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Technical Paper

Combined Benefits of Variable Valve Actuation and Low-Pressure EGR on SI Engine Efficiency Part 1: Part Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0241
Modern spark ignited engines face multiple barriers to achieving higher thermal efficiency. This study investigated the potential of utilizing both continuously variable valve actuation (VVA) and low-pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve engine thermal efficiency at part-load conditions. Six speed / load points were investigated on a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. A design of experiment (DoE) approach using the Box-Behnken surface response model was conducted. The DoE results revealed different brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) responses to the valve phasing and the intake valve lift at different operating conditions. Further engine testing was carried out at each speed / load point to confirm the engine efficiency and combustion performance when targeting different valvetrain controls and EGR strategies. The results indicated that utilizing the VVA system could always reduce BSFC at the studied operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Combined Benefits of Variable Valve Actuation and Low-Pressure EGR on SI Engine Efficiency Part 2: High Load

2019-04-02
2019-01-0237
The abnormal autoignition of the unburned gas, namely knock, at high loads is a major challenge for modern spark ignited engines. Knock prevents the application of high compression ratios due to the increased unburned gas temperature, and it becomes increasingly severe for downsized engines with high specific powers. The current paper reports on the potential of utilizing continuously variable valve actuation (VVA) and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce knock tendency at high loads. Five speed / load points were investigated on a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) response to the valve phasing and the intake valve lift was investigated with the design of experiment (DoE) approach. The DoE was conducted using a Box-Behnken surface response model. The results exhibited insensitive response of BSFC to intake valve lift and overlap.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive CFD-FEA Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis for Diesel and Gasoline Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0212
As the efforts to push capabilities of current engine hardware to their durability limits increases, more accurate and reliable analysis is necessary to ensure that designs are robust. This paper evaluates a method of Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) analysis for a gasoline and a diesel engine that combines combustion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), engine Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and cooling jacket CFD with the goal of obtaining more accurate temperature distribution and heat loss predictions in an engine compared to standard de-coupled CFD and FEA analysis methods. This novel CHT technique was successfully applied to a 2.5 liter GM LHU gasoline engine at 3000 rpm and a 15.0 liter Cummins ISX heavy duty diesel engine operating at 1250 rpm. Combustion CFD simulations results for the gasoline and diesel engines are validated with the experimental data for cylinder pressure and heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching to EIVC Strategy on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0192
The use of early intake valve closing (EIVC) can lead to improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of EIVC for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting as EIVC strategies reduce volumetric efficiency. Turbochargers with variable nozzle turbines (VNT) have recently been developed for gasoline applications operating at high exhaust gas temperatures. The use of a single VNT as a boost device may provide a lower-cost option compared to two-stage boosting systems or 48 V electronic boost devices for some EIVC applications. A predictive model was created based on engine testing results from a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine [1]. The model was tuned so that it predicted burn-rates and end-gas knock over an engine operating map with varying speeds, loads, compression ratios and fuel types.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Multiple Combustion Modes to Increase Efficiency and Achieve Full Load Dual-Fuel Operation in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1157
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) natural gas/diesel dual-fuel combustion has been shown to achieve high thermal efficiency with low NOX and PM emissions, but has traditionally been limited to low to medium loads. High BMEP operation typically requires high substitution rates (i.e., >90% NG), which can lead to high cylinder pressure, pressure rise rates, knock, and combustion loss. In previous studies, compression ratio was decreased to achieve higher load operation, but thermal efficiency was sacrificed. For this study, a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine that has been modified for dual-fuel operation (diesel direct-injection and natural gas (NG) fumigated into the intake stream) was used to explore RCCI and other dual-fuel combustion modes at high compression ratio, while maintaining stock lug curve capability (i.e., extending dual-fuel operation to high loads where conventional diesel combustion traditionally had to be used).
Technical Paper

Microwave Enhancement of Lean/Dilute Combustion in a Constant-Volume Chamber

2019-04-02
2019-01-1198
High dilution engines have been shown to have a significant fuel economy improvement over their non-dilute counterparts. Much of this improvement comes through an increase in compression ratio enabled by the high knock resistance from high dilution. Unfortunately, the same reduction in reactivity that leads to the knock reduction also reduces flame speed, leading to the engine becoming unstable at high dilution rates. Advanced ignition systems have been shown to improve engine stability, but their impact is limited to the area at, or very near, the spark plug. To further improve the dilute combustion, a system in which a microwave field is established in the combustion chamber is proposed. This standing electric field has been shown, in other applications, to improve dilution tolerance and increase the burning velocity.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Dedicated EGR on a 12 L Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1143
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) converted a Cummins ISX 12 G in-line six-cylinder engine to a Dedicated EGRTM (D-EGRTM) configuration. D-EGR is an efficient way to produce reformate and increase the EGR rate. Two of the six cylinders were utilized as the dedicated cylinders. This supplied a nominal EGR rate of 33% compared to the baseline engine utilizing 15-20% EGR. PFI injectors were added to dedicated cylinders to supply the extra fuel required for reformation. The engine was tested with a high energy dual coil offset (DCO®) ignition system. The stock engine was tested at over 70 points to map the performance, 13 of these points were at RMC SET points. The D-EGR converted engine was tested at the RMC SET points for comparison to the baseline. The initial results from the D-EGR conversion show a 4% relative BTE improvement compared to the baseline due to the increased EGR rate at 1270 rpm, 16 bar BMEP.
Technical Paper

