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Technical Paper

Design and Development of Single Seat, Four Wheeled All-Terrain Vehicle for Baja Collegiate Design Series

There has been a rapid increase in popularity of multipurpose All-terrain vehicles (ATV) across the globe over the past few years. SAE BAJA event gives student-community an opportunity to delve deeper into the nitty-gritty of designing a single seat, four-wheeled off road vehicle. The design and development methodology presented in this paper is useful in conceptualization of an ATV for SAE BAJA event. The vehicle is divided into various subsystems including chassis, suspension, drive train, steering, and braking system. Further these subsystems are designed and comprehensively analyzed in software like SolidWorks, ANSYS, WINGEO and MS-Excel. The 3-D model of roll cage is designed in SolidWorks and analyzed in ANSYS 9.0 for front, rear and side impact along with front and side roll-over conditions. Special case of wheel bump is also analyzed. Weight, wall thickness and bending strength of tubing used for roll cage are comprehensively studied.
Journal Article

Mobility and Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Terrain Truck

While much research has focused on improving terrain mobility, energy and fuel efficiency of terrain trucks, only a limited amount of investigation has gone into analysis of power distribution between the driving wheels. Distribution of power among the driving wheels has been shown to have a significant effect on vehicle operating characteristics for a given set of operating conditions and total power supplied to the wheels. Wheel power distribution is largely a function of the design of the driveline power dividing units (PDUs). In this paper, 6×6/6×4 terrain truck models are analyzed with the focus on various combinations of PDUs and suspension systems. While these models were found to have some common features, they demonstrate several different approaches to driveline system design.
Journal Article

Advantages of the Alternative Method for Random Hardware Failures Quantitative Evaluation - a Practical Survey for EPS

Two methods are allowed in ISO 26262-5 for hardware analysis of random hardware failures. The 1st method is called “Evaluation of Probabilistic Metric for random Hardware Failures”. The 2nd method is called “Evaluation of each cause of safety goal violation”. Advantages of the 2nd method during development of ASIL D Generation 3 Electric Power Steering are presented in this paper. A reliability analysis is one of the important prerequisite for the hardware analysis and this paper shows the best practice for hardware part failure rate estimation using industry standards such as IEC TR 62380. The equally important focus is on a diagnostic coverage of each safety mechanism with respect to residual faults and with respect to relevant dual/latent point faults because any safety design can either benefit from low failure rates or from high diagnostic coverage of safety mechanism to mitigate faults. FMEA is highly recommended by ISO 26262-5 as a part of hardware analysis.
Technical Paper

LDS- A Back to Basics Approach to Develop Linings for Brake System Integration

It is always a challenging task for the braking industry to maintain consistent friction material behavior during brake system development. Lack of consistency in friction behavior causes significant disruptions in efforts to integrate friction material with the foundation brake system. This is especially true when new friction formulations and/or manufacturing processes are introduced during an application program. Furthermore, every new program has new requirements that introduce new challenges and issues to the brake and friction manufacturers. As issues arise during the Application development, engineers devise countermeasures that often entail new engineering techniques and methods. Sometimes, such countermeasures amount to inventions to cover the inadequacy of lining behavior during brake integration.
Journal Article

Brake Dynamometer Test Variability Part 2- Description of the Influencing Factors

The ISO TC22/SWG2 - Brake Lining Committee established a task force to determine and analyze root causes for variability during dynamometer brake performance testing. SAE paper 2010-01-1697 “Brake Dynamometer Test Variability - Analysis of Root Causes” [1] presents the findings from the phases 1 and 2 of the “Test Variability Project.” The task force was created to address the issue of test variability and to establish possible ways to improve test-to-test and lab-to-lab correlation. This paper presents the findings from phase 3 of this effort-description of factors influencing test variability based on DOE study. This phase concentrated on both qualitative and quantitative description of the factors influencing friction coefficient measurements during dynamometer testing.
Technical Paper

New Method to Identify Dynamic Normal Stiffness and Damping of Shims for CAE Modeling

One of the most important means used for suppressing squeal noise in disc brakes is the application of shims on the pad backplates. In many cases this proves a very efficient tool depending on the type of shim applied in the specific cases. Building up knowledge on the effects of shims have been ongoing for several years, and measuring the important parameters characterizing the shims is crucial for understanding how to develop and implement the shims in an optimal way. Several methods are described in literature for measuring the constrained layer damping effect and one method is described for direct measurement of the shear stiffness and shear damping properties. However, up to now no method has been available that can measure and characterize the normal stiffness and damping properties of shims. This is one of the most important properties of shims as it controls the de-coupling effect in the direction of the normal forces.
Technical Paper

