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Technical Paper

Study of Dynamics Stiffness and Shape Factor of Rubber Mounts to Address High-Frequency Resonance Issue in Electric Powertrain Mounting System

2020-09-25
2020-28-0341
Electric motor mounts resonate at high frequency in the range of 600 to 1000Hz with motor excitation frequency resulting in isolation performance deterioration. There is a selection process of motor mounts such that the force-transfer under transient torque reduced and also avoids high-frequency resonance. The rubber dynamic stiffness plays a significant role in excitation frequency. Rubber shape factor and compound directly contribute towards the dynamic stiffness properties of the mount. Isolation efficiency depends on force transfer to the body and resonance phenomenon. In this paper, the rubber shape of motor mounts, which affect progression characteristics as well as high-frequency resonance, is discussed. The wings-effect of rubber bushes discussed which can be tuned to get the desired frequency shift in order to avoid resonance.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Resolution of Gear Slippage Issue in Manual North-South Transmission

2020-09-15
2020-01-2247
Gearbox and driveline durability is always been a sensitive subject from both end user and manufacturer’s point of view. Since powertrain is heart of vehicle, naturally it is expected to long last and perform satisfactorily for the entire vehicle life. Sometimes the driveline aggregates especially gearbox might face some issues because of various factors, but this is distinctively noted by the driver since it is one of the important touch point of the vehicle. The gear slippage is a very typical phenomenon observed in automotive gearbox. The issue of gear slippage is very sensitive because it leads to compromising safety of the driver, also it deteriorates gear shift quality and thereby performance of the vehicle. Generally, gear slippage is not observed during end of line testing or during early kilometers of vehicle. It is observed after some thousand kilometers, that to initially gear slippage is not observed consistently and that’s why it is difficult to identify at early stage.
Technical Paper

Cold Idle Gear Rattle in Manual Transmission Passenger Car-Temperature Based Phenomenon

2020-09-15
2020-01-2245
Gear rattle is due to impact noise of unloaded gears in transmission having freedom to move in backlash region. Engine order vibrations in the presence of backlash in meshing pairs induce the problem. It is a system behavior wherein flywheel torsional vibrations, the pre-damper characteristics and transmission drag torque plays a vital role in an engine idle condition (hot & cold). Idle rattle is a severe issue, which is highly noticeable in cold condition or after 1st engine crank. Gear rattling observed in idle condition is idle gear rattle or neutral gear rattle, specifically in cold condition is a “Cold idle rattle” and this is one of the critical noise parameters considered for entire vehicle NVH. Damper mechanism in the clutch, is used to serve better isolation (by reducing the input excitation to transmission parts) of vibrations between engine and transmission their by reducing gear rattle intensity.
Technical Paper

Challenges during Deployment of Cabin Air Quality Enhancers in Current Mobility Solutions

2020-08-18
2020-28-0016
In the past five years, Indian cities have been consistently appearing in the list of top 15 world’s most polluted cities. Every day, a common man in India spends more than 2 hours on the road due to numerous reasons, thus exposed to inhale highly polluted air. Further, the passenger car users is exposed to ~ 6 times more polluted air as compared to ambient air reason being the air is recirculated through the air conditioning system. Prolonged exposure to such polluted/ recirculated air shows increasing trend in respiratory illnesses, breathing discomfort and fatigue. This paper discusses the key challenges involved in incorporating cabin air filter as cabin air quality enhancer in current mobility solutions.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Battery (HVB) Durability Enhancement in Electric Mobility through 1D CAE

2020-08-18
2020-28-0013
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High Voltage Battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through Battery Cooling System (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects, BCS sizing and its coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE software. The objective is to develop a model of BCS in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Prominent Factors Affecting Evaporator Frosting in a Mobile Air-Conditioning (MAC) System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0014
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. This cold and dehumidified air obtained at evaporator is then supplied to passenger cabin. There are various parameters like air flow over evaporator, ambient temperature, humidity condition and condensate drain mechanism which can cause frost formation over the evaporator core. This study presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and thus affecting overall performances of the automotive air conditioning system. In this study effect of variation in four major independent factors such as poor response of thermistor, undercharged refrigerant system and overcharged refrigerant system, drop in air flow by blower due to clogged air-filter, and also the effect of type of compressor has been studied.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Quantify the Undesirable Effects of the Localized Inefficiency of Heat Pick-Up in Suction Line on an Automotive Air Conditioning System

2020-08-18
2020-28-0036
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being laid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount Stopper Design Techniques to Balance Vehicle Level Buzz, Squeak, Rattle and Durability

2020-04-14
2020-01-0401
In the highly competitive global automotive market and with the taste of customer becoming more refined, the need to develop high quality products and achieve product excellence in all areas to obtain market leadership is critical. Buzz, squeak and rattle (BSR) is the automotive industry term for the audible engineering challenges faced by all vehicle and component engineers. Minimizing BSR is of paramount importance when designing vehicle components and whole vehicle assemblies. Focus on BSR issues for an automobile interior component design have rapidly increased due to customer’s expectation for high quality vehicles. Also, due to advances in the reduction of vehicle interior and exterior noise, engine mounts have recently been brought to the forefront to meet the vehicle interior sound level targets. Engine mounts serve two principal functions in a vehicle, vibration isolation and engine support.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Mounting System for First Gear Launch Judder

