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Technical Paper

The Development of Predictive Models for Non-Acidic Lubricity Agents (NALA) using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR)

2005-10-24
2005-01-3900
This study describes the use of Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) to develop predictive models for non-acidic Lubricity agents. The work demonstrates the importance of separating certain chemical families to give better and more robust equations rather than grouping a whole data set together. These models can then be used as important tools in further development work by predicting activities of new compounds before actual synthesis/testing.
Technical Paper

Field Experience with Selected Lubricants for Commercial Vehicle Manual Transmissions

2005-05-11
2005-01-2176
Laboratory testing is an essential part of product development. However, it usually only reflects a small portion of the experience that a lubricant may see in actual service conditions. Many laboratory tests are designed to only address one or two facets of what is deemed to be critical performance areas. Since it is difficult to cover all of the critical performance conditions problems sometimes arise in service that were not anticipated by the laboratory test. Or, conversely, some above average performance evolves during service that was not observed in a specific laboratory test. This paper highlights the overall performance of four manual transmission fluids approved or accepted by the manufacturer for this application. The evaluations were conducted in a city bus fleet with the test buses assigned to the same route for approximately 300,000 km over 30 months.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of the Sequence IIIG by the Study of Oil Consumption

2004-06-08
2004-01-1893
The Sequence IIIG is a newly developed 100 hour test used to evaluate the performance of crankcase engine oils in the areas of high temperature viscosity increase, wear, deposits, pumpability, and ring sticking for the North American GF-4 standard. Data from the ASTM Precision Matrix, completed in the spring of 2003, along with early reference data from the Lubricant Test Monitoring System (LTMS) showed unexpected test results for selected oils and indicated that percent viscosity increase and pumpability were highly correlated with oil consumption. This correlation led to an intensive study of the factors that influence oil consumption and an attempt to compensate for non-oil related oil consumption through a model based adjustment of the results. The study and scrutiny of the IIIG data has led to more uniform oil consumption in the test and improved test precision, and has eliminated the need for a correction equation based on non-oil related oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on Friction and Wear Using 2.2L Direct Injection Diesel Engine Components for Bench Testing Part 2: Tribology Bench Test Results and Surface Analyses

2004-06-08
2004-01-2005
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and wear were investigated using light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine components for bench testing. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity, friction modifier level and chemistry, and base stock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Among all engine oils used for bench tests, the engine oil containing MoDTC friction modifier showed the lowest friction compared with the engine oils with organic friction modifier or the other engine oils without any friction modifier. Mineral-based engine oils of the same viscosity grade and oil formulation had slightly lower friction than synthetic-based engine oils.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Interactions between Lubricant-derived Species and Aftertreatment Systems on a State-of-the-Art Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1963
The tightening legislation in the on-road heavy-duty diesel area means that pollution control systems will soon be widely introduced on such engines. A number of different aftertreatment systems are currently being considered to meet the incoming legislation, including Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. Relatively little is known about the interactions between lubricant-derived species and such aftertreatment systems. This paper describes the results of an experimental program carried out to investigate these interactions within DPF, DOC and SCR systems on a state-of-the-art 9 litre engine. The influence of lubricant composition and lube oil ash level was investigated on the different catalyst systems. In order to reduce costs and to speed up testing, test oil was dosed into the fuel. Tests without dosing lubricant into the fuel were also run.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Passenger Car Motor Oils on Emissions Performance

2003-05-19
2003-01-1988
Throughout the evolution of the automobile, passenger car motor oils have been developed to address issues of wear, corrosion, deposit formation, friction, and viscosity stability. As a result, the internal combustion engines are now developed with the expectation that the lubricants to be used in them will deliver certain performance attributes. Metallurgies, clearances, and built-in stresses are all chosen with certain expectations from the lubricant. A family of chemicals that has been universally used in formulating passenger car motor oils is zinc dithiophosphates (ZDPs). ZDPs are extremely effective at protecting highly stressed valve train components against wear failure, especially in engine designs with a sliding contact between cams and followers. While ZDPs' benefits on wear control are universally accepted, ZDPs have been identified as the source of phosphorus, which deactivates noble metal aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

Extended-Drain ATF Field Testing in City Transit Buses

2003-05-19
2003-01-1985
City transit buses are a severe environment for an automatic transmission fluid. The fluid must endure very high operating temperatures because of the use of brake retarders, frequent stop-and-go driving, and numerous shifts. There is an increasing trend toward the use of extended-drain, synthetic-based ATFs for such severe service applications. This paper documents a field trial with both synthetic and petroleum-based ATFs at a large municipal bus fleet in Southern California. Three different commercial ATFs, made with either API Group 2, 3, or 4 base oils, respectively, were compared after roughly 80,000 km. and one year of operation. Because of different additive packages in each fluid, not all of the results can be explained by base oil effects alone. However, the base oil is certainly a dominant contributor to the finished fluid performance. The following four variables were monitored by used oil analysis: iron wear, copper wear, viscosity change, and acid number change.
Technical Paper

