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Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricant and Coolant Pumps for Parasitic Loss Reduction

As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with full variability of the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations. After development of the pump stands, research efforts were focused on hardware changes to reduce coolant and lubricant flow requirements of the HDD engine.
Technical Paper

The New BAIC High Efficiency Turbocharged Engine with LPL-EGR

The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
Journal Article

Test Protocols for Motorcoach Fire Safety

The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated to simulate a representative engine compartment and wheel well.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Heat Transfer in a Diesel Engine: Low Heat Rejection Engine Revisited

A large amount of the heat generated during the engine combustion process is lost to the coolant system through the surrounding metal parts. Therefore, there is a potential to improve the overall cycle efficiency by reducing the amount of heat transfer from the engine. In this paper, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool has been used to evaluate the effects of a number of design and operating variables on total heat loss from an engine to the coolant system. These parameters include injection characteristics and orientation, shape of the piston bowl, percentage of EGR and material property of the combustion chamber. Comprehensive analyses have been presented to show the efficient use of the heat retained in the combustion chamber and its contribution to improve thermal efficiency of the engine. Finally, changes in design and operating parameters have been suggested based on the analytical results to improve heat loss reduction from an engine.
Journal Article

HMMWV Axle Testing Methodology to Determine Efficiency Improvements with Superfinished Hypoids

A dynamometer test methodology was developed for evaluation of HMMWV axle efficiency with hypoid gearsets, comparing those having various degrees of superfinish versus new production axles as well as used axles removed at depot maintenance. To ensure real-world applicability, a HMMWV variant vehicle model was created and simulated over a peacetime vehicle duty cycle, which was developed to represent a mission scenario. In addition, tractive effort calculations were then used to determine the maximum input torques. The drive cycle developed above was modified into two different profiles having varying degrees of torque variability to determine if the degree of variability would have a significant influence on efficiency in the transient dynamometer tests. Additionally, steady state efficiency performance is measured at four input pinion speeds from 700-2500 rpm, five input torques from 50 - 400 N⋅m, and two sump temperatures, 80°C and 110°C.
Journal Article

A Large-Scale Robotic System for Depainting Advanced Fighter Aircraft

The general benefits of automation are well documented. Order of magnitude improvements are achievable in processing speeds, production rates, and efficiency. Other benefits include improved process consistency (inversely, reduced process variation), reduced waste and energy consumption, and risk reduction to operators. These benefits are especially true for the automation of the aerospace paint removal (or "depaint") processes. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) developed and implemented two systems in the early 1990s for depainting full-body fighter aircraft at Robins Air Force Base (AFB) at Warner Robins, Georgia, and Hill AFB at Ogden, Utah. These systems have been in production use, almost continuously for approximately 20 years, for the depainting of the F-15 Eagle and the F-16 Falcon fighter aircraft, respectively.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Hybrid Multi-Mode Hydromechanical Transmission

A multi-mode hybrid hydromechanical transmission (HMT) with infinite variability is designed to meet the power transmission needs of medium duty on- and off-road vehicles. A hydraulic pump-motor assembly provides output speed and torque variability in an input coupled split power configuration. Dual planetary arrangements with two multiplate clutches allow multi-mode ratio change and combination of power from the mechanical and variable branches of the power path. Hydraulic accumulators offer hydraulic power assist during launch conditions and storage of reclaimed energy during braking events. Transmission kinematic, force and power flow analyses will be developed for the HMT and analyzed for suitability in a bus application. The resulting benefits and areas for improvement will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefits of Electric and Hydraulic Off Engine Accessories

This paper will describe the fuel economy benefits that can be obtained when traditionally engine-driven accessories such as water pumps, oil pumps, power steering pumps, radiator cooling fans and air conditioning compressors are decoupled from the engine and are remotely driven and controlled. Simulation results for different vehicle configurations such as heavy duty trucks operated over urban and highway driving cycles and light duty vehicles such as mini vans will be presented. These results will quantify the heavy dependence of fuel economy benefits associated with different types of driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Accessory Electrification in Class 8 Tractors

Fuel costs to operate large trucks have risen substantially in the last few years and, based on petroleum supply/demand curves, that trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Non-propulsion or parasitic loads in a large truck account for a significant percentage of overall engine load, leading to reductions in overall vehicle fuel economy. Electrification of parasitic loads offers a way of minimizing non-propulsion engine loads, using the full motive force of the engine for propulsion and maximizing vehicle fuel economy. This paper covers the integration and testing of electrified accessories, powered by a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) in a Class 8 tractor. It is a continuation of the efforts initially published in SAE paper 2005-01-0016.
Technical Paper

Electrification and Integration of Accessories on a Class-8 Tractor

This paper describes installation and testing of electrified engine accessories and fuel cell auxiliary power units for a Class-8 tractor. A 2.4 kW fuel cell APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) has been added to supply a 42 V power supply for electrification of air conditioning and water pump systems. A 42/12 V dual alternator was used to replace the OEM alternator to provide safety back-up in case of fuel cell failure. A QNX Real Time Operating System-based (RTOS) Rapid Prototype Electronic Control System (RPECS™), developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI™), is used for supervisory control and coordination between accessories and engine. A Controller Area Network (CAN) interface, from the engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU), and the RS232 interface, from the fuel cell controllers, provide system data and control for RPECS. Custom wiring to the hydrogen, water pump, and air conditioning systems also provide data to RPECS. The water pump system controller is autonomous.
Technical Paper

