Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Preliminary Dynamic Model of Brake Friction Using Pressure and Temperature

2001-10-28
2001-01-3150
Understanding the friction behavior of brake lining materials is fundamental to the ability to predict brake system performance. Of particular interest to the aviation community, where carbon/carbon composite heatsinks are commonly used, is the aircraft response at deceleration onset. There are two performance measures defining brake system performance at braking onset: deceleration onset rate and system response time. The latter is strictly a function of the brake system hydraulics and is not affected by brake lining friction. The former performance measure is a function of both system hydraulics and brake lining friction. Previously to the work herein, carbon heatsink friction was thought to be unpredictable at braking onset. That being the case, a predictive capability for deceleration onset rate was not previously undertaken. This meant that assessment of this performance measure waited until aircraft taxi tests were performed.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Use of Small, Flexible, Machine Tools to Support the Lean Manufacturing Environment

2001-09-10
2001-01-2566
Drilling fastener holes in large assemblies is traditionally accomplished through the use of large machine tools in order to obtain the accuracies required for the assembled part. Given recent advances of machine design and machine controller compensation, the accuracy of the motion platform can be corrected if the machine is repeatable. This coupled with the use of a vision system or touch probe to compensate for assembly variations, permit the use of smaller, more portable drilling systems. These smaller, more portable machine tools allow for lean manufacturing techniques to be incorporated into build processes, utilize less floor space, and in many cases are less costly than larger, permanent machine tools. This paper examines the feasibility of utilizing a small 5-axis, portable, drilling system for drilling the side panel skins on the F/A-18 E/F forward fuselage.
Technical Paper

F/A-18 E/F Outer Wing Lean Production System

2001-09-10
2001-01-2608
The Boeing F/A-18 E/F Program Wing Team, Lean Organization and Phantom Works have partnered to develop a “state of the art” lean production system for the Outer Wing that represents an evolutionary change in aircraft design and assembly methodology. This project is focused on improving quality, cycle and cost performance through the implementation of lean principles, technology integration and process improvements. This paper will discuss the approach taken to reach the end state objectives and the technologies and processes being developed to support it. Items to be discussed include lean principles and practices, new tooling concepts, improved part assembly techniques, advanced drilling systems, process flow enhancements and part handling/part delivery systems.
Technical Paper

Machined Component Quality Improvements Through Manufacturing Process Simulation

2001-09-10
2001-01-2607
New manufacturing technologies such as high speed machining (HSM) are being developed to produce high quality aerospace components. While our developing understanding of machining dynamics is enabling precise control of cutting tools to provide for high dimensional accuracy, residual stresses present in aluminum mill products can compromise the ability to machine dimensionally accurate components from these stock materials. The advantages of precise tool control can be lost if the metal being cut moves during machining. And, even a perfectly machined part that distorts when it is released from the machine bed will cause problems upon assembly. Thus, ensuring the quality of the mill product becomes an enabling technology for advanced manufacturing approaches such as HSM.
Technical Paper

EVA Operations Using the Spacelab Logistics Pallet for Hardware Deliveries

2001-07-09
2001-01-2201
There are a large number of space structures, orbital replacement units (ORUs) and other components that must be transported to orbit on a regular basis for the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Some of this hardware will be ferried on the Spacelab Logistics Pallet (SLP), which has a long and reliable history of space flight successes. The carrier is well used, well qualified, and very adaptable for repeated use in accommodating cargoes of various sizes and shapes. This paper presents an overview of past, present and future hardware design solutions that accommodate EVA operations on the SLP. It further demonstrates how analysis techniques and design considerations have influenced the hardware development, EVA operations, and compliance with human engineering requirements for the SLP.
Technical Paper

