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Technical Paper

Optimizing Steering Column Layout and UJ Phase Angle to Enhance Vehicle Dynamics Performance

Vehicle dynamics is one of the most important vehicle attributes. It is classified into three domains, the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral dynamics. This paper focuses on optimizing the lateral vehicle dynamics which is driven by the straight ahead controllability and cornering controllability of the vehicle. One of the important parameters that dictates these sub-attributes is the steering ratio. Therefore, designing the right steering ratio is critical to meet the vehicle “specific” targets. Significant amount of work has been done by many researchers on variable steering ratio by implementing variable gear ratio (VGR) rack, active steering, and steer-by-wire systems. This paper discusses the methodology and considerations to optimize the steering ratio for a constant gear ratio rack by optimizing the steering column layout, viz., orientation and the phase angle in universal joints.
Technical Paper

An Engine Stop Start System with Driver Behavior Learning and Adaption for Improving the User Experience

Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) promises to reduce greenhouse emissions and improve fuel economy of vehicles. Previous work of the Authors was concentrated on bridging the gap of improvement in fuel economy promised by ESS under standard laboratory conditions and actual driving conditions. Findings from the practical studies lead to a conclusion that ESS is not so popular among the customers, due to the complexities of the system operation and poor integration of the system design with the driver behavior. In addition, due to various functional safety requirements, and traffic conditions, actual benefits of ESS are reduced. A modified control algorithm was proposed and proven for the local driving conditions in India. The ways in which a given driver behaves on the controls of the vehicles like Clutch and Brake Pedals, Gear Shift Lever were not uniform across the demography of study and varied significantly.
Technical Paper

An Effort to Build Mathematical Model using Time Series Analysis to Aid Steering Auto-Correction in Heavy Commercial Vehicle during High Speed Braking

Steering pull during high speed braking of heavy commercial vehicles possesses a potential danger to the occupants. Even with negligible wheel-to-wheel brake torque variation, steering pull during the high speed braking has been observed. If the steering pull (i.e. steering rotation) is forcibly held at zero degree during high speed braking, the phenomena called axle twist, wheel turn and shock absorber deflection arise. In this work the data have been collected on the mentioned measures with an intention to develop a mathematical model which uses real time data, coming from feedback mechanism to predict the values of the measures in coming moments in order to aid steering system to ‘auto-correct’. Driven by the intention, ‘Time Series Analysis’, a well-known statistical methodology, has been explored to see how suitable it is in building the kind of model.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Reduction of Brake Squeal and Groan Noise

Brake noise is one of the common complaints and an irritant not just for the vehicle occupants but equally for the passers-by. Brake noise is actually vibration that is occurring at a frequency that is audible to the human ear. This occurrence of brake noise like brake squeal (>1 kHz) and groan (<1 kHz) is often very intense and can lead to vehicle complaints. During a brake noise event, vehicle basic structure and suspension system components are excited due to brake system vibration and result in a resonance that is perceived in the form of a noise. Proposed work discusses an experimental study that is carried out on a vehicle for addressing concern regarding disc brake squeal and groan noise. Based on the preliminary inputs, vehicle level study was carried out in order to simulate the problem and objectively capture its severity.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Flow Induced Noise Generated by Power Steering Pump Using Order Analysis

An interior sound quality is one of the major performance attribute, as consumer envisage this as class and luxury of the vehicle. With increasing demand of quietness inside the cabin, car manufactures started focusing on noise refinement and source separation. This demand enforces hydraulic power steering pump to reduce noise like Moan and Whine, especially in silent gasoline engine. To meet these requirements, extensive testing and in-depth analysis of noise data is performed. Structured process is established to isolate noises and feasible solutions are provided considering following analysis. a) Overall airborne noise measurement at driver ear level (DEL) inside the cabin using vehicle interior microphone. b) Airborne and Pressure pulsation test by sweeping pump speed and pressure at test bench. c) Waterfall analysis of pump at hemi anechoic chamber for order tracking and noise determination.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Model to Evaluate and Optimize the Dynamic Performance of Pneumatic Brake System

Pneumatic brake system is widely used in heavy truck, medium and heavy buses for its great superiority and braking performance over other brake systems. Pneumatic brake system consists of various valves such as Dual Brake Valve (DBV), Quick release Valve (QRV), Relay Valve (RV), Brake chambers. Dynamics of each valve is playing a crucial role in overall dynamic performance of the braking system. However, it is very difficult to find the contribution of each valve and pipe diameters in overall braking performance. Hence, it is very difficult to arrive a best combination for targeted braking performance as it is not possible to evaluate all combination on the actual vehicle. Hence, it is very important to have a mathematical model to optimize and evaluate the overall braking performance in early design phase. The present study is focusing on the mathematical model of a pneumatic brake circuit.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of Hub Cum Brake Drum for Optimum Design Performance

Brake drum is an important component in automotive, which is a link between axle and wheel. It performance is of utmost importance as it is related to the safety of the car as well to the passengers. Many design parameters are taken into consideration while designing the brake drum. The sensitivity of these parameters is studied for optimum design of brake drum. The critical parameters in terms of reliability, safety & durability could be the cross section, thickness of hub, interference & surface roughness between bearing and hub, wheel loading, heat generation on drum, manufacturing and assembly process. The brake drum design is derived by considering these parameters. Hence the sensitivity of these parameters is studied both virtually & physically, in detail. The optimum value of each parameter could be chosen complying each other's values.
Technical Paper

