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Technical Paper

Comparison of Surface Coatings Formed from Carboxylic Acid-Based and Conventional Coolants in a Field-Test Study

1996-02-01
960640
Field-test samples cut from radiator tubes in two 1990 Chevy Luminas (3.1L engine) after 100,000 miles were analyzed to determine corrosion layer differences. One car used a carboxylic acid-based inhibitor technology (C1). The other car used a conventional coolant (C2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the two samples was performed. Results indicate a significant difference between the two samples. The C1 sample had a thin (<60Å) organic coating bound to the aluminum alloy surface, while the C2 sample had a much thicker (>1000 Å) silicate-rich layer. This resulted in the C2 sample exhibiting “surface charging” behavior. These results relate directly to the metal/insulator (conductor/insulator) characteristics of the two samples, and imply that the heat transfer of the protective coating provided by the carboxylate technology (C1) is significantly better than that of traditional inhibitor technology (C2).
Technical Paper

A Fleet Test of Two Additive Technologies Comparing Their Effects on Tailpipe Emissions

1995-02-01
950745
An investigation of the clean-up effects of a Combustion Chamber Deposit (CCD) detergent additive package on tailpipe exhaust emissions was conducted using (6) 1992 2.3L vehicles. Part one of this program was a deposit build-up phase for all cars and part two included two phases where, in the first phase, one-half of the cars were operated with the CCD detergent package and the other half were run as a control on the build-up fuel. In the final phase, the fuels were switched between the sets of vehicles to compensate for any vehicle to vehicle differences. A gasoline containing a detergent package which provided port fuel injector (PFI) and intake valve deposit (IVD) cleanliness performance in accordance with California Air Resources Board (CARB) requirements was used as the deposit build-up fuel for part one and as the control in part two. This fuel is typical of many gasolines that are in the market place today.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Chamber Deposits on Tailpipe Emissions

1994-03-01
940345
An initial investigation into the effects of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) on tailpipe exhaust emissions has been completed. Four different model vehicles were evaluated for tailpipe emissions at four different deposit conditions. The deposit levels included a baseline clean level, a condition after deposit accumulation, a condition after CCD removal and finally a reevaluation after disassembly and mechanical clean up of the entire intake system. A special rig was developed using a walnut shell blasting device to allow cleaning of CCD without disturbing other engine deposits and without disassembly of the engine. This approach was taken to eliminate numerous time related variables and focus on the effects of CCD removal. The results of this investigation confirm that directionally HC, CO, and Nox all increased after the deposit accumulation period and decreased with the removal of CCD. However, statistically only Nox emissions increased significantly at the 90% confidence level.
Technical Paper

Long Life Performance of Carboxylic Acid Based Coolants

1994-03-01
940500
An inhibitor package which is silicate-, nitrate-, borate- and phosphate-free has been developed as the basis for a world-wide automotive coolant formulation. The formulation contains aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids and tolyltriazole as the sole inhibitors. Formulations containing carboxylic acid inhibitors have been studied in ASTM bench tests and found to sufficiently protect all prevalent cooling system metals. In addition, fleet tests have shown that carboxylic acid inhibitors deplete much more slowly than conventional inhibitors, making possible a much longer life coolant. Results from laboratory tests which simulate extended usage indicated that carboxylic acid-containing coolants have a significantly longer life span for the protection of all cooling system metals. Finally, the carboxylic acid/tolyltriazole inhibitor package is completely adaptable to a propylene glycol base.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Effects on Octane Requirement Increase and Combustion Chamber Deposits

1992-10-01
922258
Various unleaded gasoline formulations and gasoline components obtained from refinery streams were evaluated for their deposit forming tendencies in several multicylinder automotive engines. A pair of GM 2.0L engines equipped with throttle body fuel injection and a GM 1.8L equipped with an electronic feedback carburetor were utilized to determine fuel property effects on intake valves, cylinder head, and piston top deposits. Engine performance with respect to octane requirement increase was measured. Various analytical techniques were used to study a variety of fuel properties. Analyses of gasoline formulations and related fuel components such as light reformate, motor alkylate, benzene raffinate, and light catalytically cracked refinery streams were accomplished. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and flourescence indicator absorbance (FIA) analysis were performed on these fuels to determine their composition.
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