Assembly Techniques for Space Vehicles

2000-09-19
2000-01-3028
Assembly techniques for the majority of expendable and reusable launch vehicles have not changed much over the last thirty years. Some progress has been made, specifically on new programs, however, improvements on existing expendable launch vehicle production lines can be difficult to justify; even more so for one or two reusable vehicles. This presentation will focus on techniques and systems used for manual and automated assembly of expendable and reusable launch vehicle primary structures. Today's assembly is characterized by manual operations involving fixtures and templates, and all tasks are carried out primarily with single function hand tools. Typical assembly approaches used for metallic and composite primary structures will be discussed. Potential opportunities for process improvements utilizing advanced hand tools, mechanized and/or automated equipment will be addressed.
Technical Paper

Integrated Metrology & Robotics Systems for Agile Automation

2000-09-19
2000-01-3033
Aircraft manufacturing in the 21st century sees a future much different to that seen one and two decades before. Manufacturers of both military and commercial aircraft are challenged to become Lean, Agile and Flexible. As progress is slowly made toward introducing advanced assembly systems into production, the overall cost of automation is now more closely scrutinized. After spending tens of millions of dollars on large automated systems with deep foundations, many manufacturers find themselves locked into high cost manufacturing systems that have specific, inflexible configurations. This kind of scenario has caused a shift in the attitude of airframe assemblers, to go back to basics. Lean manufacturing is seen as a way to build aircraft with very low investment in equipment and tools. Today's advanced systems developers do understand the need for more affordable assembly systems.
Technical Paper

Electric 30,000 RPM Shave Spindle for C Frame Riveter and High Performance Compact Aerospace Drill

2000-09-19
2000-01-3017
Two spindles are discussed in this paper. The first spindle was installed on nine C-frame riveters on the 737/757 wing line at the Boeing Renton facility. Due to discontinuing the use of Freon coolant and cutting fluid, the C-frame riveters had difficulty shaving 2034 ice box rivets with the existing 6000 RPM hydraulic spindles. The solution was to install electric 30,000 RPM shave spindles inside the existing 76.2 mm (3 in.) diameter hydraulic cylinder envelope. The new spindle is capable of 4 Nm (35 in. lbs.) of torque at full speed and 110 kgf (250 lbs.) of thrust. Another design of interest is the Electroimpact Model 09 spindle which is used for 20,000 RPM drilling and shaving on wing riveting systems. The Model 09 spindle is a complete servo-servo drilling system all mounted on a common baseplate. The entire spindle and feed assembly is only 6.5″ wide.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Design for Dexterous Robotics - Inboard Truss Segments

2000-07-10
2000-01-2357
Over 200 International Space Station external high maintenance items have been designed for replacement by a dexterous robotics system in addition to space-suited astronauts. Planning for dexterous robotics maintenance increases flexibility for space station operations with a robot able to execute many tasks in place of a suited crew member, lowering the number of hours crew must spend on Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The five inboard truss segments of the station - S3, S1, S0, P1 and P3 - include 122 of these robot compatible maintenance items or On-orbit Replaceable Units (ORUs). This paper describes the impact robotic compatibility has had on the International Space Station (ISS) design, reviewing the inboard truss items as examples. Diverse challenges exist to verify each genre of ORU meets the dexterous robotics requirements.
Technical Paper

Space Station Lab Flight Test Article Results and Analytical Model Correlations

1999-07-12
1999-01-2196
The International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control/Intermodule Ventilation (THC/IMV) system for the U.S. Lab provides required cooling air for the U.S. Lab and also provides “parasitic” cooling air for Node 1 and its attached elements. This scheme provides cooled air from the Lab THC directly to Node 1 and also to elements attached to Node 1, at different stages of Space Station assembly. This paper reports on the results of Open Hatch ECLSS/ TCS Tests for International Space Station’s Lab Module. The hardware tested is referred to as proto-flight hardware. Upon satisfactorily passing these Open Hatch and later Closed Hatch, imposed ground based, proto-flight tests, the proto-flight hardware will become flight hardware. The Lab Module is scheduled for launch during late 1999. The particular ECLSS/TCS equipment discussed here are the Temperature Humidity and Control (THC) equipment and Intermodule Ventilation (IMV) equipment.
Technical Paper

