Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Durability â€“ A Study of LSPI in Fresh and Aged Engine Oils
Downsized gasoline engines, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and turbocharging, have provided an effective means to meet both emissions standards and customersâ€™ drivability expectations. As a result, these engines have become more and more common in the passenger vehicle marketplace over the past 10Â years. To maximize fuel economy, these engines are commonly calibrated to operate at low speeds and high engine loads â€“ well into the traditional â€˜knock-limitedâ€™ region. Advanced engine controls and GDI have effectively suppressed knock and allowed the engines to operate in this high efficiency region more often than was historically possible. Unfortunately, many of these downsized, boosted engines have experienced a different type of uncontrolled combustion. This combustion occurs when the engine is operating under high load and low speed conditions and has been named Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI has shown to be very damaging to engine hardware.