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Journal Article

Optimizing Engine Oils for Fuel Economy with Advanced Test Methods

2017-10-08
2017-01-2348
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
Technical Paper

A Study of Axle Fluid Viscosity and Friction Impact on Axle Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-0899
The growing need for improved fuel economy is a global challenge due to continuously tightening environmental regulations targeting lower CO2 emission levels via reduced fuel consumption in vehicles. In order to reach these fuel efficiency targets, it necessitates improvements in vehicle transmission hardware components by applying advanced technologies in design, materials and surface treatments etc., as well as matching lubricant formulations with appropriate additive chemistry. Axle lubricants have a considerable impact on fuel economy. More importantly, they can be tailored to deliver maximum operational efficiency over specific or wide ranges of operating conditions. The proper lubricant technology with well-balanced chemistries can simultaneously realize both fuel economy and hardware protection, which are perceived to have a trade-off relationship.
Journal Article

Unique Needs of Motorcycle and Scooter Lubricants and Proposed Solutions for More Effective Performance Evaluation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0708
The operating conditions of a typical motorcycle are considerably different than those of a typical passenger car and thus require an oil capable of handling the unique demands. One primary difference, wet clutch lubrication, is already addressed by the current JASO four-stroke motorcycle engine oil specification (JASO T 903:2011). Another challenge for the oil is gear box lubrication, which may be addressed in part with the addition of a gear protection test in a future revision to the JASO specification. A third major difference between a motorcycle oil and passenger car oil is the more severe conditions an oil is subjected to within a motorcycle engine, due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities. Scooters, utilizing a transmission not lubricated by the crankcase oil, also place higher demands on an engine oil, once again due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part II: Split-Mu Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3271
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper, we will describe a split-mu vehicle test and the development of a split-mu screening test. The screening test uses the SAE#2 friction test rig and shows how results from this test align with those from actual vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Torque Control Fluid Technology, Part I: Break-Away Friction Screening Test Development

2006-10-16
2006-01-3270
The popularity of SUVs and light trucks in North America, combined with the return to rear-wheel-drive cars globally, is significantly increasing the installation rates of torque control devices that improve vehicle stability and drivability. As with other driveline hardware, it is important to optimize the friction material-lubricant-hardware system in order to ensure that a torque control device provides consistent performance over the life of the vehicle. While there are many publications on friction tests relevant to automatic transmission fluids, the literature relating to torque control testing is not as well developed. In this paper we will describe the development of a break-away friction screening test using a Full-Scale Low-Velocity Friction Apparatus (FS-LVFA). Additionally, we will illustrate how this screening test can be used to investigate the fundamental friction material-lubricant interactions that occur in continuously engaged limited slip differentials.
Technical Paper

Breaking the Viscosity Paradigm: Formulating Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency and Axle Life - Part II

2006-10-16
2006-01-3272
The popularity of light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), coupled with growing consumer demand for vehicles with more size, weight and horsepower, has increased the impact of these vehicle classes on the manufacturer's CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) numbers. Consumers often use light trucks and SUVs in applications such as prolonged towing at highway speeds, resulting in heavy loading and/or high operating temperatures in the axle. These conditions require superior axle lubricant protection, often provided by choosing a higher viscosity fluid (e.g., SAE 75W-140). Traditionally, the choice of these higher viscosity fluids for enhanced durability performance often results in reduced city-highway efficiency. This paper will describe the use of controlled axle dynamometer laboratory testing methods to develop fluids that maximize both fuel efficiency and durability performance across the wide spectrum of the new proposed viscosity classifications.
Technical Paper

Breaking the Viscosity Paradigm: Formulating Approaches for Optimizing Efficiency and Vehicle Life

2005-10-24
2005-01-3860
The popularity of light trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs), coupled with growing consumer demand for vehicles with more size, weight and horsepower, has challenged the original equipment manufacturers' (OEM) ability to meet the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) specifications due to the increased contribution of these vehicle classes on fleet averages. The need for improved fuel economy is also a global issue due to the relationship of reduced fuel consumption to reduced CO2 emissions. Vehicle manufacturers are challenged to match the proper fluid with the application to provide the required durability protection while maximizing fuel efficiency. Recent new viscosity classifications outlined under SAE J306 aid in more tightly defining options for lubricant choice for a given application. Changes to the SAE J306 viscosity classification define new intermediate viscosity grades, SAE 110 and SAE 190.
Technical Paper

Cloud Point Depressant Response Effects in Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