Gaugeless Tooling

1998-09-15
982147
At The Boeing Company, the advent of a Determinant Assembly (DA) program and the subsequent production of accurate fuselage subpanels created a need to be able to position subpanels accurately and repeatably during fuselage assembly. The tool engineering organization of The Boeing Company and Advanced Integration Technology, Inc. (AIT) as the prime contractor, are developing and installing automated positioning and alignment systems throughout major 747 fuselage assembly areas which enable DA techniques. The benefits of this assembly approach and this automated precision tooling are flexibility, assembly accuracy, ease of assembly and associated speed, reduced downtime for tool maintenance, and improved shop-floor ergonomics.
Technical Paper

Machine Readable Coding of 777 Wing Fastening Systems Tooling

1998-09-15
982133
This paper presents a detailed overview of the advantages and benefits of using 2-D barcodes, called Data Matrix codes, on Wing Fastening System (WFS) Tooling. This project was conducted on, but not limited to, the 777 Wing Fastening System (GEMCOR) tooling including the drills, fingers, and button dies. This paper will show how using Data Matrix codes to identify tooling will: Eliminate excessive downtime due to the operator using the incorrect tooling for a given tool setup. Reduce the cost associated with panel rework due to the use of incorrect tooling. Reduce the cost associated with excessive tool inventory or last minute ordering to keep up with production needs. Track tool life information for each specific tool. Provide operators with an easy to use tool setup reference document. And provide the factory with the ability to trace panel damage or defects back to the specific machine and exact tooling used.
Technical Paper

Process Automation Through-Reality Graphics, Kitting, and Automated Panel Protection

1997-09-30
972806
This paper addresses process improvements through reality graphics (RG) aided by automated panel protection (APP) and tool kitting pertaining to automated wing riveting and fastening. This system provides an integrated display of numerical controlled media, automatic tool identification, and image files, combined with automated panel protection. Reality graphics (image files) within the NC program allow the machine operator to access portions of the NC program while attaching a support graphic. This would include safety hazards, unique panel differences, program start, and tool change information. Automated panel protection (APP) analyze process key characteristics, and perishable tool kits, and it monitors the installation of fasteners using multiple cameras mounted in strategic positions, taking real-time images. The APP detects incorrect tooling and possible panel damage, with little or no impact to the operational cycle time of the automated fastening equipment.
Technical Paper

Space Station THC/IMV Development Test/Analysis Correlations and Flight Predictions

1997-07-14
972565
The International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control/Intermodule Ventilation (THC/IMV) system for the U.S. Lab provides required cooling air for the U.S. Lab and also provides “parasitic” cooling air for Node 1 and its attached elements. This scheme provides cooled air from the Lab THC directly to Node 1 and also to elements attached to Node 1, at different stages of Space Station assembly. A development test of the U.S. Lab and Node 1/attached elements' integrated THC/IMV ducting system was performed in the summer of 1995. This test included the U.S. Lab's development level Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA), which removes sensible and latent heat from the circulated and ducted cabin air. A referenced 1996 ICES Paper contains the initial correlation results. An analytical model has been developed, which has been used to predict flow and pressure drop performance of the system for several potential and actual changes from the Development Test configuration.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control Analysis for the U.S. Lab, Node 1, and Elements Attached to Node 1

1997-07-14
972564
The International Space Station (ISS) Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) system has been designed with the intent of supplying the air cooling needs of various elements from the U.S. Lab heat exchanger assembly. Elements without independent air cooling capability are known as “parasitic” elements; these are Node 1, the Cupola, and the Mini Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM). Analysis results are presented which show expected temperatures in the MPLM, and Node 1, as various heat loads are present in the respective elements. Analyses within this paper are coordinated with the results obtained from the Development Test of the complex USL/Node 1 integrated ducting system. This test was conducted in the summer of 1995, at the McDonnell Douglas test facility in Huntington Beach, California.
Technical Paper

