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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles: Part II - Lubricant Oil Performance and Engine Wear

1999-05-03
1999-01-1499
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection Part I - Fuel System Deposits and Vehicle Performance

1999-05-03
1999-01-1498
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection and two with port fuel injection engines, were tested in 20,100 km intervals to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant on vehicle deposits and emissions, acceleration and driveability performance. The program showed that engine fuel system deposits, including specifically those on intake valves, combustion chambers and injectors are formed in higher amounts in the GDI engine than the PFI engine. The fuel additive used reduced injector deposits and combustion chamber deposits in the GDI, but had no significant effect on intake valve deposits, which are affected by crankcase oil formulation. In GDI vehicles, deposited engines were found to have increased hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions and poorer fuel economy and acceleration, but lower particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Using Intake Valve Deposit Cleanup Testing as a Combustion Chamber Deposit Discriminator

1998-10-19
982714
Carefully controlled intake valve deposit (IVD) cleanup testing is found to be an effective method for differentiating the effect of the deposit control additives on combustion chamber deposits (CCD). The IVD buildup procedure produces a consistent initial level of CCD that the cleanup additive, the additive of interest, continues to build on until the end of the cleanup test. This “end of cleanup” CCD is found to be as repeatable and differentiable a measurement as tests run under the more common “keep clean” type operation. While IVD cleanup testing induces a mid-test disturbance in the form of the end of buildup measurement, it aligns well with two key CCD protocols in terms of the higher additive treat rates used and the extended total test length. In an analysis of results from IVD cleanup tests run using four different engine/vehicle procedures on seven different additives, several findings stood out.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Review of Available Data Correlating the BMW and Ford Intake Valve Deposit Tests

1998-05-04
981365
A 100-hour engine dynamometer test for intake valve deposits (IVD) which uses a Ford 2.3L engine was developed by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC). Recently, this test has been approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as Test Method D 6201-97. Since this test offers improvements in test variability, duration, and cost, it is expected to replace ASTM D 5500-94, a 16,000-km vehicle test run using a BMW 318i, as the key performance test for the Certification of Gasoline Deposit Control Additives by the EPA Final Rule. As a step in the replacement process, a correlation between valve deposit levels for the CRC 2.3L Ford IVD test and ASTM D 5500 BMW IVD test must be determined. This paper provides a statistical review of available data in an attempt to provide such a correlation.
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