasitic losses at zero input torque over a range of speed. As specified in J1540, efficiency of transmissions is routinely measured on a test-stand under steady torque and speed [2] [3]. While such testing is useful to compare different transmissions, it is unclear whether the “in-use” efficiency of a given transmission is the same as that measured on the stand. A vehicular transmission is usually mated to a reciprocating combustion engine producing significant torque and speed fluctuations at the crankshaft. It is thus a valid question whether the efficiency under such pulsating conditions is the same as that under steady conditions.
Technical Paper

Dilute Combustion Assessment in Large Bore, Low Speed Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0580
The promising D-EGR gasoline engine results achieved in the test cell, and then in a vehicle demonstration have led to exploration of further possible applications. A study has been conducted to explore the use of D-EGR gasoline engines as a lower cost replacement for medium duty diesel engines in trucks and construction equipment. However, medium duty diesel engines have larger displacement, and tend to require high torque at lower engine speeds than their automobile counterparts. Transmission and final drive gearing can be utilized to operate the engine at higher speeds, but this penalizes life-to-overhaul. It is therefore important to ensure that D-EGR combustion system performance can be maintained with a larger cylinder bore, and with high specific output at relatively low engine speeds.
Journal Article

Cycle-Average Heavy-Duty Engine Test Procedure for Full Vehicle Certification - Numerical Algorithms for Interpreting Cycle-Average Fuel Maps

2016-09-27
2016-01-8018
In June of 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the fuel efficiency of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. The agencies proposed that vehicle manufacturers would certify vehicles to the standards by using the agencies’ Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM). The agencies also proposed a steady-state engine test procedure for generating GEM inputs to represent the vehicle’s engine performance. In the proposal the agencies also requested comment on an alternative engine test procedure, the details of which were published in two separate 2015 SAE Technical Papers [1, 2]. As an alternative to the proposed steady-state engine test procedure, these papers presented a cycle-average test procedure.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cold Start Technologies on a 3L Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0823
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require that modern diesel aftertreatment systems must warm up and begin controlling emissions shortly after startup. While several new aftertreatment technologies have been introduced that focus on lowering the aftertreatment activation temperature, the engine system still needs to provide thermal energy to the exhaust for cold start. A study was conducted to evaluate several engine technologies that focus on improving the thermal energy that the engine system provides to the aftertreatment system while minimizing the impact on fuel economy and emissions. Studies were conducted on a modern common rail 3L diesel engine with a custom dual loop EGR system. The engine was calibrated for low engine-out NOx using various combustion strategies depending on the speed/load operating condition.
Technical Paper

Technical Approach to Increasing Fuel Economy Test Precision with Light Duty Vehicles on a Chassis Dynamometer

2016-04-05
2016-01-0907
In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent annual improvement. This regulatory requirement to improve fuel economy is driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to improve fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
Journal Article

Test Protocols for Motorcoach Fire Safety

2015-04-14
2015-01-1381
The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated to simulate a representative engine compartment and wheel well.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires

2014-09-30
2014-01-2425
Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on a new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relation between rolling resistance and fuel consumption. Reductions in fuel consumption were measured using the SAE J1231 (reaffirmation of 1986) test method. Vehicle rolling resistance was calculated as a load-weighted average of the rolling resistance (as measured by ISO28580) of the tires in each axle position. Both new and retreaded tires were tested in different combinations to obtain a range of vehicle coefficient of rolling resistance from a baseline of 7.7 kg/ton to 5.3 kg/ton. Reductions in fuel consumption displayed a strong linear relationship with coefficient of rolling resistance, with a maximum reduction of fuel consumption of 10 percent relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

Novel Renewable Additive for Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1262
A novel oxygenate, 5-methyl furoate ethyl ester (EF), was made by a chemical process from biomass and ethanol. This compound was then used as a renewable diesel additive at concentrations up to 10 percent by volume. This unique ester, which is similar in composition to a know food additive, was studied for engine performance in comparison with two other oxygenated alternatives (i.e. ethanol - EtOH and ethyl levulinate - EL) and with B20 (20 percent biodiesel). Tests were performed with a 2012 6.7 L Ford diesel engine using the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure. The emission results indicated that a blend of the ester with diesel was comparable to the base fuel. In addition, the results also indicated that EF reduces the formation of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide. Other properties of EF seem to improve the physical properties of the blended fuel such as lubricity and viscosity when compared to the base fuel.
Technical Paper

