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Technical Paper

A Study into the Impact of Engine Oil on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance through a Real-World Fleet Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-0299
Increasingly stringent vehicle emissions legislation is being introduced throughout the world, regulating the allowed levels of particulate matter emitted from vehicle tailpipes. The regulation may prove challenging for gasoline vehicles equipped with modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology, owing to their increased levels of particulate matter production. It is expected that gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) will soon be fitted to most vehicles sold in China and Europe, allowing for carbonaceous particulate matter to be effectively captured. However, GPFs will also capture and accumulate non-combustible inorganic ash within them, mainly derived from engine oil. Studies exist to demonstrate the impact of such ash on GPF and vehicle performance, but these commonly make use of accelerated ash loading methods, which themselves introduce significant variation.
Technical Paper

Developing Efficient Motorcycle Oils

2018-10-30
2018-32-0021
Motorcycle OEMs faced with stringent global fuel economy and emission regulations are being forced to develop new hardware and emissions control technologies to remain compliant. Motorcycle oils have become an enabling technology for the development of smaller, more efficient engines operating at higher power density. Many OEMs have therefore become reliant on lubricants to not only provide enhanced durability under more extreme operating conditions, but to also provide fuel economy benefits through reduced energy losses. Unlike passenger car oils that only lubricate the engine, motorcycle oils must lubricate both the engine and the drive train. These additional requirements place different performance demands versus a crankcase lubricant. The drive train includes highly loaded gears that are exposed to high pressures, in turn requiring higher levels of oil film strength and antiwear system durability.
Technical Paper

Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Durability – A Study of LSPI in Fresh and Aged Engine Oils

2018-04-03
2018-01-0934
Downsized gasoline engines, coupled with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and turbocharging, have provided an effective means to meet both emissions standards and customers’ drivability expectations. As a result, these engines have become more and more common in the passenger vehicle marketplace over the past 10 years. To maximize fuel economy, these engines are commonly calibrated to operate at low speeds and high engine loads – well into the traditional ‘knock-limited’ region. Advanced engine controls and GDI have effectively suppressed knock and allowed the engines to operate in this high efficiency region more often than was historically possible. Unfortunately, many of these downsized, boosted engines have experienced a different type of uncontrolled combustion. This combustion occurs when the engine is operating under high load and low speed conditions and has been named Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI has shown to be very damaging to engine hardware.
Journal Article

Optimizing Engine Oils for Fuel Economy with Advanced Test Methods

2017-10-08
2017-01-2348
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
Technical Paper

A Study of Axle Fluid Viscosity and Friction Impact on Axle Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-0899
The growing need for improved fuel economy is a global challenge due to continuously tightening environmental regulations targeting lower CO2 emission levels via reduced fuel consumption in vehicles. In order to reach these fuel efficiency targets, it necessitates improvements in vehicle transmission hardware components by applying advanced technologies in design, materials and surface treatments etc., as well as matching lubricant formulations with appropriate additive chemistry. Axle lubricants have a considerable impact on fuel economy. More importantly, they can be tailored to deliver maximum operational efficiency over specific or wide ranges of operating conditions. The proper lubricant technology with well-balanced chemistries can simultaneously realize both fuel economy and hardware protection, which are perceived to have a trade-off relationship.
Journal Article

Unique Needs of Motorcycle and Scooter Lubricants and Proposed Solutions for More Effective Performance Evaluation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0708
The operating conditions of a typical motorcycle are considerably different than those of a typical passenger car and thus require an oil capable of handling the unique demands. One primary difference, wet clutch lubrication, is already addressed by the current JASO four-stroke motorcycle engine oil specification (JASO T 903:2011). Another challenge for the oil is gear box lubrication, which may be addressed in part with the addition of a gear protection test in a future revision to the JASO specification. A third major difference between a motorcycle oil and passenger car oil is the more severe conditions an oil is subjected to within a motorcycle engine, due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities. Scooters, utilizing a transmission not lubricated by the crankcase oil, also place higher demands on an engine oil, once again due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part IV: Using a New Split-μ Simulation Test for Optimizing Friction Material-Lubricant Hardware Systems