Effects of Dual Port Injection and Direct-Injection Technology on Combustion Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0999
Dual injection fuel systems combine the knock and fuel economy benefits of gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology with the lower particulate emissions of port fuel injection (PFI) systems. For many years, this technology was limited to smaller-volume, high-end, vehicle models, but these technologies are now becoming main stream. The combination of two fuel injection systems has an impact on the combustion emission composition as well as the consistency of control strategy and emissions. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for fuel and fuel additive companies, automotive companies, and aftertreatment developers. This paper describes the effects of dual injection technology on both regulated and non-regulated combustion emissions from a 2018 Toyota Camry during several cold-start, 4-bag United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

2019-04-02
2019-01-0249
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels.
Technical Paper

Deposit Reduction in SCR Aftertreatment Systems by Addition of Ti-Based Coordination Complex to UWS

2019-04-02
2019-01-0313
Formation of urea-derived deposits in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems continues to be problematic at temperatures at and below 215 °C. Several consequences of deposit formation include: NOx and NH3 slip, exhaust flow maldistribution, increased engine backpressure, and corrosion of aftertreatment components. Numerous methods have been developed to reduce deposit formation, but to date, there has been no solution for continuous low-temperature dosing of Urea-Water Solution (UWS). This manuscript presents a novel methodology for reducing low-temperature deposit formation in SCR aftertreatment systems. The methodology described herein involves incorporation and dissolution of an HNCO hydrolysis catalyst directly into the UWS. HNCO is a transient species formed by the thermolysis of urea upon injection of UWS into the aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Fuel Reforming and Catalyst Deactivation Investigated in Real Exhaust Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0315
Increased in-cylinder hydrogen levels have been shown to improve burn durations, combustion stability, HC emissions and knock resistance which can directly translate into enhanced engine efficiency. External fuel reformation can also be used to increase the hydrogen yield. During the High-Efficiency, Dilute Gasoline Engine (HEDGE) consortium at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), the potential of increased hydrogen production in a dedicated-exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR) engine was evaluated exploiting the water gas shift (WGS) and steam reformation (SR) reactions. It was found that neither approach could produce sustained hydrogen enrichment in a real exhaust environment, even while utilizing a lean-rich switching regeneration strategy. Platinum group metal (PGM) and Ni WGS catalysts were tested with a focus on hydrogen production and catalyst durability.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Advanced Combustion System for Stoichiometric Diesel to Reduce Soot Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0023
Diesel engines are facing increased competition from gasoline engines in the light-duty and small non-road segments, primarily due to the high relative cost of emissions control systems for lean-burn diesel engines. Advancements in gasoline engine technology have decreased the operating cost advantage of diesels and the relatively high initial-cost disadvantage is now too large to sustain a strong business position. SwRI has focused several years of research efforts toward enabling diesel engine combustion systems to operate at stoichiometric conditions, which allows the application of a low-cost three-way catalyst emission control system which has been well developed for gasoline spark-ignited engines. One of the main barriers of this combustion concept is the result of high smoke emissions from poor fuel/air mixing.
Technical Paper

Methods of Improving Combustion Efficiency in a High-Efficiency, Lean Burn Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0032
Combustion losses are one of the largest areas on inefficiency in natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engines, especially when compared to the traditional diesel engines on which they are based. These losses can vary from 1-2% at high load, to more than 6% of the total fuel energy at part load conditions. For diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engines, the three main sources of combustion losses are: bulk losses (increasing air-fuel ratio, AFR, to the premixed fuel’s lean flammability limit), crevice losses (premixed fuel trapped near valve pockets and top ring lands unable to oxidize), and blow-through losses (fumigated fuel/air intake charge passes through the cylinder and out the exhaust valve during valve overlap). In order to improve overall engine efficiency and decrease greenhouse gas emissions, these losses must be minimized.
Technical Paper

