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Technical Paper

Study of dynamics stiffness and shape factor of rubber bush to address high frequency resonance issue in electric powertrain mounting system.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0341
Electric motor mounts resonance at high frequency in the range of 600 to 900Hz with motor frequency results isolation performance deterioration. There is a selection process of motor mounts such that the high frequency resonance is avoided. The dynamic stiffness plays a major role on resonance frequency. Rubber shape factor and compound are directly contribute the dynamic stiffness properties of mount. Isolation efficiency depends on force transfer to the body and resonance phenomenon. In this paper, the design aspect of motor mounts are discussed which affect high frequency resonance. The wings effect of rubber bush has shown along with the impact of frequency shift. Finally it is shown for a given EV (Electric vehicle) powertrain system, a proper selection of mounts along with its internal structure play a big role in resonance avoidance, higher kinetic energy decoupling and very small CoG (Center of Gravity) movement under torque.
Technical Paper

Cold Idle Gear Rattle in Manual Transmission Passenger Car - Temperature Based Phenomenon

2020-09-15
2020-01-2245
Gear rattle is due to impact noise of unloaded gears in transmission having freedom to move in backlash region. The problem is induced by engine order vibrations in the presence of backlash in meshing pairs. It is a system behaviour wherein flywheel end torsional vibrations, the pre-damper characteristics and transmission drag plays a vital role in cold condition. This is a severe issue in idle speed which is highly noticeable in cold/ morning condition. Rattling observed in idle condition is idle rattle or neutral gear rattle, specifically in cold condition is a “Cold idle rattle” and this is the critical noise parameter for entire vehicle NVH. Damper mechanism in clutch, is used to serve better isolation (by reducing input excitation to transmission parts) of vibrations between engine and transmission their by reduces gear rattle intensity. Clutch parameters like pre-damper stiffness, hysteresis and windup angle affects more to cold idle rattle phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Resolution of Gear Slippage Issue in Manual North-South Transmission

2020-09-15
2020-01-2247
Gearbox and driveline durability is always been a sensitive subject from both end user and manufacturer’s point of view. Since powertrain is heart of vehicle, naturally it is expected to long last and perform satisfactorily for the entire vehicle life. Sometimes the driveline aggregates especially gearbox might face some issues because of various factors, but this is distinctively noted by the driver since it is one of the important touch point of the vehicle. The gear slippage is a very typical phenomenon observed in automotive gearbox. The issue of gear slippage is very sensitive because it leads to compromising safety of the driver, also it deteriorates gear shift quality and thereby performance of the vehicle. Generally gear slippage is not observed during end of line testing or during early kilometers of vehicle. It is observed after some thousand kilometers, that to initially gear slippage is not observed consistently and that’s why it is difficult to identify at early stage.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0014
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

2020-08-18
2020-28-0013
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Climate Control Strategy for Electric Vehicles

2020-08-18
2020-28-0023
In current days electric vehicles (EVs) are being promoted on significant scale through various government initiative as a zero-emission means of transport. However the major hurdle for wider customer acceptance of EVs are being comparatively expensive, lack of charging station infrastructure and ambient based limited driving range. It is known that Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is major contributor in overall power consumption of electric vehicles. The HVAC system architecture and working logics in EVs are different from the one in fuel based vehicle.
Technical Paper

Challenges during Deployment of Cabin Air Quality Enhancers in Current Mobility Solutions

2020-08-18
2020-28-0016
In the past five years, Indian cities have been consistently appearing in the list of top 15 world’s most polluted cities. Every day, a common man in India spends more than 2 hours on the road due to numerous reasons, thus exposed to inhale highly polluted air. Further, the passenger car users is exposed to ~ 6 times more polluted air as compared to ambient air reason being the air is recirculated through the air conditioning system. Prolonged exposure to such polluted/ recirculated air shows increasing trend in respiratory illnesses, breathing discomfort and fatigue. This paper discusses the key challenges involved in incorporating cabin air filter as cabin air quality enhancer in current mobility solutions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of HVAC System Level Noise in Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0035
With the advent of new technologies and rigorous research and development work going on vehicle engines, cars are becoming quieter and more refined than ever before. This has led to the observance of subjective noises being audible to passenger compartment which were earlier masked behind engine noise. The vehicle HVAC system has several moving parts and transient flow of refrigerant which can cause certain types of irritant noise. Thus having a refinement in of air-conditioning (AC) system would aid us in cutting down on this parasitic noise source. Thus noise refinement should be one of the important parameters during the design and development of the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for a vehicle program.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Quantify the Undesirable Effects of the Localized Inefficiency of Heat Pick-Up in Suction Line on an Automotive Air Conditioning System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0036
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being laid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance.
Technical Paper