2010-10-25
2010-01-2230
Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted through many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3271 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screen Test Development) a testing tool was developed to correlate to full-vehicle split-mu testing for limited slip differential applications using a low speed SAE #2 friction test rig. The SAE #2 Split-Mu Simulation is a full clutch pack component level friction test. The purpose of this test is to allow optimization of the friction material-lubricant hardware system in order to deliver consistent friction performance over the life of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part III: Using an Improved Break-Away Friction Screen Test to Investigate Fundamental Friction Material-Lubricant Interactions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2231
Wet clutch friction devices are the primary means by which torque is transmitted in many of today's modern vehicle drivelines. These devices are used in automatic transmissions, torque vectoring devices, active on-demand vehicle stability systems, and torque biasing differentials. As discussed in a previous SAE paper ( 2006-01-3270 - Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Slip Screen Test Development), a testing tool was developed to simulate a limited slip differential break-away event using a Full Scale-Low Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). The purpose of this test was to investigate the fundamental interactions between lubricants and friction materials. The original break-away friction screen test, which used actual vehicle clutch plates and a single friction surface, proved a useful tool in screening new friction modifier technology.
Journal Article

The Effect of Viscosity Index on the Efficiency of Transmission Lubricants

2009-11-02
2009-01-2632
The world is firmly focused on reducing energy consumption and on increasingly stringent regulations on CO2 emissions. Examples of regulatory changes include the new United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) fuel economy test procedures which were required beginning with the 2008 model year for vehicles sold in the US market. These test procedures include testing at higher speeds, more aggressive acceleration and deceleration, and hot-weather and cold-temperature testing. These revised procedures are intended to provide an estimate that more accurately reflects what consumers will experience under real world driving conditions. The U.S.
Technical Paper

Development of Next-Generation Automatic Transmission Fluid Technology

2007-10-29
2007-01-3976
Global original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have requested lower viscosity automatic transmission fluid (ATF) for use in conventional and 6-speed automatic transmissions (AT) to meet growing demands for improved fuel economy. While lower-viscosity ATF may provide better fuel economy by reducing churning losses, other key performance attributes must be considered when formulating lower viscosity ATF(1,2). Gear and bearing performance can be key concerns with lower-viscosity ATFs due to reduced film thickness at the surfaces. Long-term anti-shudder performance is also needed to enable the aggressive use of controlled slip torque converter clutches that permit better fuel economy. And, friction characteristics need to be improved for higher clutch holding capacity and good clutch engagement performance. This paper covers the development of next-generation, low-viscosity ATF technology, which provides optimum fuel economy along with wear and friction durability.
Technical Paper

Are the Traditional Methods for Determining Depletion of Total Base Number Providing Adequate Engine Protection?

2007-10-29
2007-01-4001
With the increasing use of modern, EGR-equipped, heavy-duty diesel engines and the use of lower sulfur and alternate fuels, such as biodiesel, lubricants are being exposed to a range of different compositions of acids. To complement the traditional detergent bases, todays lubricants have evolved to include a higher proportion of basic materials from amine-derived sources to aid in oxidation and soot control. This paper explores the impact of the different sources of acids, some of the issues they create and how they can be addressed, exemplified in a prototype CJ-4 lubricant formulation.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Examination of the Effect of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline on Intake Valve Deposits in Spark-Ignited Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-3995
Ethanol-gasoline blends are widely understood to present certain technical challenges to engine operation. Despite widespread use of fuels ranging from E5 (5% ethanol in gasoline) in some European countries to E10 (10% ethanol) in the United States to E100 (100% ethanol; “alcool”) in Brazil, there are certain subjects which have only anecdotally been examined. This paper examines two such issues: the effect of ethanol on intake valve deposits (IVD) and the impact of fuel additive on filter plugging (a measure of solubility). The effect of ethanol on IVD is studied along two lines of investigation: the effect of E10 in a multi-fuel data set carried out in the BMW 318i used for EPA and CARB certification, and the effect of varying ethanol content from 0% to 85% in gasoline carried out in a modern flex-fuel vehicle.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3271
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper, we will describe a split-mu vehicle test and the development of a split-mu screening test. The screening test uses the SAE#2 friction test rig and shows how results from this test align with those from actual vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3270
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation rates of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system in order to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper we will describe the development of a break-away friction screening test using a Full-Scale Low-Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). Additionally, we will illustrate how this screening test can be used to investigate the fundamental friction material-lubricant interactions that occur in continuously engaged limited slip differentials.
Technical Paper

Breaking the Viscosity Paradigm: Formulating Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency and Axle Life - Part II

