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Journal Article

Impact of Viscosity Modifiers on Gear Oil Efficiency and Durability: Part II

2013-04-08
2013-01-0299
This paper outlines the second part in a series on the effect of polymeric additives commonly known as viscosity modifiers (VM) or viscosity index improvers (VII) on gear oil efficiency and durability. The main role of the VM is to improve cold temperature lubrication and reduce the rate of viscosity reduction as the gear oil warms to operating temperature. However, in addition to improved operating efficiency across a broad temperature range compared to monograde fluids the VM can impart a number of other significant rheological improvements to the fluid [1]. This paper expands on the first paper in the series [2], covering further aspects in fluid efficiency, the effect of VM chemistry on these and their relationship to differences in hypoid and spur gear rig efficiency testing. Numerous VM chemistry types are available and the VM chemistry and shear stability is key to fluid efficiency and durability.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part III: Using an Improved Break-Away Friction Screen Test to Investigate Fundamental Friction Material-Lubricant Interactions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2231
Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted in many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems, and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3270 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Slip Screen Test Development), a testing tool was developed to simulate a limited slip differential break-away event using a Full Scale-Low Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). The purpose of this test was to investigate the fundamental interactions between lubricants and friction materials. The original break-away friction screen test, which used actual vehicle clutch plates and a single friction surface, proved a useful tool in screening new friction modifier technology.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part IV: Using a New Split-μ Simulation Test for Optimizing Friction Material-Lubricant Hardware Systems

2010-10-25
2010-01-2230
Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted through many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3271 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screen Test Development) a testing tool was developed to correlate to full-vehicle split-mu testing for limited slip differential applications using a low speed SAE #2 friction test rig. The SAE #2 Split-Mu Simulation is a full clutch pack component level friction test. The purpose of this test is to allow optimization of the friction material-lubricant hardware system in order to deliver consistent friction performance over the life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3271
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper, we will describe a split-mu vehicle test and the development of a split-mu screening test. The screening test uses the SAE#2 friction test rig and shows how results from this test align with those from actual vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3270
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation rates of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system in order to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper we will describe the development of a break-away friction screening test using a Full-Scale Low-Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). Additionally, we will illustrate how this screening test can be used to investigate the fundamental friction material-lubricant interactions that occur in continuously engaged limited slip differentials.
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