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Technical Paper

Urban Air Quality Improvements by Means of Vehicular Diesel Particle Filters

The project objective was to investigate the ultrafine solid particle emissions of the prevalent traffic, by performing field measurements at an urban traffic artery in Zurich/Switzerland. Subsequently, various scenarios were postulated to assess the potential of the diesel particle filters (DPF) to improve curbside air quality. Soot aerosols are known to be carcinogenic [1]. If all heavy-duty diesel vehicles were equipped with DPFs, then the number of particles emitted from the entire vehicle fleet could be reduced by 75 to 80%. For PM10, the curtailment scope is considerably lower, around 20%, because more than half of those emissions are not from the exhaust and therefore would not be filtered.
Technical Paper

Impact of RME/Diesel Blends on Particle Formation, Particle Filtration and PAH Emissions

Vegetable oils blended to Diesel fuel are becoming popular. Economic, ecological and even political reasons are cited to decrease dependence on mineral oil and improve CO2 balance. The chemical composition of these bio fuels is different from mineral fuel, having less carbon and much more oxygen. Hence, internal combustion of Diesel + RME (Rapeseed Methyl Ester) blends was tested with particular focus on nanoparticle emissions, particle filtration characteristics and PAH-emissions. Fuel economy and emissions of bus engines were investigated in traffic, on a test-rig during standardized cycles, and on the chassis dynamometer. Fuel compositions were varied from standard EN 590 Diesel with <50 ppm sulfur to RME blends of 15, 30, and 50%. Also 100 % RME was tested on the test-rig. Emissions were compared with and without CRT traps. The PAH profiles of PM were determined. Particles were counted and analyzed for size, surface, and composition, using SMPS, PAS, DC and Coulometry.
Technical Paper

VERT Particulate Trap Verification

Particulate traps are mechanical devices for trapping soot, ash and mineral particles, to curtail emissions from Diesel engines. The filtration effectiveness of traps can be defined, independent of the pertinent engine, as a function of the particle size, space velocity and operating temperature. This method of assessment lowers cost of certifying traps for large-scale retrofitting projects [1,2]. VERT [3] is a joint project of several European environmental and occupational health agencies. The project established a trap-verification protocol that adapts industrial filtration standards [4] to include the influence of soot burden and trap regeneration phenomena. Moreover, it verifies possible catalytic effects from coating substrates and deposited catalytic active material from engine wear or fuel/ lubricant additives.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps for Construction Machines Properties and Field Experience

1 Occupational Health Authorities in Germany and Switzerland require the use of particulate traps (PT) on construction machines used in underground and in tunneling since 1994. Swiss EPA has extended this requirement 1998 to all construction sites which are in or close to cities. During the VERT*-project, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]**, traps systems were evaluated for this purpose and only those providing efficiencies over 95% for ultrafine particles < 200 nm have received official recommendation. 10 trap-systems are very popular now for these application, most of them for retrofitting existing engines. Efficiency data will be given as well as experience during a 2-years authority-controlled field test. LIEBHERR, producing their own Diesel engines in Switzerland and construction machines in Germany is the first company worldwide supplying particulate traps as OEM-feature (Original Equipment Manufacturing) on customers request.
Technical Paper

Best Available Technology for Emission Reduction of Small 4S-SI-Engines

1 Small off-road 4-stroke SI-engines have extraordinarily high pollutant emissions. These must be curtailed to comply with the new Swiss clean air act LRV 98. The Swiss environmental protection agency (BUWAL) investigated the state of the technology. The aim was a cleaner agricultural walk behind mower with a 10kW 4-stroke SI-engine. Two engine designs were compared: side-valve and OHV. A commercially available 3-way catalytic converter system substantially curtailed emissions: In the ISO 8178 G test-cycle-average, HC was minimized to 8% and CO to 5% of raw emissions. At part load points, the residual emission was < 1%. Simultaneously, fuel consumption improved 10%. Using a special gasoline (Swiss standard SN 181 163), the aromatic hydrocarbons were curtailed, e.g. Benzene < 1%, and fuel consumption further improved. Those results were confirmed in field tests. The engine is approved for retrofitting.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps for Retro-Fitting Construction Site Engines VERT: Final Measurements and Implementation

1 The VERT project aimed at curtailing the construction site diesel emissions of ultra-fine particles to 1% of the raw emissions. Thus, compliance with occupational health legislation should be achieved. Particulate traps have attained this target. In contrast, engine tuning, reformulated fuels and oxidation catalytic converters are almost ineffective. This paper reports on the concluding project stage in which 10 traps were field tested during 2 years. Subsequent detailed measurements confirmed the excellent results: > 99% filtration rate was achieved in the nano-particulate range. The PAH, too, were very efficiently eliminated. Trap deployment becomes therefore imperative to fulfill VERT-targets.