Locomotive Emissions Measurements for Various Blends of Biodiesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0106
The objective of this project was to assess the effects of various blends of biodiesel on locomotive engine exhaust emissions. Systematic, credible, and carefully designed and executed locomotive fuel effect studies produce statistically significant conclusions are very scarce, and only cover a very limited number of locomotive models. Most locomotive biodiesel work has been limited to cursory demonstration programs. Of primary concern to railroads and regulators is understanding any exhaust emission associated with biodiesel use, especially NOX emissions. In this study, emissions tests were conducted on two locomotive models, a Tier 2 EMD SD70ACe and a Tier 1+ GE Dash9-44CW with two baseline fuels, conventional EPA ASTM No. 2-D S15 (commonly referred to as ultra-low sulfur diesel - ULSD) certification diesel fuel, and commercially available California Air Resource Board (CARB) ULSD fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of SCR Catalyst Performance on RMC SET Emission Cycle between an Engine and a High Flow Burner Rig

2013-04-08
2013-01-1070
Government agencies like EPA play an important role through regulation to reduce emissions and fuel consumption and to drive technological developments to reduce the environmental impact of burning petroleum fuels. Emissions testing and control is one of the leading and growing fields in the development of modern vehicles. Recently, Cummins Emissions Solutions (CES) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) worked jointly in order to achieve a method to conduct emissions testing efficiently and effectively. The collaborative work between the two organizations led to the usage of FOCAS HGTR™ (a diesel-based burner test rig at SwRI) to simulate the exhaust conditions generated by a 2010 ISX Cummins production engine operating over an EPA standard Ramped Modal Cycle Supplemental Emissions Test (RMC SET) cycle.
Technical Paper

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1076
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO₂ formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH₃) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH₃ transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Journal Article

Determination of the PEMS Measurement Allowance for PM Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program

2012-04-16
2012-01-1250
This paper summarizes the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing (HDUIT) measurement allowance program for Particulate Matter Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS). The measurement allowance program was designed to determine the incremental error between PM measurements using the laboratory constant volume sampler (CVS) filter method and in-use testing with a PEMS. Two independent PM-PEMS that included the Sensors Portable Particulate Measuring Device (PPMD) and the Horiba Transient Particulate Matter (TRPM) were used in this program. An additional instrument that included the AVL Micro Soot Sensor (MSS) was used in conjunction with the Sensors PPMD to be considered a PM-PEMS. A series of steady state and transient tests were performed in a 40 CFR Part 1065 compliant engine dynamometer test cell using a 2007 on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine to quantify the accuracy and precision of the PEMS in comparison with the CVS filter-based method.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of Diesel and Alternative Diesel Fuels in Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-09-11
2011-24-0198
Conventional diesel fuel has been in the market for decades and used successfully to run diesel engines of all sizes in many applications. In order to reduce emissions and to foster energy source diversity, new fuels such as alternative and renewable, as well as new fuel formulations have entered the market. These include biodiesel, gas-to-liquid, and alternative formulations by states such as California. Performance variations in fuel economy, emissions, and compatibility for these fuels have been evaluated and debated. In some cases contradictory views have surfaced. “Sustainable”, “Renewable”, and “Clean” designations have been interchanged. Adding to the confusion, results from one fuel in one type of engine such as an older heavy-duty engine, is at times compared to that of another fuel in another type such as a modern light-duty engine. This study was an attempt to compare the performance of several fuels in identical environments, using the same engine, for direct comparison.
Journal Article

Scuderi Split Cycle Research Engine: Overview, Architecture and Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0403
The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges. It also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper reviews the first Scuderi split cycle research engine, giving an overview of its architecture and operation. It describes how the splitting of gas compression and combustion into two separate cylinders has been simulated and how the results were used to drive the engine architecture together with the design of the main engine systems for air handling, fuel injection, mixing and ignition. A prototype engine was designed, manufactured, and installed in a test cell. The engine was heavily instrumented and initial performance results are presented.
Technical Paper

A Test Method for Evaluating Feasibility of Lean Nitrous Oxide Traps

2011-01-19
2011-26-0030
The Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is a technology that could be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen from heavy-duty diesel engines to meet emissions standards (US 2010 and EURO 4/5/6). This paper describes a case-study for evaluating the feasibility of an LNT. LNTs suffer from sulfur poisoning and thermal aging limitations. Catalyst formulations allow reversal of sulfur poisoning through desulfation procedures. A case study was performed using a 7-liter diesel engine equipped with VGT, common rail fuel injection system, cooled EGR, oxidation catalyst and DPF. The LNT was positioned after the particulate filter. Gaseous raw emissions were measured from engine and various stages of aftertreatment. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyzer was used to characterize Ammonia and SO₂. Temperatures were measured in the substrate. Fast response NOx sensor allowed for continuous monitoring of the NOx in the LNT. A wide-range O₂ sensor was also utilized to measure equivalence ratio.
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