Augmenting Light Weighting Horizon in Automotive

Better ride and comfort, enhanced safety, reliability and durability, lower running cost as well as cost of ownership continue to be challenges for automotive OEMs. Higher fuel efficiency is considered as USP not only for lower running cost but also is hygiene factor from sustainability point of view. This has necessitated the need for Augmenting Light weighting horizon in automotive OEMs. Augmenting this leads to invention of innovative materials and processes for emerging cost competitive market. This paper focuses on technology efforts towards augmenting light weighting Horizon in Automotive. Light weighting concepts being explored by OEMs with the help of automotive component manufacturers from Powertrain - Engines & Transmission, Chassis and Suspension are discussed.
Technical Paper

Challenges to Meet New Noise Regulations and New Noise Limits for M and N Category Vehicles

New noise regulations, with reduced noise limits, have been proposed by UN-ECE. A new method which aims at representing urban driving of the vehicles more closely on roads is proposed and is considerably different from the existing one (IS 3028:1998). It is more complex; we also found that some of the low powered vehicles can not be tested as per this method. The paper proposes ways of improvement in the test method. The new noise reduction policy options will have a considerable impact on compliance of many categories of vehicles. Technological challenges, before the manufacturers, to meet all performance needs of the vehicle along with the cost of development will be critical to meet the new noise limits in the proposed time frame.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking Strategy for an Unaltered Mechanical Braking System of a Conventional Vehicle Converted into a Hybrid Vehicle

Regenerative braking has become one of the major features for a hybrid vehicle as it converts brake energy into electrical energy storable into battery and leads to an increase in overall fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Traditional regenerative braking systems are designed such that the mechanical braking force from the friction brakes is varied in order to get maximum electric braking. This is the optimum method; however, such a system calls from electronics (Anti-lock Braking System) for regulation of mechanical braking leading to an increased cost. In this paper, the authors present a new strategy for implementing a regenerative brake strategy without changing the mechanical brake system of a conventional vehicle converted to a hybrid vehicle. The electric motor that serves as the traction motor or the Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) system, is used for regenerative braking also. There is no change in the other vehicle specifications as compared to the conventional vehicle.
Journal Article

A Case Study of Reaction Time Reduction of Vehicle Brake System

There has to be a good co-relation/ relationship between the pedal effort applied, pedal travel, deceleration level achieved and stopping distance for “good brake feel”. Brake feel also depend upon the time lag between the force applied on brake pedal and the response of braking system. Hence “brake feel” can be improved by reducing the response time of the brake system. Many vehicles are having “poor brake feel” complaints, pertaining to the above mentioned reasons. This paper relates to an improved brake system for automobile in which reduction in reaction time was done by artificially increasing differential pressure head across vacuum booster diaphragm. Brake booster is given an input of compressed air to the valve body during actuation, thereby increasing the differential pressure across the diaphragm. The compressed air is bled from turbocharger-intercooler of the vehicle which is stored in a reservoir, with one way valve, while cruising.
Technical Paper

Development of IT Enabled System for Data Management to Meet EU Vehicle Recyclability Directives

EU directive 2005/64/EC on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to their Reusability, Recyclability and Recoverability ( RRR ) requires vehicle manufacturers to put in place the necessary arrangements and procedures for Parts, Materials and Weight (PMW ) data collection from full chain of supply. This is required to perform the calculations of recyclability rate and recoverability rate in line with ISO 22628. Commonly practiced data collection methodologies included spreadsheet and use of internationally available IT support system for collection of material data. Data complexity and prohibitive cost for using Internationally available IT Support systems like IMDS (International Material Data System) has led to the in-house development of IT enabled Solution customizing Siemens PLM software product (Team centre Enterprise) and SAP (SRM suite).
Technical Paper

A Simple, Cost Effective, Method of Evaluating Bump Steer and Brake Steer, and Achieving Correlation with ADAMS Analysis

This paper proposes a cost effective method, with simple techniques, to evaluate Bump Steer and Brake Steer on a rigid axle vehicle under dynamic conditions. A relationship between calculated values, measured values and a subjective assessment of the vehicle lateral deviation is established. An array, of inter-relationship of the parameters such as offset of steering arm, draglink length, front spring stiffness, height of spring hanger bracket is done. Percentage of influence of the parameter change on the performance of the vehicle is evaluated and standard statistical analysis is used to arrive at inter-relationship of various parameters and ranking of their influence on lateral deviation of the vehicle under braking is established, there by resulting in reduction in iterative process. The results obtained display a good correlation with ADAMS Analysis to the tune of 90% and are in agreement with subjective assessment.
Technical Paper

Suspension Testing using Wheel Forces on a 3 DOF Road Load Simulator

The use of Wheel Force Transducers (WFTs) to acquire data for laboratory simulation is becoming standard industry practice. However, in test rigs where we have only the suspension module and not the complete vehicle, does the reproduction of the orthogonal forces and moments at the wheel centre guarantee an accurate replication of the fatigue damage in the suspension components? The objective of this paper is to review the simulation methodology for a highly non-linear suspension in a 3 DOF (degree-of-freedom) suspension test rig in which the simulation was carried out using only the three orthogonal loads and vertical displacement. The damage at critical locations in the suspension is compared with that on the road and an assessment of the simulation using the WFT is made based on a comparison of the damage on the road vs. the rig.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Optimum Twist Beam Design Configuration for a New Generation Passenger Car

It is customary to select a twist beam rear suspension for front wheel driven small and medium range passenger cars. Besides better primary / secondary ride comfort, roll stiffness tuning ability, ease of assembly & good packaging solutions than the conventional semi trailing arm/ rigid axle suspensions, twist beam suspension system accentuate the concentration required in placing & orienting the cross beam to achieve certain imperative kinematical characteristics. In order to make the solutions of the required kinematical targets viable, it is vital to have the packaging space and stress concentration within yield limits given the weight & cost targets. This paper presents the work done on twist beam type suspension for a new generation entry level B-Class hatchback vehicle developed. To reduce the time consumed in validation of different design proposals a virtual validation process was developed.