Evolution to Lean Manufacturing A Case Study of Boeing of Spokane

1997-06-03
972235
The evolution of a manufacturing organization toward “Lean” manufacturing does not necessarily come cheaply or quickly. It is the experience at Boeing that technology and different visions can dramatically impact the evolutionary process-consuming great amounts of time and resources. The Boeing of Spokane case study, where aircraft floor panels are manufactured1, is but one of several case studies that suggests moving to “Lean” manufacturing is usually done in large steps, not small ones. These initial steps can be costly unless the systems (equipment and workforce) are flexible. Workforce flexibility is dependent on the attitude in the workforce as both touch and support labor move from their comfort zone to try new approaches and job descriptions. The workforce must be properly motivated to make the change. The equipment must also be flexible in adapting to new line layouts, product mixes, and process change or large cost penalties will be incurred.
Technical Paper

Development of Fatigue-Rated 7/16 Inch Diameter Flush-Head Rivets for Aluminum Wing Structure

1995-09-01
952170
A hydraulic squeeze riveting process has been developed which yields high fatigue quality for large diameter rivets in aluminum wing structure. The process for installation of 7/16 inch diameter 2017-H15 aluminum alloy flush head rivets was developed using a series of statistically designed experiments. Factors such as rivet geometry, die shape, and upset force were varied to yield optimal rivet interference. The relationship between interference and fatigue life was quantified. The development process described provides a case study for those working to optimize complex multivariate manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

Modular Rack Design for Multiple Users

1994-06-01
941587
The Space Station program was faced with a unique design environment-to design a common systems and payload support structure that could accommodate changeout for repair or technology growth over a 30-year lifetime. The vibration environment and weight allocation for rack structure necessitated a lightweight, yet stiff structure. The design answer was a modular rack structure using graphite/epoxy composites and selected aluminum components that could support a wide variety of systems, payload and stowage functions. A modular set of mounting locations allow the installation of a wide variety of secondary structures without permanent modifications to the rack. Aircraft-style seat track rails on the front edges of the rack permit attachment of handrails, foot restraints and accessories such as lights, fans, clipboards or computers to the rack face.
Technical Paper

U.S. Lab-A Module Cabin Air Distribution in Space Station

1993-07-01
932192
This paper presents the basic test data obtained from tests of a cabin air distribution system in a simulated Space Station U.S. Lab-A module. The cabin air distribution system controls the flow of air in the open space of a Space Station module. In order to meet crew comfort criteria the local velocities for this cabin air are required to be distributed within a specified range with upper and lower limits. Achieving this desired velocity distribution is dependent upon the: (1.) design of the cabin air supply equipment and cabin air return equipment, (2.) total flowrate of air supplied to and subsequently returned from the cabin, and (3.) interactive effects of any other additional air flow streams which enter and exit the cabin. The basic Space Station design for the cabin air supply and air return equipment was used in this test program. Only directional adjustments to vanes in supply air diffusers were made during the test.
Technical Paper

Comparative Test Data Assessment and Simplified Math Modelling for the Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem

1993-07-01
932194
Space Station Freedom (SSF) has an extended mission duration of 30 years. Trade studies for extended missions of manned spacecraft almost invariably show that large resupply weight and consequent cost savings can be achieved by recovering potable water from wastewater sources. This rationale has led to the present baseline Water Recovery and Management (WRM) system for the Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) phase of SSF. The baseline WRM includes the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) subsystem for recovering water from urine. This process serves as a preliminary processing step in achieving potable water from wastewater sources. The basic principle of the VCD is that water is evaporated from urine and then condensed in a zero-gravity device containing an evaporator and a condenser in a rotating drum. The VCD was selected for the baseline WRM following the assessment of test results from competitive urine processing subsystems obtained from the Comparative Test (CT) program.
X