Brake Dynamometer Test Variability - Analysis of Root Causes

Modern project management including brake testing includes the exchange of reliable results from different sources and different locations. The ISO TC22/SWG2-Brake Lining Committee established a task force led by Ford Motor Co. to determine and analyze root causes for variability during dynamometer brake performance testing. The overall goal was to provide guidelines on how to reduce variability and how to improve correlation between dynamometer and vehicle test results. This collaborative accuracy study used the ISO 26867 Friction behavior assessment for automotive brake systems. Future efforts of the ISO task force will address NVH and vehicle-level tests. This paper corresponds to the first two phases of the project regarding performance brake dynamometer testing and presents results, findings and conclusions regarding repeatability (within-lab) and reproducibility (between-labs) from different laboratories and different brake dynamometers.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Metal Pick-Up Generation on Passenger Car Brake Pads in Correlation with Deep Rotor Scoring

This paper reports the progress that has been made to date on a research program that has as its focus to describe the mechanism of metal pick-up generation on passenger car disc brake pads in correlation with deep rotor scoring. In contrast to other existing generation theories, the new investigation considers other aspects of the initial onset of the metal pick-up.
Technical Paper

Development of Shim Specifications

In the past, each noise shim supplier had its own specifications to describe the properties of their noise shims (often also called as shim or damping shim). Due to that, it was difficult to compare the physical properties of noise shims from different suppliers. The main task was to define common specifications for daily quality/development tests. Traceability in prototype status and production was introduced establishing a clear declaration of noise shim deliveries with batch no. and “use by” date. Harmonization was created through standardized tests and procedures. In addition, a common noise shim database for all noise shim manufacturers was established. A more realistic compressibility test was developed to estimate the additional compressibility of noise shims based on bare pads under cold and hot conditions. These values are important to describe the axial decoupling at low pressure and the maximal displacement at high forces.
Technical Paper

Electrically Powered Hydraulic Steering Systems for Light Commercial Vehicles

Electrically Powered Hydraulic Steering (EPHS) was developed in the early 90s and previously applied to vehicle segments B and C (small and medium-sized passenger cars). Till now more than 10 million vehicles are in the field. The advantages consist of the well known power density coming along with the flexible package. Value is added due to the consequent development and usage of electronic control realized in compact physical units. As a result key features for chassis control systems like controllability, high dynamic performance, and low energy consumption are achieved while maintaining mature and robust hydraulic components. Recent market requirements in other segments, e.g. Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV) and Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV) require higher powered motor pump units and lead to the decision to develop products in this direction.
Technical Paper

Fluid-Structure Coupled Modeling for HYGE Impact Simulator

The HYGE impact simulator is designed to reproduce the crash pulse of a real world vehicle impact in the laboratory environment. When a crash pulse is given, it usually takes a substantial amount of works and costs to adjust operating parameters to create the desired pulse on the HYGE machine. To save the operational cost, a mathematical model of the impact simulator using Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE's) was established in the early 70's by Milan and Hegel1. This ODE modeling method provides predictions of the crash pulses generated by the HYGE impact simulator. However, during subsequent years of practice, it has been found that in some cases these predictions are inaccurate. It is because the ODE method over-simplifies the physics. To improve the prediction accuracy, more sophisticated model of the physical process must be developed. The Fluid-Structure Coupled (FSC) modeling technique was applied on this dynamics problem of the HYGE impact simulator output prediction.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fault Tolerant Steer-By-Wire Steering System

Steer-By-Wire will be the steering technology of the future. The mechanical connection between the hand wheel and the front axle will become obsolete. Independent electronically controlled actuators will set the road wheel steering angles and will provide force feedback to the driver. This paper presents the approach to establish a production intended steer-by-wire solution in two steps. In a first step a fail safe steer-by-wire system with a mechanical backup is developed which meets the functional and performance requirements of today's passenger vehicles. In the second step this concept is expanded to a future fault tolerant system architecture without any mechanical backup.
Technical Paper

Method for Extracting Full Spectrum of Friction Materials Performance (Fingerprinting) using the SAE J2681

This paper reports the progress that has been made to date on a research program that has as its focus extracting the full spectrum of friction material performance. In contrast to existing friction test specifications, the new program considers the rise of coefficient of friction at each application by using a statistical evaluation. The statistical evaluation allows also a batch to batch control by monitoring statistical values.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Rig and LACT Vehicle Test Correlation Improvements – Focus on Thermal Conditionings