2020-04-14
2020-01-0416
Normal engine mounting system is designed to carry loads of powertrain in all driving conditions and also isolate the vibrations of powertrain. Softer mounts are good for vibration isolation but it is not recommended to have softer mounts because durability will be affected adversely. Optimum stiffness needs to be finalized which will have balance between durability and performance. In addition to durability many performance parameters needs to be checked during the time of development. This study includes the development of engine mounting system for elimination of drive away judder in first gear. Maximum peak torque value for the drive-away event is in the range of 80Nm - 120Nm. In the worst case, this peak torque can reach to maximum 170Nm depending on maneuver, engine rpm is around 1100-1200. Steering wheel, instrument panel and whole vehicle cabin will vibrate for few seconds and then vehicle will run smoothly.
Technical Paper

Development of Mount for Electric Powertrains - A Multi Degree of Freedom Optimization Approach

2020-04-14
2020-01-0417
The recent vehicle development demands for electric powertrain as against conventional fuels engines. The electric powertrain offers advantages in terms of cleaner and quieter operations. In electric vehicle, the conventional engine is replaced by electric motor operated on batteries. Here, the conventional engine refers to those powered by diesel, petrol, CNG and some hybrid vehicles using fuel as primary source for power generation. Thus, the system design approach for mount also changes. At present, various approaches are being followed to mount electric powertrain like conventional pendulum type, with or without cradle, Common or different motor and electric box mountings etc. The electric powertrain differs from conventional powertrain in terms of weights, mass moment of inertia, torque, NVH requirements like Key in Key off, idling, low frequency vibrations etc. Thus conventional mount will not necessarily meet NVH requirements for Electric powertrains.
Technical Paper

Analytical Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission

2019-04-02
2019-01-0335
The clutch is the connecting link between engine and the power train. It connects and disconnects the engine to the gearbox as per the wish of the driver. Clutch has a friction disc which acts like a fuse wire which wears in the process of the connection. This paper tries to calculate the clutch life analytically (In terms of Kms. run by vehicle), of automotive vehicles having manual transmission. As the clutch engages and disengages the engine to the gearbox, during this time due to slippage, energy is dissipated which results in the wear of the clutch disc. It calculates life based on the volumetric wear of the clutch disc and wear allowance available. The work done by other people in this domain include the empirical estimation of clutch life based on the past data, effect of the surface topography on the friction characteristics of the wet clutches, modeling of clutch housing and facing temperature for the estimation of the clutch life of a manual transmission etc.
Technical Paper

Designing In-Cab Sound of Vehicles as per the Customer Driving Pattern on Roads

2019-01-09
2019-26-0170
Vehicle refinement from point of view reduction in its Noise, Vibrations and Harshness (NVH) affects customer’s buying decision and it also directly influences his/her driving experience on road at different speeds. Customer voice, however, indicates that a traditional process of developing design solutions is not aligned with the customers’ expectations. Traditionally the load cases for NVH development are focused only on quietness of passengers’ cabin at idling and in 3rd gear wide open throttle cruising on smooth roads. In reality, the Driver of a premium sedan car or a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) or a Compact Utility Vehicle (CUV) expects something different than merely the low sound pressure level inside the cabin. His/her driving pattern over a day plays a crucial role. A vehicle-owner wishes to balance various attributes of the in-cab sound and tactile vibrations at a time.
Technical Paper

Electro-Magnetic Parking Brake System for Electric Vehicles

2019-01-09
2019-26-0119
Regular vehicle has the advantage of Engine resistance even when it is not fired, hence chances of vehicle roll back on gradients will be minimized. This is not the case for Electric vehicles, which uses an electric motor that does not have any resistance offered to wheels that prevent vehicle roll back on gradient. This leads to increased load on the conventional hydraulic brakes due to absence of engine inertia. Hence, there is a need for a low cost and reliable automatic braking system which can help in holding the vehicle and assists the driver during launch in case he need to stop at a gradient. An Electromagnetic brake (EM brake) system can be used as a solution for the above-mentioned requirement. EM brake can provide hill hold and hill assist effect in addition to automatic parking brake application when the vehicle is turned-off. This system will assist anyone who need to halt the vehicle at a gradient and then relaunch it without much struggle.
Technical Paper

