DPF Systems for High Sulfur Fuels
During the first decade of diesel particle filter development and deployment in cars, trucks, buses and underground sites, DPF regeneration methods were engineered that were compatible with the then prevalent high sulfur content in the fuel ≻ 2000 ppm. The mainly used methods were burners, electrical heaters, replaceable filters and non-precious metal fuel additives. Low sulfur diesel fuel became only available from 1996 in Sweden, 1998 in Switzerland, and after 2000 everywhere in Europe. Thus, the deployment of precious metal catalytic converters was feasible both as original equipment and retrofitting of in-use engines. The so-called CRT particle filters using PGM-catalysis for providing NO₂ for low temperature regeneration became very successful wherever ULSD was available.