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Technical Paper

Prediction of Seat Rail and Steering Wheel Vibration at Idle Using Crank Drive and 16-DOF ADAMS Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0181
Due to the recent trend in auto industry to opt for higher power engines, causes increase in vibrations levels in the passenger’s compartment. This requires a better and comprehensive model to analyze vibrations from engine to seat and steering wheel much before the proto stage of development in the design stage itself. For this purpose, modelling is done in ADAMS multi dynamics and assuming the 16 degrees of freedom of the vehicle. Further, a crank drive model is developed to simulate engine excitation forces comprising unbalanced inertia forces and torque fluctuations and their effects seat rail and steering wheel vibration is derived. This tool is an attempt to predict such vibrations caused and assist in design enhancement and streamline the procedure.
Technical Paper

Full Vehicle NVH CAE Methodology Development to Address Tailgate Rattling on a Future Tata SUV

2019-01-09
2019-26-0213
In recent years, car manufacturers have been working intensively on new ways to improve the quality of interior trims. Elimination of squeak and rattle has become one of the main concerns for car manufacturers lately, given the significance of these incidences in customers' perception of overall quality. Traditionally, rattle problems are found and fixed with physical tests at the late design stage, mainly due to lack of up-front CAE simulation prediction methodology and tools availability. This article presents a finite element based methodology for the improvement of rattle performance of a vehicle tailgate. In this study, appropriate finite element (FE) modeling technique was introduced to accurately predict occurrence of tailgate rattle. Simulation process using commercial software “Nastran” employing modal and forced frequency response analyses was illustrated. Design modifications were incorporated for performance improvement of rattling on present and future SUVs.
Technical Paper

Multi Body Dynamics Based Method for Twist Beam Cross Articulations Evaluation in Realistic Hilly Area Scenarios

2019-01-09
2019-26-0251
Twist beam is a semi-independent suspension having two trailing arms attached to the chassis via rubber bushes. Closed profile ‘V’ shaped cross beam interconnects left and right side arms. It provides roll stiffness of the suspension, by twisting as the two wheels moves relative to each other. Due to driving and road conditions twist beam structures are subjected to cyclic twist loads resulting into roll fatigue failure mode [1]. To design twist beam for mass, package and performance it is required to find realistic cross articulations based on vehicle application, usage pattern and protect twist beam from roll fatigue failure mode. The objective of this paper is to develop a virtual method using ‘ADAMS ®’ multibody dynamics software for maximum relative wheel center displacements during realistic hilly areas conditions. This paper describes half and full vehicle based virtual approach for twist beam cross articulations in hilly area conditions.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate Impact of Power Steering on Fuel Economy and Optimization

2019-01-09
2019-26-0309
Vehicle manufacturers strive hard to achieve best in class fuel economy. Apart from light weighting of the structures, driveline optimization and reduction of tire rolling resistance, tapping of parasitic losses is also important and helps to optimize the design of auxiliary power consuming systems. One of such system studied in this work is power steering system. The effect of parasitic losses on fuel economy is predominant for small commercial vehicle compare to heavy vehicles. The evaluation of deterioration in the fuel economy due to implementation of power steering system on one of the small commercial vehicle is carried out using multiple virtual simulation tools. Virtual route profile is modelled using longitude, latitude and altitude data captured through GPS and steering duty cycle is mapped in terms of steering rotation angle. A system level model of hydraulic power steering system is developed.
Technical Paper

Development of Hose and Pipe Assembly for Automatic Transmission Cooling System

2019-01-09
2019-26-0327
Rubber hose and metallic pipe with crimped joints are extensively used in steering system assembly, transmission oil cooler system, brake system etc. to carry hydraulic fluid or lubricants from one place to another. The pipe and rubber hose assembly provides necessary flexibility for complex routing on the vehicle level. Design of hose and pipe assembly for this application are different due to difference in operating pressure and temperature requirement for vehicle application. This paper defines the criteria for design and validation of hose & pipe assembly used to connect automatic transmission with the cooler. Crimped joints are validated for their separation force, leakages, ability to withstand pressure pulsations, burst test etc. Parameters which influence the hose & pipe assembly durability are pipe end flaring dimensions, type of crimping, reinforcement type, its size, material and pattern, rubber material properties, crimping force, effective crimping diameter etc.
Technical Paper