Today's newer friction materials and brake systems are able to operate under extreme conditions that are not normally evaluated with the standard squeal rig procedures. This could cause some discrepancy between the squeal rig test results and the vehicle test results like Los Angeles City Traffic Test (LACT). In some cases the noise behavior of brake systems could change dramatically and take us by surprise with new squeal frequencies being uncovered or get flagged due to high occurrences. This discrepancy could also be a major handicap with respect to developing a noise fix in the lab if the squeal cannot be reproduced. In this paper, we evaluated some case studies where some extreme conditionings especially related to thermal inputs drastically changed the squeal behavior of the brake system.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Rotor In-plane Mode Induced Disc Brake Squeal and Beyond

This paper provides measurement and analysis on rotor in-plane mode induced squeal. Methodology is presented to simultaneously acquire both temporal and spatial squeal operational deflection shapes (ODS). Rotor accelerations both in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions were measured during squeal along with rotor's normal ODS using a laser vibrometer. Modal measurement and analysis of the rotor and pad in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions were conducted as installed in system condition. The test results indicating rotor modal coupling in the in-plane are provided, and out-of-plane directions, and conclusions on in-plane mode induced squeal are proposed. In addition, the countermeasure for squeal reduction is discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of a Finite Element-Based Human Arm Model for Airbag Interaction Analysis

Interaction of the human arm and deploying airbag has been studied in the laboratory using post mortem human subjects (PMHS). These studies have shown how arm position on the steering wheel and proximity to the airbag prior to deployment can influence the risk of forearm bone fractures. Most of these studies used older driver airbag modules that have been supplanted by advanced airbag technology. In addition, new numerical human body models have been developed to complement, and possibly replace, the human testing needed to evaluate new airbag technology. The objective of this study is to use a finite element-based numerical (MADYMO) model, representing the human arm, to evaluate the effects of advanced driver airbag parameters on the injury potential to the bones of the forearm. The paper shows how the model is correlated to Average Distal Forearm Speed (ADFS) and arm kinematics from two PMHS tests.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Concept of Electrically Powered Hydraulic Steering

Electrically powered hydraulic steering systems (EPHS) are in mass production for about 6 years. They have been and still are very successful in the market as they follow the trend of supplying fully assembled and tested steering modules and the increasing demand for engine independent electrically powered systems. This paper illustrates the latest results of research and development in this sector leading to a new EPHS generation.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of 4-Point Seat Belt Systems in Frontal Impacts

The biomechanical behavior of 4-point seat belt systems was investigated through MADYMO modeling, dummy tests and post mortem human subject tests. This study was conducted to assess the effect of 4-point seat belts on the risk of thoracic injury in frontal impacts, to evaluate the ability to prevent submarining under the lap belt using 4-point seat belts, and to examine whether 4-point belts may induce injuries not typically observed with 3-point seat belts. The performance of two types of 4-point seat belts was compared with that of a pretensioned, load-limited, 3-point seat belt. A 3-point belt with an extra shoulder belt that “crisscrossed” the chest (X4) appeared to add constraint to the torso and increased chest deflection and injury risk. Harness style shoulder belts (V4) loaded the body in a different biomechanical manner than 3-point and X4 belts.
Technical Paper

On Automotive Disc Brake Squeal Part II: Simulation and Analysis

This paper reviews the state of the art of CAE simulation and analysis methods on disc brake squeal. It covers complex modes analysis, transient analysis, parametrical analysis, and operational simulation. The advantages and limitations of each analysis method are discussed. This review can help analysts to choose right methods and decide new lines of method development. For completeness, analytic methods dealing with continuum models are also briefly covered. This review was made from those papers that the authors are familiar with. It is not meant to be all-inclusive even though the best possible effort has been attempted.
Technical Paper

Brake Rattle: Vibration and Noise Testing

The continuous decrease in background noise levels inside vehicles has made other noise sources easily noticeable. Specifically, foundation brake rattle noise is a growing concern to the customer. This brake rattle is primarily due to rigid body impact between brake components. Currently, vehicle and brake manufacturing companies use different testing procedures to evaluate brake rattle that include laboratory vibration shakers, full vehicle shakers (four post), chassis dynamometers and vehicle road testing. These evaluations are subjective in most cases. A method is needed to replicate and quantify vehicle brake rattle in the laboratory to help determine the acceptability of a brake system at a component level. This approach would also help to identify the root cause for brake rattle and evaluate design changes to address that rattle. Some guidelines for better quantifying brake rattle using shakers will be proposed in this paper.