Latest Options for Replacing HFC-134a Refrigerant in MACs

2020-04-14
2020-01-1254
With the passage of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, HFC-134a refrigerant will be phased down in all markets worldwide, including those where automotive companies have been slow to embrace HFO-1234yf. Engineers are currently being challenged to design MAC systems using alternate low GWP refrigerants that are allowed by regulations, and are simultaneously cost-effective to manufacture, energy efficient, safe, reliable, affordable for consumers, and also suitable in electrified vehicles.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount Stopper Design Techniques to Balance Vehicle Level Buzz, Squeak, Rattle and Durability

2020-04-14
2020-01-0401
In the highly competitive global automotive market and with the taste of customer becoming more refined, the need to develop high quality products and achieve product excellence in all areas to obtain market leadership is critical. Buzz, squeak and rattle (BSR) is the automotive industry term for the audible engineering challenges faced by all vehicle and component engineers. Minimizing BSR is of paramount importance when designing vehicle components and whole vehicle assemblies. Focus on BSR issues for an automobile interior component design have rapidly increased due to customer’s expectation for high quality vehicles. Also, due to advances in the reduction of vehicle interior and exterior noise, engine mounts have recently been brought to the forefront to meet the vehicle interior sound level targets. Engine mounts serve two principal functions in a vehicle, vibration isolation and engine support.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Mounting System for First Gear Launch Judder

2020-04-14
2020-01-0416
Normal engine mounting system is designed to carry loads of powertrain in all driving conditions and also isolate the vibrations of powertrain. Softer mounts are good for vibration isolation but it is not recommended to have softer mounts because durability will be affected adversely. Optimum stiffness needs to be finalized which will have balance between durability and performance. In addition to durability many performance parameters needs to be checked during the time of development. This study includes the development of engine mounting system for elimination of drive away judder in first gear. Maximum peak torque value for the drive-away event is in the range of 80Nm - 120Nm. In the worst case, this peak torque can reach to maximum 170Nm depending on maneuver, engine rpm is around 1100-1200. Steering wheel, instrument panel and whole vehicle cabin will vibrate for few seconds and then vehicle will run smoothly.
Technical Paper

Development of Mount for Electric Powertrains - A Multi Degree of Freedom Optimization Approach

2020-04-14
2020-01-0417
The recent vehicle development demands for electric powertrain as against conventional fuels engines. The electric powertrain offers advantages in terms of cleaner and quieter operations. In electric vehicle, the conventional engine is replaced by electric motor operated on batteries. Here, the conventional engine refers to those powered by diesel, petrol, CNG and some hybrid vehicles using fuel as primary source for power generation. Thus, the system design approach for mount also changes. At present, various approaches are being followed to mount electric powertrain like conventional pendulum type, with or without cradle, Common or different motor and electric box mountings etc. The electric powertrain differs from conventional powertrain in terms of weights, mass moment of inertia, torque, NVH requirements like Key in Key off, idling, low frequency vibrations etc. Thus conventional mount will not necessarily meet NVH requirements for Electric powertrains.
Technical Paper

Analytical Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission

2019-04-02
2019-01-0335
The clutch is the connecting link between engine and the power train. It connects and disconnects the engine to the gearbox as per the wish of the driver. Clutch has a friction disc which acts like a fuse wire which wears in the process of the connection. This paper tries to calculate the clutch life analytically (In terms of Kms. run by vehicle), of automotive vehicles having manual transmission. As the clutch engages and disengages the engine to the gearbox, during this time due to slippage, energy is dissipated which results in the wear of the clutch disc. It calculates life based on the volumetric wear of the clutch disc and wear allowance available. The work done by other people in this domain include the empirical estimation of clutch life based on the past data, effect of the surface topography on the friction characteristics of the wet clutches, modeling of clutch housing and facing temperature for the estimation of the clutch life of a manual transmission etc.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Approach to Derive Free Package Space Requirement for Pedestrian Head Form

