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Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

2019-03-19
2019-01-1352
The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Impediments

2016-09-27
2016-01-8007
Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at an exponential rate, evolving from research largely funded and motivated by military and agricultural needs to a near-production market focused on everyday driving on public roads. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases, or situations outside the average driving environment, have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
Journal Article

Test Protocols for Motorcoach Fire Safety

2015-04-14
2015-01-1381
The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated to simulate a representative engine compartment and wheel well.
Video

Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

2012-05-10
The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

Updating China Heavy-Duty On-Road Diesel Emission Regulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-0367
With the rapid expansion of the automotive market in China, air quality in the major cities has become a severe concern. Great efforts have been made in introducing new emission regulations; however, fuel and lubricant qualities, emissions aftertreatment system durability and in-use compliance to the emissions regulations still require significant improvement. China follows the European Union (EU) emission regulations in general, but different levels of standards exist. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the current and near-future heavy-duty diesel emission regulations, as well as fuel and lubricant specifications.
Technical Paper

Navigation Control in an Urban Autonomous Ground Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1037
Southwest Research Institute developed an Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) capable of navigating in urban environments. The paper first gives an overview of hardware and software onboard the vehicle. The systems onboard are classified into perception, intelligence, and command and control modules to mimic a human driver. Perception deals with sensing from the world and translating it into situation awareness. This awareness is then fed into intelligence modules. Intelligence modules take inputs from the user to understand the need to navigate from its current location to another destination and, then, generate a path between them on urban, drivable surfaces using its internal urban database. Situational awareness helps intelligence to update the path in real time by avoiding any static/moving obstacles while following traffic rules.
Technical Paper

Observations from Cylinder Liner Wear Studies in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines and the Evolution towards Lower Viscosity Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants

2011-04-12
2011-01-1207
Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
Journal Article

Scuderi Split Cycle Research Engine: Overview, Architecture and Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0403
The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges. It also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper reviews the first Scuderi split cycle research engine, giving an overview of its architecture and operation. It describes how the splitting of gas compression and combustion into two separate cylinders has been simulated and how the results were used to drive the engine architecture together with the design of the main engine systems for air handling, fuel injection, mixing and ignition. A prototype engine was designed, manufactured, and installed in a test cell. The engine was heavily instrumented and initial performance results are presented.
Journal Article

Development of a Synthetic Diesel Exhaust

2008-04-14
2008-01-0067
A two-phase study was performed to establish a standard diesel exhaust composition which could be used in the future development of light-duty diesel exhaust aftertreatment. In the first phase, a literature review created a database of diesel engine-out emissions. The database consisted chiefly of data from heavy-duty diesel engines; therefore, the need for an emission testing program for light- and medium-duty engines was identified. A second phase was conducted to provide additional light-duty vehicle emissions data from current technology vehicles. Engine-out diesel exhaust from four 2004 model light-duty vehicles with a variety of engine displacements was collected and analyzed. Each vehicle was evaluated using five steady-state engine operating conditions and two transient test cycles (the Federal Test Procedure and the US06). Regulated emissions were measured along with speciation of both volatile and semi-volatile components of the hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

A History of Mack Engine Lubricant Tests from 1985-2005: Mack T-7 through Mack T-12

2005-10-24
2005-01-3713
As on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine designs have evolved to meet tighter emissions specifications and greater customer requirements, the crankcase environment for heavy-duty engine lubricants has changed. Engine lubricant quality is very important to help ensure engine durability, engine performance, and reduce maintenance downtime. Beginning in the late 1980's, a new Mack genuine oil specification and a new American Petroleum Institute (API) heavy-duty engine lubricant category have been introduced with each new U.S. heavy-duty, on-highway emissions specification. This paper documents the history and development of the Mack T-7, T-8, T-8A, T-8E, T-9, T-10, T-11, and T-12 engine lubricant tests.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) - Part IV

2001-09-24
2001-01-3527
This paper reports on the fourth part of a continued study on further research and development with the automated Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Research over the past six years (reported in SAE papers #961182, 971636 and 1999-01-3591) has demonstrated the capabilities of this automated apparatus to measure the ignition quality and accurately determine a derived cetane number (DCN) for a wide range of middle distillate and non-conventional diesel fuels. The present paper reports on a number of separate investigations supporting these continued studies.
Technical Paper

The ASTM Test Monitoring Center - Evolving in a Changing Industry

2000-10-16
2000-01-2946
This paper traces the evolution of the ASTM Test Monitoring Center (TMC) from its modest beginnings in 1976 to the present. Formed as an unbiased and non-aligned group within ASTM Subcommittee D02.B, the TMC operates a reference oil based calibration system that serves both the producers and users of automotive lubricants. Governed by the ASTM Test Monitoring Board, the center's primary mission is to calibrate engine dynamometer test stands used to conduct various ASTM test methods for evaluating lubricant performance. The core services of the TMC have remained the same over its nearly 25 year history. The center stores and distributes ASTM reference oils and is responsible for assuring, through the use of analytical testing, the quality and consistency of the oils. The number of reference oils handled by the TMC has steadily increased over time such that today the center inventories some 100 different formulations having a total volume of 65,000 gallons.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Growth During Dilution and Cooling of Diesel Exhaust: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Assessment