Electro-Magnetic Parking Brake System for Electric Vehicles

2019-01-09
2019-26-0119
Regular vehicle has the advantage of Engine resistance even when it is not fired, hence chances of vehicle roll back on gradients will be minimized. This is not the case for Electric vehicles, which uses an electric motor that does not have any resistance offered to wheels that prevent vehicle roll back on gradient. This leads to increased load on the conventional hydraulic brakes due to absence of engine inertia. Hence, there is a need for a low cost and reliable automatic braking system which can help in holding the vehicle and assists the driver during launch in case he need to stop at a gradient. An Electromagnetic brake (EM brake) system can be used as a solution for the above-mentioned requirement. EM brake can provide hill hold and hill assist effect in addition to automatic parking brake application when the vehicle is turned-off. This system will assist anyone who need to halt the vehicle at a gradient and then relaunch it without much struggle.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Tire Wear Possibility due to Non-Steerable Twin Tire Lift Axle on Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2019-01-09
2019-26-0066
The commercial vehicle market in India is shifting to higher payload capacity vehicles due to a lower transportation cost per unit goods. To cater this requirement, the vehicle manufacturers are designing the heavy multi-axle commercial vehicles and with higher per axle loading capacity. One of such a vehicle design involves five-axle vehicle with non-steerable, twin tire, lift axle. Though using a twin tires have increased loading capacity of lift axle compared to a single tire self-steerable lift axle, it can cause tire scrub while vehicle is turning and leads to a significant tire wear. The tire wear possibility due to use of non-steerable lift axle is estimated through simulation using full vehicle model in ADAMS. The operating zone of the vehicle, where maximum tire wear can occur, is identified through simulation. Different alternatives to reduce tire wear for this scenario are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Simulator Development for Steer-by-Wire Concept Evaluation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0099
In the recent years steering feel characteristics have emerged as one of the important brand image attributes of automotive OEMs. Since past few decades, the hydraulic assisted steering system (HPAS) on which lot of research was done to tune the steering feel has been taken over by electric power assisted steering (EPAS) system. The EPAS primarily uses an electric motor controlled by an electronic control unit to assist the driver in maneuvering the vehicle. The next big leap in the steering system advancement is steer-by-wire (SbW) technology where the mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and the road wheels is eliminated. The advantages of this system are ease to use, elimination of noise-vibration-harshness of steering system caused by road forces, modularly of steering system for packaging, improved visibility to front-end displays and road ahead and a fun to drive concept.
Journal Article

Gearshift Quality Sensitivity Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0328
Gearshift quality is a perceived quality parameter. Hence, is getting much importance because of the increased awareness about comfortable and refined driving experience, especially in the case of passenger cars. When the topic of gearshift feeling is broached in manual transmission vehicles, synchronizer pack (shifter sleeve, engaging gear, strut, synchronizer and gear synchro ring assembly) have been the focus point for optimization. Synchronizer type (single, double or triple cone), lining material, datch chamfer angle of shifter sleeve/synchro ring of gear/synchronizer, all of these have been extensively studied in the past to improve the gearshift quality. With stringent timelines for vehicle development, OEMs prefer to use off-the-shelf powertrain systems developed by powertrain manufacturers. Due to this, avenues to refine gearshift feel gets reduced to a large extent and hence refinement becomes difficult.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Pneumatic Brake System for Commercial Vehicles by Model Based Design Approach

2017-09-17
2017-01-2493
Apart from being an active safety system the brake system represents an important aspect of the vehicle dynamics. The vehicle retardation and stopping distance completely depend upon the performance of brake system and the functionality of all components. However, the performance prediction of the entire system is a challenging task especially for a complex configuration such as multi-axial vehicle applications. Furthermore, due to its complexity most often the performance prediction by some methods is limited to static condition. Hence, it is very important to have equivalent mathematical models to predict all performance parameters for a given configuration in all different conditions This paper presents the adopted system modelling approach to model all the elements of the pneumatic brake system such as dual brake valve, relay valve, quick release valve, front and rear brake actuators, foundation brake etc.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Heavy Commercial Vehicle Response to Rear Super Single Tire Blow Out

2017-01-10
2017-26-0341
The fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles can be significantly improved by reducing the rolling resistance of tires. To reduce the rolling resistance of 6×4 tractor, the super single tires instead of rear dual wheel tires are tried. Though the field trials showed a significant increase in fuel economy by using super single tires, it posed a concern of road safety when these tires blowout during operation. Physical testing of tire blowout on vehicle is very unsafe, time consuming and expensive. Hence, a full vehicle simulation of super single tire blowout is carried out. The mechanical properties of tires such as cornering stiffness, radial stiffness and rolling resistance changes during the tire blowout; this change is incorporated in simulation using series of events that apply different gains to these mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Transient 1D Mathematical Model for Drum Brake System to Predict the Temperature Variation with Realistic Boundary Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0299
Brake system is the most important system in the vehicle considering the overall vehicle safety and speed control. Brake applications are repetitive during a city traffic and hilly terrain on downhill gradient. Frequent braking gives rise to an overheating of the brake drum and its components. Braking operations at high temperature gives rise to problems like reduced deceleration due to loss of brake pad friction characteristics, pad softening and sticking to drum, pad distortion and wear etc. All these factors collectively result in deterioration of the braking performance and reduction of brake pad durability with time. Till date most of the thermal analysis performed for brake drum heating are through physical testing using brake system prototypes and by means of CFD tools. These methods are time consuming and expensive. There is a need for an alternative method to reduce physical trials and prototype building and reduce dependency on CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