2019-01-09
2019-26-0013
Pedestrians are a vulnerable road user group, comprising 22% of global road traffic deaths [1]. In Japan, pedestrian fatalities accounted for 28% of total road fatalities and approximately 16% in Australia. These figures compare with 13% for the USA and 40-50% for India and Thailand [2]. Various pedestrian safety requirements are mandated in different markets in recent years worldwide. For pedestrian head-form, vehicle front-end styling and the free package space below bonnet plays a vital role in deciding the pedestrian head-form safety performance. Currently during initial phase of vehicle development, the free package space requirement is decided based on benchmark data. However, the benchmarking data does not give any insight into the physics involved and is subjective in nature as it varies from vehicle to vehicle. This paper gives an analytical approach for defining the free package space requirements for meeting the targeted pedestrian head form performance requirements.
Technical Paper

Designing In-Cab Sound of Vehicles as per the Customer Driving Pattern on Roads

2019-01-09
2019-26-0170
Vehicle refinement from point of view reduction in its Noise, Vibrations and Harshness (NVH) affects customer’s buying decision and it also directly influences his/her driving experience on road at different speeds. Customer voice, however, indicates that a traditional process of developing design solutions is not aligned with the customers’ expectations. Traditionally the load cases for NVH development are focused only on quietness of passengers’ cabin at idling and in 3rd gear wide open throttle cruising on smooth roads. In reality, the Driver of a premium sedan car or a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) or a Compact Utility Vehicle (CUV) expects something different than merely the low sound pressure level inside the cabin. His/her driving pattern over a day plays a crucial role. A vehicle-owner wishes to balance various attributes of the in-cab sound and tactile vibrations at a time.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cabin Noise while Accelerating on Low Mu Track through Simulation Approach Using Full Vehicle ADAMS/Car Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0179
Cabin noise is a significant product quality criteria which enables the customers for product differentiation. There are various sources of cabin noise such as wind, structures(panels), engine, suspension, tire and roads. During product development phase, extensive tests has been conducted to improve vehicle dynamics behavior on various climatic conditions. One such test is accelerating vehicle on low mu or icy surface. While performing acceleration manoeuvre (tractions) on a low mu tracks, Cabin noise with source identified from front underbody & low tractive torque build up is reported. This undesirable behavior may occur due to following reason (1) Excitation of coupled modes between suspension and powertrain which induces torque fluctuation. (2) Transmissibility of various subsystem can be the reason for above problem statement. (3) Poorly chosen tire compounds and design leads to fluctuation in torque.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Seat Rail and Steering Wheel Vibration at Idle Using Crank Drive and 16-DOF ADAMS Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0181
Due to the recent trend in auto industry to opt for higher power engines, causes increase in vibrations levels in the passenger’s compartment. This requires a better and comprehensive model to analyze vibrations from engine to seat and steering wheel much before the proto stage of development in the design stage itself. For this purpose, modelling is done in ADAMS multi dynamics and assuming the 16 degrees of freedom of the vehicle. Further, a crank drive model is developed to simulate engine excitation forces comprising unbalanced inertia forces and torque fluctuations and their effects seat rail and steering wheel vibration is derived. This tool is an attempt to predict such vibrations caused and assist in design enhancement and streamline the procedure.
Technical Paper

Refurbished and Repower: Second Life of Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Stationary Application

2019-01-09
2019-26-0156
Rising environmental concerns and depleting natural resources have resulted in faster adoption of green technologies. These technologies are pushed by the government of states through certain schemes and policies as to make the orbit shift ensuring greener environment in near future. Major actions can be easily seen in transportation sector. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (EV), EV and Fuel cell EV are being deployed on roads rapidly but even though some challenges are still unsolved such as battery cost, fast charging and life cycle of the automotive battery. Automotive batteries (Lithium ions) are declared as unfit for automotive usage after the loss of 20% to 15% of their initial capacity. Still 80% to 85% of battery capacity can be utilized in stationary applications other than automotive. Stationary application doesn’t demand high current density or energy density from the battery pack as of automotive requirements.
Technical Paper

Electro-Magnetic Parking Brake System for Electric Vehicles

2019-01-09
2019-26-0119
Regular vehicle has the advantage of Engine resistance even when it is not fired, hence chances of vehicle roll back on gradients will be minimized. This is not the case for Electric vehicles, which uses an electric motor that does not have any resistance offered to wheels that prevent vehicle roll back on gradient. This leads to increased load on the conventional hydraulic brakes due to absence of engine inertia. Hence, there is a need for a low cost and reliable automatic braking system which can help in holding the vehicle and assists the driver during launch in case he need to stop at a gradient. An Electromagnetic brake (EM brake) system can be used as a solution for the above-mentioned requirement. EM brake can provide hill hold and hill assist effect in addition to automatic parking brake application when the vehicle is turned-off. This system will assist anyone who need to halt the vehicle at a gradient and then relaunch it without much struggle.
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