Lubricity and Injector Pump Wear Issues with E diesel Fuel Blends

2002-10-21
2002-01-2849
The search for alternative energy sources, particularly renewable sources, has led to increased activity in the area of ethanol blended diesel fuel, or E diesel. E diesel offers potential benefits in reducing greenhouse gases, reducing dependence on crude oil and reducing engine out emissions of particulate matter. However, there are some concerns about the use of E diesel in the existing vehicle fleet. One of the chief concerns of the use of E diesel is the affect of the ethanol on the lubricating properties of the fuel and the potential for fuel system wear. Additive packages that are used to formulate E diesel fuels can improve fuel lubricity and prevent abnormal fuel system wear. This work studies the lubricity properties of several E diesel blends and the diesel fuels that are used to form them. In addition to a variety of bench scale lubricity tests, injector pump tests were performed as an indicator of long term durability in the field.
Technical Paper

The Role of Engine Oil Formulations on Fluid Diagnostics

2002-10-21
2002-01-2677
Historically, vehicle fluid condition has been monitored by measuring miles driven or hours operated. Many current vehicles have more sophisticated monitoring methods that use additional variables such as fuel consumption, engine temperature and engine revolutions to predict fluid condition. None of these monitoring means, however, actually measures a fluid property to determine condition, and that is about to change. New sensors and diagnostic systems are being developed that allow real time measurement of some lubricant physical and/or chemical properties and interpret the results in order to recommend oil change intervals and maximize performance. Many of these new sensors use electrochemical or acoustic wave technologies. This paper examines the use of these two technologies to determine engine oil condition and focuses on the effects of lubricant chemistry on interpreting the results.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Corrosion of Copper Alloys in Engine Oil Formulations: Antiwear, Friction Modifier, Dispersant Synergy

2002-10-21
2002-01-2767
The next generation of engine oil under development has been formulated to maintain beneficial oil lubrication properties at increased engine operating temperatures, increased drain-oil intervals, and with the recirculation of exhaust gas back through the engine (EGR). These conditions result in the formation of degradation products from decomposed fuel, additives, and base oil. Decomposition products containing reactive sulfur can result in the corrosion of copper alloys. Sulfur-containing compounds currently used in these formulations can include zinc dithiophosphates (ZDP), molydithiophosphates, molydithiocarbamates, and molybdic acid/amine complexes, along with sulfur containing detergents and antioxidants. Interactions among these components and others in the formulation often determine the propensity of these formulations for corrosion. This paper will discuss the results of corrosion bench tests used to screen oil formulations for copper corrosion.
Technical Paper

Jet Fuel Thermal Stability Additives - Electrical Conductivity and Interactions with Static Dissipator Additive

2002-05-06
2002-01-1652
The primary goal of the USAF JP-8+100 thermal stability additive (TSA) program is to increase the heat-sink capacity of JP-8 fuel by 50%. Current engine design is limited by a fuel nozzle temperature of 325°F (163°C); JP-8+100 has been designed to allow a 100°F increase in nozzle temperatures up to 425°F (218°C) without serious fuel degradation leading to excessive deposition. Previous studies have shown that TSA formulations increase the electrical conductivity of base jet fuel. In the present paper, further characterization of this phenomenon is described, as well as interactions of newer TSAs with combinations of SDA and other surface-active species in hydrocarbons, will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Jet Fuel Thermal Stability - Lab Testing for JP8+100

2002-05-06
2002-01-1651
The continued development of more powerful aviation turbine engines has demanded greater thermal stability of the fuel as a high temperature heat sink. This in turn requires better definition of the thermal stability of jet fuels. Thermal stability refers to the deposit-forming tendency of the fuel. It is generally accepted that dissolved oxygen initiates the deposition process in freshly refined fuels. While there are many tests that are designed to measure or assess thermal stability, many of these either do not display sufficient differentiation between fuels of average stability (JP-8) and intermediate stability (JP-8+100, JP-TS), or require large test equipment, large volumes of fuels and/or are costly. This paper will discuss the use of three laboratory tests as “concept thermal stability prediction” tools with aviation fuels, including Jet A-1 or JP-8, under JP8+100 test conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Soot Reduction in Diesel and Alternate Fuels using CHEMKIN®

2001-03-05
2001-01-1239
A new gas phase kinetic model using Westbrook's gas phase n-heptane model and Frenklach's soot model was constructed. This model was then used to predict the impact on PAH formation as an indices of soot formation on ethanol/diesel fuel blends. The results were then compared to soot levels measured by various researchers. The ignition delay characteristics of ethanol were validated against experimental results in the literature. In this paper the results of the model and the comparison with experimental results will be discussed along with implications on the method of incorporation of additives and alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles: Part II - Lubricant Oil Performance and Engine Wear

