Evaluation of Gasoline Additive Packages to Assess Their Ability to Clean Up Intake Valve Deposits in Automotive Engines
The majority of passenger car and light-duty trucks, especially in North America, operate using port-fuel injection (PFI) engines. In PFI engines, the fuel is injected onto the intake valves and then pulled into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke. Components of the fuel are unstable in this environment and form deposits on the upstream face of the intake valve. These deposits have been found to affect a vehicle’s drivability, emissions and engine performance. Therefore, it is critical for the gasoline to be blended with additives containing detergents capable of removing the harmful intake valve deposits (IVDs). Established standards are available to measure the propensity of IVD formation, for example the ASTM D6201 engine test and ASTM D5500 vehicle test.