2000-03-06
2000-01-0515
Nanoparticle formation during exhaust sampling and dilution has been examined using a two-stage micro-dilution system to sample the exhaust from a modern, medium-duty diesel engine. Growth rates of nanoparticles at different exhaust dilution ratios and temperatures have been determined by monitoring the evolution of particle size distributions in the first stage of the dilution system. Two methods, graphical and analytical, are described to determine particle growth rate. Extrapolation of size distribution down to 1 nm in diameter has been demonstrated using the graphical method. The average growth rate of nanoparticles is calculated using the analytical method. The growth rate ranges from 6 nm/sec to 24 nm/sec, except at a dilution ratio of 40 and primary dilution temperature of 48 °C where the growth rate drops to 2 nm /sec. This condition seems to represent a threshold for growth. Observed nucleation and growth patterns are consistent with predictions of a simple physical model.
Technical Paper

The Port Fuel Injector Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

1998-10-19
982713
The Port Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposit Test is a performance-based test procedure developed by the Coordinating Research Council and adopted by state and federal regulatory agencies for fuel qualification in the United States. To date, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has performed over 375 PFI tests between 1991 and 1998 for various clients. This paper details the analyses of these tests. Of the 375 tests, 199 were performed as keep-clean tests and 176 were performed as clean-up tests. The following areas of interest are discussed in this paper: Keep-clean versus clean-up test procedures Linearity of deposit formation Injector position effects as related to fouling Dirtyup / cleanup phenomena Seasonal effects This paper draws the conclusion that it is easier to keep new injectors from forming deposits than it is to clean up previously formed deposits. It was found that injector deposit formation is generally non-linear.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) - Part II

1997-05-01
971636
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.). This R&D has resulted in a diesel fuel Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) that permits rapid and precise determination of the ignition quality of middle distillate and alternative fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. A preliminary investigation, reported in SAE paper 961182, has shown that the IQT results are highly correlated to the ASTM D-613 cetane number (CN). The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to further refine the original CN model and report on improvements to the IQT fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Current CVT Mechanisms, Forces and Efficiencies

1997-02-24
970688
Usage of CVTs in automotive applications has begun to increase, however because of their relative newness and previous usage in nonautomotive applications, a broad base of technical information on the various types of CVT's does not exist. Most importantly though, no comparison information exists on the different types of configurations. Currently, there are a number of CVT technologies that have been used in automotive, off-road and industrial applications. This paper will highlight the characteristics, design limitations and efficiencies of the following basic CVT types:
Technical Paper

Army Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Estimate Selected Properties of Compression Ignition Fuels

1993-03-01
930734
The U.S. Army has long identified the need for rapid, reliable methods for analysis of fuels and lubricants on or near the battlefield. The analysis of fuels and lubricants under battlefield or near-battlefield conditions requires that the equipment be small, portable, rugged, quick, and easy to use. Over the past 15 to 20 years, several test kits and portable laboratories have been developed in response to this need. One instrumental technique that has been identified as a likely candidate to meet this need is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). To evaluate NIR as a candidate, a set of 280 fuel samples was used. This sample set contained samples of diesel fuel grades 1 and 2, Jet A-l, JP-5, and JP-8. Inspection data were collected on all the fuels as sample size permitted. Each sample was then scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Data analysis, model building, and calibration were conducted using a software package supplied with the instrument.
Technical Paper

SwRI-BMW N.A. Intake Valve Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

1992-10-01
922215
The SwRI/BMW N.A. Intake Valve Deposit Test procedure was the first performance-based test procedure adopted for fuels qualification in the United States. The initial fuel evaluations were begun in January 1988 with six 1985 BMW 318i vehicles. Since that time, the fleet has grown to include over 60 BMW cars, and more than 2000 tests have been performed. This paper gives a statistical summary of approximately 1800 tests performed over a four-year period. Performance data and possible sources of test variation are discussed. Data and analyses offered represent results of tests by all clients. However, data is presented such that no individual test or client is identified.
Technical Paper

Fuel Issues for Liquefied Natural Gas Vehicles

1992-10-01
922360
Natural gas vehicle (NGV) fuel energy storage density is a key issue, particularly in many heavy-duty applications where compressed natural gas may have unattractively low energy density. For these uses, benefits can be derived by using liquefied natural gas (LNG). From a market perspective, LNG can play a role for transportation because it is available in various areas of the United States and throughout the world. This paper provides a general overview of LNG use for vehicles and specifically an analysis of factors governing the behavior of this cryogenic fluid in a confined vessel. This is intended to provide an understanding of the cause/effect relation between LNG fuel composition, tank heat influx, and rate of fuel usage or storage time.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility in the Off-Highway Vehicle Part II: Electromagnetic Immunity (EMI)

1992-09-01
921653
Electromagnetic immunity (EMI) for off-highway vehicles (OHV) is a vehicle's ability to resist radiated and conducted electromagnetic interference. Interference can originate within the OHV from the various systems designed to control its operational functions; external sources can also cause serious disruption of the electronic control mechanisms. Knowledge of how and where interferences originate gives the electronic designer insight into how to avoid the pitfalls which can cause malfunctions. Verification of designs through testing will ensure that safety and reliability are built into every OHV produced. This paper discusses the mechanisms that cause susceptibility of electronic circuits to electromagnetic interference, and presents test methods to help the designer improve circuit design and verify the immunity of the complete vehicle. This is the second in a series of papers on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the off-highway vehicle.
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