1999-05-03
1999-01-1499
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Part 6: Base Oil Effects

1998-10-19
982665
One of the key functions of lubricating oil additives in diesel engines is to control oil thickening caused by soot accumulation. Over the last several years, it has become apparent that the composition of the base oil used within the lubricant plays an extremely important role in the oil thickening phenomenon. In particular, oil thickening observed in the Mack T-8 test is significantly affected by the aromatic content of the base oil. We have found that the Mack T-8 thickening phenomenon is associated with high electrical activity, i.e., engine drain oils which exhibit high levels of viscosity increase show significantly higher conductivities. These findings suggest that electrical interactions are involved in soot-induced oil thickening.
Technical Paper

How Polymer Architecture Affects Permanent Viscosity Loss of Multigrade Lubricants

1998-10-19
982638
Multigrade automotive lubricants contain polymeric viscosity modifiers which enable the oil to provide adequate hydrodynamic lubrication at high temperatures and good starting/pumping performance at low temperatures. Under operating conditions in engines, transmissions and gear boxes, polymeric additives undergo both temporary and permanent viscosity loss. The former is caused by flow orientation and the latter by molecular chain scission. Whatever the mechanism, original equipment manufacturers are interested in maintaining a minimum level of hydrodynamic viscosity from oil change to oil change. This is often expressed as a “stay-in-grade” requirement. Commercial viscosity modifiers (VM) span a wide range of chemistries and molecular architectures.
Technical Paper

The KA24E Engine Test for ILSAC GF-3 Part 1: Engine Design, Operating Conditions and Wear Mechanisms

1998-10-19
982625
The Nissan KA24E engine test is designated to replace the Ford Sequence VE engine test as the low temperature valve train wear requirement for ILSAC (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee) GF-3. The KA24E (recently designated the Sequence IV A) represents much of the current world-wide material and design technology while retaining the sliding cam/follower contact found in earlier engine designs. The work presented here is the first of two reports. In this first report, the physical and chemical environment the KA24E engine presents a lubricant is characterized and compared to those of the Sequence VE engine. Valve train materials and wear modes are investigated and described. Although chemical analysis of drain oils indicate the KA24E procedure does not degrade the lubricant to the extent seen in the Sequence VE test, valve train wear appears to proceed in a similar manner in both tests.
Technical Paper

The KA24E Engine Test for ILSAC GF-3.Part 2. Valve Train Wear Response to Formulation Variables

1998-10-19
982626
The work presented here is the second of two papers investigating the KA24E engine test. The first paper characterized the KA24E engine in terms of the physical and chemical operating environment it presents to lubricants. The authors investigated oil degradation and wear mechanisms, and examined the differences between the KA24E and the Sequence VE engine tests. It was shown that while the KA24E does not degrade the lubricant to the extent that occurs in the Sequence VE, wear could be a serious problem if oils are poorly formulated. This second paper examines the wear response of the KA24E to formulation variables. A statistically designed matrix demonstrated that the KA24E is sensitive to levels of secondary zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP), dispersant and calcium sulfonate detergent. This matrix also showed that the KA24E appears to have good repeatability for well formulated oils and is a reasonable replacement for the wear component of the Sequence VE.
Technical Paper

Polymer Additives as Mist Suppressants in Metalworking Fluids Part IIa: Preliminary Laboratory and Plant Studies - Water Soluble Fluids

1998-02-23
980097
Mist generated from water-soluble fluids used in machining operations represents a potentially significant contribution to worker exposure to airborne particles. Part I of this study [1], discussed polymer additives as mist suppressants for straight mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWF), which have been successfully employed at several locations. This paper focuses on recent developments in polymer mist suppressants for water-based MWF, particularly in the production environment. The polymer developed and tested in this study functions on a similar basis to that for straight oil anti-mist additives. This water soluble polymer suppresses the formation of small mist droplets and results in a distribution of larger droplet sizes. These larger droplets tend to settle out near the point of machining, resulting in a significant decrease in the total airborne mist concentration.
Technical Paper

Current Developments in Diesel Engine Oil Technology

1978-02-01
780182
Multifunctional or universal lubricating oils which service both gasoline and diesel engines have gained widespread commercial acceptance. Since 1970, numerous changes and additions have altered the performance tests and specifications which define the quality of these lubricants. New parameters include single cylinder and multicylinder diesel engine testing, valve train wear protection, clutch plate friction retention, extended drain interval and lubricant related fuel economy. In response to these requirements, new additive systems were developed. This paper discusses observed base oil-additive-engine test interactions and compares the performance of one of these additive systems to that of the old.
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