2005-10-24
2005-01-3898
Cloud point depressants (CPD) have been successfully used for many years in low-sulfur diesel fuels. For over ten years, custom-designed, specialty polymer chemistry has enabled refiners to meet cloud point (CP) guidelines with substantially less kerosene. This translates into greater refined yields through cut-point adjustment upgrades and the potential for diverting kerosene to more lucrative market opportunities, such as jet fuel. The practice of cut-point downgrades to gas oil can be costly because diesel fuel generally has greater value. Kerosene dilutions have historically been as high as 30%-40% by volume with low-sulfur diesel fuels [1, 2]. While kerosene addition enables fuels to reach CP guidelines, it may negatively impact the fuel's energy content, cetane number, lubricity, flash point and density. Properly designed CP additives are able to substantially reduce or even eliminate the need for kerosene, thus substantially reducing refinery costs.
Technical Paper

Systematic Formulation of Efficient and Durable Axle Lubricants for Light Trucks and Sport Utility Vehicles

2004-10-25
2004-01-3030
Consumer demand for size, weight and horsepower has dictated a prominent role for sport utility vehicles and light trucks in the product lines of major North American automobile manufacturers. Inherently less efficient than passenger cars, these vehicles will be facing more stringent light duty CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards beginning in 2005 when mileage targets will be elevated to 21 mpg; this figure will be further increased to 22.2 mpg by 2007. In order to accommodate both public demand and CAFE requirements, vehicle manufacturers are seeking ways to improve fuel economy through design and material modifications as well as through improvements in lubrication. The axle lubricant may have an important impact on fuel economy, and axle lubricants can be tailored to deliver higher levels of operating efficiency over a wide range of conditions.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Derived Sulfur Species on Efficiency and Durability of Diesel NOx Adsorbers

2004-10-25
2004-01-3011
Global emission legislations for diesel engines are becoming increasingly stringent. While the exhaust gas composition requirements for prior iterations of emission legislation could be met with improvements in the engine's combustion process, the next issue of European, North American and Japanese emission limits greater than 2005 will require more rigorous measures, mainly employment of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. As a result, many American diesel OEMs are considering NOx adsorbers as a means to achieve 2007+ emission standards. Since the efficacy of a NOx adsorber over its lifetime is significantly affected by sulfur (“sulfur poisoning”), forthcoming reductions in diesel fuel sulfur (down to 15 ppm), have raised industry concerns regarding compatibility and possible poisoning effects of sulfur from the lubricant.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of the Sequence IIIG by the Study of Oil Consumption

2004-06-08
2004-01-1893
The Sequence IIIG is a newly developed 100 hour test used to evaluate the performance of crankcase engine oils in the areas of high temperature viscosity increase, wear, deposits, pumpability, and ring sticking for the North American GF-4 standard. Data from the ASTM Precision Matrix, completed in the spring of 2003, along with early reference data from the Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) showed unexpected test results for selected oils and indicated that percent viscosity increase and pumpability were highly correlated with oil consumption. This correlation led to an intensive study of the factors that influence oil consumption and an attempt to compensate for non-oil related oil consumption through a model based adjustment of the results. The study and scrutiny of the IIIG data has led to more uniform oil consumption in the test and improved test precision, and has eliminated the need for a correction equation based on non-oil related oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on Friction and Wear Using 2.2L Direct Injection Diesel Engine Components for Bench Testing Part 2: Tribology Bench Test Results and Surface Analyses

2004-06-08
2004-01-2005
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and wear were investigated using light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine components for bench testing. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity, friction modifier level and chemistry, and base stock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Among all engine oils used for bench tests, the engine oil containing MoDTC friction modifier showed the lowest friction compared with the engine oils with organic friction modifier or the other engine oils without any friction modifier. Mineral-based engine oils of the same viscosity grade and oil formulation had slightly lower friction than synthetic-based engine oils.
Technical Paper

Study of Diesel and Ethanol Blends Stability

2003-10-27
2003-01-3191
Characteristics of E diesel, a fuel blend of diesel fuel and ethanol, are considered in a matrix of tests. One characteristic of particular concern and a subject of this investigation is that of stability. Methods to evaluate stability are looked at and compared in light of the potential for distillate and ethanol to separate under certain conditions. The quality of the fuel blend is enhanced by the use of enabling additives to ensure stability which necessitates development of a standard for assessment of the quality of stability. The properties of various base diesel fuels and their influence on stability are also studied. Other key characteristics are evaluated including viscosity, pour point, and oxidative stability.
Technical Paper

Review of Exhaust Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines Operating on E Diesel Fuel Blends

2003-10-27
2003-01-3283
Recently, research and testing of oxygenated diesel fuels has increased, particularly in the area of exhaust emissions. Included among the oxygenated diesel fuels are blends of diesel fuel with ethanol, or E diesel fuels. Exhaust emissions testing of E diesel fuel has been conducted by a variety of test laboratories under various conditions of engine type and operating conditions. This work reviews the existing public data from previous exhaust emissions testing on E diesel fuel and includes new testing performed in engines of varied design. Emissions data compares E diesel fuel with normal diesel fuel under conditions of different engine speeds, different engine loads and different engine designs. Variations in performance under these various conditions are observed and discussed with some potential explanations suggested.
Technical Paper