The Turbo Trac Traction Drive CVT

A unique and attractive variator mechanism has been developed by Turbo Trac, Inc. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for initial use in a heavy duty diesel truck application. High efficiency levels have been predicted with analytical models and confirmed with actual test data. Further, this variator incorporates a very stable and simple control system and has extremely high torque capacity. The prototype of the variator mechanism has also been configured with a modified Allison 650 series transmission for use as a series application in a Peterbilt truck, the final configuration will be a split power design. The setup includes a preliminary control system that allows for highway driving. It is emphasized, however, that Allison did not contribute to this design or any of the content of this paper.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for Use on International Space Station

When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of “Technology Readiness Level” (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.
Technical Paper

Analyses of the Integration of Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, Compressor, Accumulator and Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly

An analysis model has been developed for analyzing/optimizing the integration of a carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA), CO2 compressor, accumulator, and Sabatier CO2 reduction assembly. The integrated model can be used in optimizing compressor sizes, compressor operation logic, water generation from Sabatier, utilization of CO2 from crew metabolic output, and utilization of H2 from oxygen generation assembly. Tests to validate CO2 desorption, recovery, and compression had been conducted in 2002-2003 using CDRA/Simulation compressor set-up at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An analysis of test data has validated CO2 desorption rate profile, CO2 compressor performance, CO2 recovery and CO2 vacuum vent in the CDRA model. Analysis / optimization of the compressor size and the compressor operation logic for an integrated closed air revitalization system is currently being conducted
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Conditions on In-Cylinder Air/Fuel Ratio Detection Using a Production Ion Sensing Device

In-cylinder ion sensing through sparkplug electrodes can be used to determine in-cylinder A/F ratio by using a modified production coil-on-plug ignition system having ion sensing capability. The in-cylinder ionization can be characterized by the height of the peak, location of the peak from ignition command and area under the ionization signal curve. The effects of A/F ratio on the in-cylinder ionization can be isolated from other affecting factors by conducting tests on a constant volume combustion device in which the initial pressure and temperature can be well controlled. This results in a parabolic correlation of the ionization characteristics with the mixture equivalence ratio. Additionally the ionization characteristics show strong dependence on engine load and speed. Equivalence ratio characteristics during engine cranking and warm up are investigated, and a method for on-line calibration of ionization detection is discussed.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sample Bag Hydrocarbon Emissions and Carbon Dioxide Permeation Properties

The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of a Hydrostatic Powertrain in the Presence of Accessory Loads

In off-highway applications the engine torque is distributed between the transmission (propulsion) and other accessories such as power steering, air conditioning and implements. Electronic controls offer the opportunity to more efficiently manage the control of the engine and transmission as an integrated system. This paper deals with development of a steepest descent algorithm for maximizing the efficiency of hydrostatic transmission along with the engine in the presence of accessory load. The methodology is illustrated with an example. The strategy can be extended to the full hydro-mechanical configuration as required. Applications of this approach include adjusting for component wear and intelligent energy management between different accessories for possible size reduction of powertrain components. The potential benefits of this strategy are improved fuel efficiency and operator productivity.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Improving Fuel Economy and Performance Prediction through Coupled Thermal Systems Simulation

Vehicle designers make use of vehicle performance programs such as RAPTOR™ to predict the performance of concept vehicles over ranges of industry standard drive cycles. However, the accuracy of such predictions may be greatly influenced by factors requiring more specialist simulation capabilities. For example, fuel economy prediction will be heavily influenced by the performance of the engine cooling system and its impact on the vehicle's aerodynamic drag, and the load from the air-conditioning system. To improve the predictions, specialist simulation capabilities need to be applied to these aspects, and brought together with the vehicle performance calculations through co-simulation. This paper describes the approach used to enable this cosimulation and the benefits achieved by the vehicle designer.
Technical Paper

Advanced Performance of Metallic Converter Systems Demonstrated on a Production V8 Engine

It has been shown within the catalyst industry that the emission performance with higher cell density technology and therefore with higher specific geometric area is improved. The focus of this study was to compare the overall performance of high cell density catalysts, up to 1600cpsi, using a MY 2001 production vehicle with a 4.7ltr.V8 engine. The substrates were configured to be on the edge of the design capability. The goal was to develop cost optimized systems with similar emission and back pressure performance, which meet physical and production requirements. This paper will present the results of a preliminary computer simulation study and the final emission testing of a production vehicle. For the pre-evaluation a numerical simulation model was used to compare the light-off performance of different substrate designs in the cold start portion of the FTP test cycle.
Technical Paper

CO2 Pump for the Space Station Advanced Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem

The current operation of the International Space Station (ISS) calls for the oxygen used by the occupants to be vented overboard in the form of CO2, after the CO2 is scrubbed from the cabin air. Likewise, H2 produced via electrolysis in the oxygen generator is also vented. NASA is investigating the use of the Sabatier process to combine these two product streams to form water and methane. The water is then used in the oxygen generator, thereby conserving this valuable resource. One of the technical challenges to developing the Sabatier reactor is transferring CO2 from the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) to the Sabatier reactor at the required rate, even though the CDRA and the Sabatier reactor operate on different schedules. One possible way to transfer and store CO2 is to use a mechanical compressor and a storage tank.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Transient and Steady-State Measurement of Oil Consumption for Several Production SI-Engines

Real-time transient and steady-state oil consumption were measured on three SI-engines, applying two different ring-packs to each engine. Testing of multiple engines enables an assessment of the engine-to-engine variability in oil consumption. Testing of multiple ring-packs on each engine enables an assessment of the ring-pack-to-ring-pack variability in oil consumption. The oil consumption was measured by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) novel developed SO2-tracer technique, referred to as RTOC-III. An interesting finding is that the testing shows low engine-to-engine and ring-pack-to-ring-pack variability, in both steady-state, as well as in transient oil consumption. This suggests that the RTOC-III system did not introduce significant variability to the data. The testing results are experimental verification of a design and simulation exercise, in a field of scarcely published literature.