Body Block FE Model Development and Correlation with Physical Tests

2017-01-10
2017-26-0293
Steering column and steering wheel are critical safety components in vehicle interior environment. Steering system needs to be designed to absorb occupant impact energy in the event of crash thereby reducing the risk of injury to the occupant. This is more critical for non-airbag vehicle versions. To evaluate the steering system performance, Body block impact test is defined in IS11939 standard [1]. Nowadays for product development, CAE is being extensively used to reduce development cycle time and minimize number of prototypes required for physical validation. In order to design the steering system to meet the Body Block performance requirements, a detailed FE model of Body Block impactor is required. The static stiffness and moment of inertia of body block are defined in SAE J244a [2]. The reference data available in SAE J244a is not sufficient to develop a Body Block model that would represent the physical impactor.
Technical Paper

Weight Optimisation of Dumper Body Structure Conserving Stiffness, Buckling and Dent Performance

2017-01-10
2017-26-0304
The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.
Technical Paper

A Novel Technique to Establish Various Important Characteristic to Analyze Complete Hydraulic Power Steering System using Model Based Design Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0259
Steering system deliver a precise directional control to the vehicle chassis and ensure the safe driving at all maneuvers. Hydraulic power assisted system (HPAS) helps drivers to steer by boosting steering assistance of the steering wheel while retaining the road feel. HPAS performance is associated with the design characteristics of rotary valve, steering, suspension, kinematics, brake, tire, vehicle speed and load transfer. Thus a detailed power steering system model is absolutely necessary to evaluate and optimize the performance characteristics. However, many components of HPAS system are proprietary in nature so it is very challenging to get component characteristic of each sub-system for the complete power steering system model. Hence, it is very important to establish a technique to extract all such influencing characteristics with available test facility.
Journal Article

Development of High Fidelity Dynamic Model with Thermal Response for Single Plate Dry Clutch

2017-01-10
2017-26-0260
Single plate dry clutch is most commonly used in automotive transmission. This paper proposes a unique approach of modelling a single plate dry clutch in Simulink and Simscape simulation environment. Clutch model is divided into two subsystems as translational and rotational. The translational system is linear system of diaphragm and cushion spring as a two-degree freedom system. Nonlinearity of the diaphragm and cushion spring has been modelled based on experimental data. This enables to simulate friction torque variation during clutch engagement. In rotational system, frictional torque generation between flywheel-clutch disc and pressure plate-clutch disc has been modelled separately. This novel approach of developing separate friction models helps in understanding variation in torque carrying capacity due to rise in the temperature of the friction pads because of frictional and engine heat.
Technical Paper

Air Compressor Duty Cycle Reduction in Passenger Bus Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-0139
Today urban buses are equipped with more air consuming devices for an example pneumatic doors, exhaust brake, air suspension and in SCR system to name a few. This has resulted in higher air demand leading to high compressor duty cycles which cause conditions (such as higher compressor head temperatures) that may adversely affect air brake charging system performance. These conditions may require additional maintenance due to a higher amount of oil vapor droplets being passed along into the air brake system. Factors that add to the duty cycle are air suspension, additional air accessories, use of an undersized compressor, frequent stops, excessive air leakage from fittings, connections, lines, chambers or valves, etc. This paper discussed about methodology used to reduce air consumption of air consuming devices used in urban bus application. Performance assessment of air consuming devices with minimum available air pressure was conducted and found satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Innovative Concept of Front Disc Brake Module with Weight Reduction and Cost Optimisation

2014-09-28
2014-01-2505
The customer satisfaction index is higher for disc brake systems because of the advantages like less reaction time, shorter stopping distance and improved pedal feel compared to drum brake system. In current competitive market scenario and as per customer requirements, front disc brake module is becoming necessary. The brake system design is challenging task due to stringent performance meeting criteria and packaging constraints with weight optimization. Brake disc is very important component in the brake system which is expected to withstand high braking torque and dissipate heat during braking event. In existing car to replace front drum brake with disc brake module, vehicle needs to undergo legislative verifications and certifications with respect to pedal effort, stopping distance and circuit failed conditions etc.
Technical Paper

Effect of Steering System Compliance on Steered Axle Tire Wear

2012-09-24
2012-01-1909
Subject paper focuses primarily on non uniform tire wear problem of front steered wheels in a pickup model. Cause and effect analysis complemented with field vehicle investigations helped to identify some of the critical design areas. Investigation revealed that steering geometry of the vehicle is undergoing huge variations in dynamic condition as compared to initial static setting. Factors contributing to this behavior are identified and subsequently worked upon followed by a detailed simulation study in order to reproduce the field failures on test vehicles. Similar evaluation with modified steering design package is conducted and results are compared for assessing the improvements achieved. In usual practice, it is considered enough if Steering Geometry parameters are set in static condition and ensured to lie within design specifications.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Used Up Crankshaft Grinding Wheels

2012-04-16
2012-01-1060
For sustainability in automobile manufacturing, recycle, reuse, and repair of used up cutting tools is now an established process. Although many types of tools were designed for one time use and then throw, an increasing awareness of the impact on the natural resources have made manufacturers to put some of these back to use or sell it back to suppliers who have put up a mechanism to extract the elements e.g. Tungsten and use it for manufacturing of new tools. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1], by redesigning of a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2] or reusing short length drills that are used in making of long oil holes in crank case, cylinder head, cam shaft or connecting rods [3]. This paper demonstrates successful use of used up crankshaft grinding wheels.
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