Developing Next Generation Axle Fluids, Part III: Laboratory CAFE Simulation Test as a Key Fluid Development Tool

2003-10-27
2003-01-3235
The regulatory drive for emission reductions, increased fuel costs, and likely increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements have made fuel efficiency a key issue for North American vehicle manufacturers and marketers. At the same time the popularity of sport utility vehicles and light trucks has made it more difficult to achieve CAFE objectives. In order to accommodate both public vehicle preference and government mandated CAFE requirements automobile manufacturers are seeking all available means to increase fuel economy through advanced system design, engineered materials, and improved lubricant technology. Axle lubricants can have a significant impact on fuel economy; moreover, axle lubricants can be tailored to deliver maximum operating efficiency over either specific or wide ranges of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Counteracting detrimental EGR effects with diesel fuel additive

2003-05-19
2003-01-1915
A new generation of fluid technology using novel diesel fuel detergent/dispersant chemistry provides a multitude of beneficial effects to the diesel engine, especially the latest model designs. In addition to improved injector, valve and combustion chamber deposit removal, the additive restores power, fuel economy, performance and emission levels1. Positive observations have also been documented along with improved performance concerning crankcase lube viscosity, soot loading and TBN retention. An even greater added benefit is the inherent capability of the fuel additive to deal with several EGR issues now prominent with the introduction of new engines. Recent research, reported herein, has uncovered the extensive efficacy of this chemistry for piston durability and neutralization of ring corrosion phenomena. All of the beneficial additive attributes are further enhanced with increased oxidative and thermal fuel stability and no loss of filterability.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Passenger Car Motor Oils on Emissions Performance

2003-05-19
2003-01-1988
Throughout the evolution of the automobile, passenger car motor oils have been developed to address issues of wear, corrosion, deposit formation, friction, and viscosity stability. As a result, the internal combustion engines are now developed with the expectation that the lubricants to be used in them will deliver certain performance attributes. Metallurgies, clearances, and built-in stresses are all chosen with certain expectations from the lubricant. A family of chemicals that has been universally used in formulating passenger car motor oils is zinc dithiophosphates (ZDPs). ZDPs are extremely effective at protecting highly stressed valve train components against wear failure, especially in engine designs with a sliding contact between cams and followers. While ZDPs' benefits on wear control are universally accepted, ZDPs have been identified as the source of phosphorus, which deactivates noble metal aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

Reducing Deposits in a DISI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2660
Direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technology offers tremendous potential advantages in fuel savings and is likely to command a progressively increasing share of the European passenger vehicle market in the future. A concern is its propensity to form deposits on the inlet valve. In extreme cases, these deposits can lead to poor drivability and deteriorating emission performance. This inlet valve deposit build up is a well-known phenomenon in DISI engines since even additised fuel cannot wash over the back of intake valves to keep them clean. Two lubricants and two fuels were tested in a four car matrix. One of the lubricants was a fluid specifically developed by Lubrizol for DISI technology; the other was a baseline oil meeting Ford lubricants requirements and was qualified to ACEA A1/B1/ ILSAC GF2 performance level. Similarly, a baseline fuel was tested against an additised system.
Technical Paper

Lubricity and Injector Pump Wear Issues with E diesel Fuel Blends

2002-10-21
2002-01-2849
The search for alternative energy sources, particularly renewable sources, has led to increased activity in the area of ethanol blended diesel fuel, or E diesel. E diesel offers potential benefits in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing dependence on crude oil and reducing engine out emissions of particulate matter. However, there are some concerns about the use of E diesel in the existing vehicle fleet. One of the chief concerns of the use of E diesel is the affect of the ethanol on the lubricating properties of the fuel and the potential for fuel system wear. Additive packages that are used to formulate E diesel fuels can improve fuel lubricity and prevent abnormal fuel system wear. This work studies the lubricity properties of several E diesel blends and the diesel fuels that are used to form them. In addition to a variety of bench scale lubricity tests, injector pump tests were performed as an indicator of long term durability in the field.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water-Fuel Emulsions on Spray and Combustion Processes in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2892
Significant reductions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines have been realized through fueling with water-fuel emulsions. However, the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms that affect these pollutant reductions are not well understood. To address this issue, laser-based and chemiluminescence imaging experiments were performed in an optically-accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine using both a standard diesel fuel (D2) and an emulsion of 20% water, by mass (W20). A laser-based Mie-scatter diagnostic was used to measure the liquid-phase fuel penetration and showed 40-70% greater maximum liquid lengths with W20 at the operating conditions tested. At some conditions with low charge temperature or density, the liquid phase fuel may impinge directly on in-cylinder surfaces, leading to increased PM, HC, and CO emissions because of poor mixing.
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