Simulator Development for Steer-by-Wire Concept Evaluation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0099
In the recent years steering feel characteristics have emerged as one of the important brand image attributes of automotive OEMs. Since past few decades, the hydraulic assisted steering system (HPAS) on which lot of research was done to tune the steering feel has been taken over by electric power assisted steering (EPAS) system. The EPAS primarily uses an electric motor controlled by an electronic control unit to assist the driver in maneuvering the vehicle. The next big leap in the steering system advancement is steer-by-wire (SbW) technology where the mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and the road wheels is eliminated. The advantages of this system are ease to use, elimination of noise-vibration-harshness of steering system caused by road forces, modularly of steering system for packaging, improved visibility to front-end displays and road ahead and a fun to drive concept.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation Accuracy Enhancement for Predicting Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2019-01-09
2019-26-0298
In today’s competitive scenario, the automotive product life cycle has drastically reduced and all Auto OEM’s are coming up with their updated products with lesser development time. These frequent product upgrades are possible due to use of various digital tools during product design and development. Design and optimization of engine coolpack (powertrain cooling unit) to attain engine cooling performance is one of the important parameter during vehicle development or upgrade. Hence, to keep control over development cost and time of delivery, quick and accurate digital validation capability like one dimensional (1D) simulation is the need of the hour. To predict the powertrain cooling (PTC) performance at vehicle concept stage, when physical prototypes are not available, airflow data from similar developed platforms is considered as an input for 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Elimination of Vehicle Lateral Shake in Passenger Car through Modification of Driveshaft Joints and Engine Mount System

2019-01-09
2019-26-0214
Vehicle lateral shake during take-off is sensitively felt by customers when the vehicle is driven at a low speed under drive away acceleration. The take-off shudder is complained by customers during 1st and 2nd gear take off. Under an engine torque and half shaft angle, the drive-away shudder usually occurs during acceleration to a specific low speed at 1200 to 1600 engine rpm, which makes the vehicle shake severely. A thorough investigation with possible design optimization of mounting system, drive shaft joint and lubrication is done to reduce the lateral vibration. This paper focuses on a passenger car, the take-off shudder of which occurs at a speed between 20 km/h and 30 km/h. The test vehicle is a monocoque construction with front wheel drive east west engine. Vehicle lateral shake is observed during the low gear power train run up in Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition.
Technical Paper

DFSS to Design Engine Cooling System of Small Gasoline Vehicle with Rear Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0037
In automobile design, a rear-engine layout mainly espoused for small entry-level cars and light commercial vehicles for three reasons - packaging, traction, and ease of manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to strategize cooling system of rear-mounted engine of a small gasoline car. Radiator and cooling fan packaged close to engine at rear of the car for simple packaging. Efficient thermal management ensured by robust overheat protection stratagem using EMS software. DFSS, a disciplined problem prevention approach that helps in achieving the most optimum design solution and provides improved and cost effective quality products; is used to finalize an optimum design based on the analysis of the various tests carried out as per DOE [1]. This paper is about designing a distinctive cooling system of a car having rear-mounted engine with rear radiator but front mounted HVAC system [2].
Journal Article

Gearshift Quality Sensitivity Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0328
Gearshift quality is a perceived quality parameter. Hence, is getting much importance because of the increased awareness about comfortable and refined driving experience, especially in the case of passenger cars. When the topic of gearshift feeling is broached in manual transmission vehicles, synchronizer pack (shifter sleeve, engaging gear, strut, synchronizer and gear synchro ring assembly) have been the focus point for optimization. Synchronizer type (single, double or triple cone), lining material, datch chamfer angle of shifter sleeve/synchro ring of gear/synchronizer, all of these have been extensively studied in the past to improve the gearshift quality. With stringent timelines for vehicle development, OEMs prefer to use off-the-shelf powertrain systems developed by powertrain manufacturers. Due to this, avenues to refine gearshift feel gets reduced to a large extent and hence refinement becomes difficult.
Technical Paper

Energy Based Analytical Study of Effect of Engine Calibration, Clutch Modulation on the Life of Dry Clutch in View of City Traffic Using Road Load Data

2019-01-09
2019-26-0331
Single plate dry clutch is one of the most abuse components in the vehicle. With the growing population of traffic in cities, useful life of clutch is affected drastically which is evident from the rise in complaints on clutch from metropolitan cities. The governing design parameter, which affects the life of clutch, is the energy dissipated in clutch per unit area of friction lining of clutch disc. The life of clutch is affected by many factors like vehicle weight, engine torque, driveline ratios, friction lining, size of clutch, which are taken into consideration during design stage of the clutch. Apart from these factors, one more factor, engine calibration, affects the clutch life drastically. However, it is not taken into consideration during design stage owing to its inherent nature as it gets matured over the vehicle development program.
Technical Paper

Development of Hose and Pipe Assembly for Automatic Transmission Cooling System

2019-01-09
2019-26-0327
Rubber hose and metallic pipe with crimped joints are extensively used in steering system assembly, transmission oil cooler system, brake system etc. to carry hydraulic fluid or lubricants from one place to another. The pipe and rubber hose assembly provides necessary flexibility for complex routing on the vehicle level. Design of hose and pipe assembly for this application are different due to difference in operating pressure and temperature requirement for vehicle application. This paper defines the criteria for design and validation of hose & pipe assembly used to connect automatic transmission with the cooler. Crimped joints are validated for their separation force, leakages, ability to withstand pressure pulsations, burst test etc. Parameters which influence the hose & pipe assembly durability are pipe end flaring dimensions, type of crimping, reinforcement type, its size, material and pattern, rubber material properties, crimping force, effective crimping diameter etc.
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