2006-10-16
2006-01-3272
The popularity of light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), coupled with growing consumer demand for vehicles with more size, weight and horsepower, has increased the impact of these vehicle classes on the manufacturer's CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) numbers. Consumers often use light trucks and SUVs in applications such as prolonged towing at highway speeds, resulting in heavy loading and/or high operating temperatures in the axle. These conditions require superior axle lubricant protection, often provided by choosing a higher viscosity fluid (e.g., SAE 75W-140). Traditionally, the choice of these higher viscosity fluids for enhanced durability performance often results in reduced city-highway efficiency. This paper will describe the use of controlled axle dynamometer laboratory testing methods to develop fluids that maximize both fuel efficiency and durability performance across the wide spectrum of the new proposed viscosity classifications.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Heavy Loads on Light Duty Vehicle Axle Operating Temperature

2005-10-24
2005-01-3893
With the continued growth of the sport utility vehicle (SUV) market in North America in recent years more emphasis has been placed on fluid performance in these vehicles. In addition to fuel economy the key performance area sought by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in general has been temperature reduction in the axle. This is being driven by warranty claims that show that one of the causes of axle failure in these type vehicles is related to overheating. The overheating is, in turn, caused by high load situations, e.g., pulling a large trailer at or near the maximum rated load limit for the vehicle, especially when the vehicle or its main subcomponents are relatively new. The excessive temperature generally leads to premature failure of seals, bearings and gears. The choice of lubricant can have a significant effect on the peak and stabilized operating temperature under these extreme conditions.
Technical Paper

Breaking the Viscosity Paradigm: Formulating Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency and Vehicle Life

2005-10-24
2005-01-3860
The popularity of light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), coupled with growing consumer demand for vehicles with more size, weight and horsepower, has challenged the original equipment manufacturers' (OEM) ability to meet the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) specifications due to the increased contribution of these vehicle classes on fleet averages. The need for improved fuel economy is also a global issue due to the relationship of reduced fuel consumption to reduced CO2 emissions. Vehicle manufacturers are challenged to match the proper fluid with the application to provide the required durability protection while maximizing fuel efficiency. Recent new viscosity classifications outlined under SAE J306 aid in more tightly defining options for lubricant choice for a given application. Changes to the SAE J306 viscosity classification define new intermediate viscosity grades, SAE 110 and SAE 190.
Technical Paper

A Method to Assess Grease Temperature Response in CVJ Applications

2005-05-11
2005-01-2177
The constant velocity joint (CVJ) has seen increased usage driven by the growth of front wheel drive vehicles over the last 30 years. The CVJ provides a smooth, dynamic connection between the output of the axle or gearbox and the driving wheels of the vehicle. The seemingly simple device, however, requires specially designed greases to maximize protection of the internal components from distress and provide optimum performance and service life. One measure of potential distress in the CVJ can be related to temperature rise which is a reflection of the friction and wear properties of the grease employed. A test rig was designed and a method created to evaluate the temperature response of different greases used in a CVJ. The test rig was designed to allow a wide range of speeds, torques and shaft angles to be used. The rig uses a unique temperature pickup system to allow for dynamic measurement of the grease temperature in the boot.
Technical Paper

Field Experience with Selected Lubricants for Commercial Vehicle Manual Transmissions

2005-05-11
2005-01-2176
Laboratory testing is an essential part of product development. However, it usually only reflects a small portion of the experience that a lubricant may see in actual service conditions. Many laboratory tests are designed to only address one or two facets of what is deemed to be critical performance areas. Since it is difficult to cover all of the critical performance conditions problems sometimes arise in service that were not anticipated by the laboratory test. Or, conversely, some above average performance evolves during service that was not observed in a specific laboratory test. This paper highlights the overall performance of four manual transmission fluids approved or accepted by the manufacturer for this application. The evaluations were conducted in a city bus fleet with the test buses assigned to the same route for approximately 300,000 km over 30 months.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubricant Derived Chemistries on Performance of the Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters

2005-05-11
2005-01-2168
Forthcoming on-highway 2005/2007 European and North American emission regulations will require modern diesel engines to be equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) capable of trapping up to 99% of the exhaust particulate matter. Since diesel particulates (soot) accumulate in the filter over time, the overall system needs to be regenerated by attaining the ignition temperature of soot, which in the presence of oxygen is >600 °C. Catalyzed DPFs regenerate at temperatures as low as ∼300 °C. One of the major issues facing OEMs, aftertreatment system manufacturers, and lubricant formulators is the potential effects of the lubricant-derived ash deposits and their impact on a pressure increase across filters, as well as overall filter performance and its service characteristics.
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