Advances Toward the Goal of a Genuinely Conjugate Engine Heat Transfer Analysis

2019-01-15
2019-01-0008
As the design of engines advances and continues to push the capabilities of current hardware closer to their durability limits, more accurate and reliable analysis is necessary to ensure that designs are robust. This research evaluates a method of conjugate heat transfer analysis for a diesel engine that combines the combustion CFD, Engine FEA, and cooling jacket CFD with the aim of getting more accurate heat loss predictions and a more accurate temperature distribution in the engine than with current analysis methods. A 15.0 L Cummins ISX heavy duty engine operating at 1250 RPM and 15 bar BMEP load is selected for this work. Spray combustion computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for the diesel engine and the results are validated with experimental data. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations were performed in a separate software platform.
Technical Paper

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Engine Exhaust Both with and without Aftertreatment

2018-09-10
2018-01-1812
Since the conception of the internal combustion engine, smoky and ill-smelling exhaust was prevalent. Over the last century, significant improvements have been made in improving combustion and in treating the exhaust to reduce these effects. One group of compounds typically found in exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), usually occurs at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust. Some of these compounds are considered carcinogenic, and most are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). Many methods have been developed for sampling, handling, and analyzing PAH. For this study, an improved method for dilute exhaust sampling was selected for sampling the PAH in diesel engine exhaust. This sampling method was used during transient engine operation both with and without aftertreatment to show the effect of aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

On-Road Monitoring of Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-09-10
2018-01-1676
To meet increasingly stringent emissions and fuel economy regulations, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have recently developed and deployed small, high power density engines. Turbocharging, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) has enabled a rapid engine downsizing trend. While these turbocharged GDI (TGDI) engines have indeed allowed for better fuel economy in many light duty vehicles, TGDI technology has also led to some unintended consequences. The most notable of these is an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI is an uncontrolled combustion event that takes place prior to spark ignition, often resulting in knock, and has been known to cause catastrophic engine damage. LSPI propensity depends on a number of factors including engine design, calibration, fuel properties and engine oil formulation. Several engine tests have been developed within the industry to better understand the phenomenon of LSPI.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standardized Test to Evaluate the Effect of Gasoline Engine Oil on the Occurrence of Low Speed Pre-Ignition - The Sequence IX Test

2018-09-10
2018-01-1808
The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IX Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) test for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The purpose of the Sequence IX test is to evaluate a lubricant’s ability to protect against LSPI events which are prevalent when operating a highly boosted/downsized gasoline direct-injected engine. LSPI is characterized as a combustion event that starts before ignition spark, typically followed by excessive in-cylinder pressures and heavy knock, which can cause severe engine damage and failure. Industry research has shown that oil formulation can contribute to the frequency of LSPI activity. The Sequence IX test was developed using a turbocharged gasoline direct-injected 2.0 liter Ford Ecoboost engine with dual independent variable cam timing. The engine was modified with in-cylinder pressure sensors and a high-resolution crank angle encoder to characterize individual engine combustion cycles and identify potential LSPI events.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1423
Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP- EGR) combined with higher compression ratio, is a technology package that has been a focus of research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Research shows that the addition of LP-EGR reduces the propensity to knock that is experienced at higher compression ratios [1]. To investigate the interaction and compatibility between increased compression ratio and LP-EGR, a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI engine was modified to run with LP-EGR at a higher compression ratio (12:1 versus 10.5:1) via a piston change. This paper presents the results of the baseline testing on an engine run with a prototype controller and initially tuned to mimic an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) baseline control strategy running on premium fuel (92.8 anti-knock index).
Technical Paper

Achieving Fast Catalyst Light-Off from a Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Capable of 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1136
Recently conducted work has been funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions for heavy-duty on-road engines. In addition to NOX emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG), CO2 and methane emissions regulations from heavy-duty engines are also becoming more stringent. To achieve low cold-start NOX and methane emissions, the exhaust aftertreatment must be brought up to temperature quickly while keeping proper air-fuel ratio control; however, a balance between catalyst light-off and fuel penalty must be addressed to meet future CO2 emissions regulations. This paper details the work executed to improve catalyst light-off for a natural gas engine with a close-coupled and an underfloor three-way-catalyst while meeting an FTP NOX emission target of 0.02 g/bhp-hr and minimizing any fuel penalty.
Technical Paper

Selective Interrupt and Control: An Open ECU Alternative

2018-04-03
2018-01-0127
To enable the evaluation of off-calibration powertrain operation, a selective interrupt and control (SIC) test capability was developed as part of an EPA evaluation of a 1.6 L EcoBoost® engine. A control and data acquisition device sits between the stock powertrain controller and the engine; the device selectively passes through or modifies control signals while also simulating feedback signals. This paper describes the development process of SIC that enabled a test engineer to command off-calibration setpoints for intake and exhaust cam phasing as well as ignition timing without the need for an open ECU duplicating the stock calibration. Results are presented demonstrating the impact of ignition timing and cam phasing on engine efficiency. When coupled with combustion analysis and crank-domain data acquisition, this test configuration provides a complete picture of powertrain performance.
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